Incomplete Moral Development and Psychological Ill Health: Neurotic Development

                                     or 'Neurosis' results in Psychopathology, Psychopathy or 'Psychosis'

 

                                                   

Pathological behaviours are variations of normal human behaviours. An investigation into abnormal developmental processes produces insights into normal human development. All behavioural reactions, whether normal or abnormal, are expressions of the individual's attempt to deal with demands of a changing social environment. They all represent psychological  solutions to problems of social adaptation and preservation of personal integrity. Reactions to social change are based on intrinsic human needs or 'operative values'. Operative values are the biologically based instinctive values which are inherent in the organism's instinctive striving towards spiritual maturity and depends on fulfillment of value-needs - moral or 'ethical' values i.e. metavalues or 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are spiritual needs which make up the inner core of human nature. In the presence of spiritual values, the individual invests their constructive energies in the realization of their human potential i.e. self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Growth depends on one's assuming of responsibility for oneself... truthfulness to oneself. "The observation and analysis of pathological phenomena... yield greater insight into the processes of the organism than do those of the normal. As long as one regards the pathological simply as curiosa, created by disease, we cannot hope, in studying them, to advance our knowledge of normal phenomena... It has become increasingly evident that pathological phenomena can be recognized as an indication of lawful variations of the normal life process...." (Kurt Goldstein 1995. The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man page 29-30)

Theme: All human behaviour patterns, whether normal or pathological, represent psychological solutions to the preservation of personal integrity during the process of social adaptation. They are all expressions of the individual's attempt to deal with the demands of a changing social environment...  complex problems of social change... adaptability'. Effective adaptability... the degree to which human behaviour is creative or 'adaptive' depends on the mind's perception of itself and the subsequent perception of reality which underlies the thinking process.

  Behaviour which is adaptive is creative or 'moral' behaviour. Human morality is a function of the complete development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Rational conscience which allows for the accurate perception of the social reality is a function of knowledge of one's true nature or 'self-knowledge'.

Investigation into abnormal or 'pathological' processes can produce insights into normal psychological development. Psychological health is measured by the degree to which people relate to others; the inability to relate to others is a symptom of psychological ill health i.e. psychopathology, psychopathy or'psychosis’. Psychosis is the result of the obstruction of normal growth and development. If children's instinctive strivings for growth are thwarted, this creates a basic anxiety which can be damaging because it inhibits mature growth and development of conscience as a function of the human potential for humanisation or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is a product of needs based education... education of the person as a whole... 'whole person education', 'integral education' or 'holistic education'. Holistic education involves knowledge of the higher self or Self.  Self-knowledge is posssible with social conditions... conditions of freedom...  which enable the integration of the moral or 'spiritual' dimension of 'self-transcendence' as a facet of the multidimensional human personality or 'human nature'. iHuman nature is a function of fulfillment of human developmental needs... psychological needs for  unconditional love... the spiritual needs for 'moral development' or 'metaneeds'. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is inhibited in a social environment which ignores the metaneeds. The result is the obstruction of normal psychological development and the progression of a pathological process of neurotic development or 'neurosis'.  Neurosis is a variation of normal human development involving distorted perception or 'perception problem' which leads to incorrect evaluations of environmental conditions and subsequent inadaptive behavioural reactions leading to the destructive behaviour of human wickedness or 'evil'.  

"Within the Western model, we recognize and define 'psychosis' as a suboptimal state of consciousness that views 'reality' in a distorted way and does not recognize that distortion. It is therefore significant to note that from the mystical perspective, our usual state fits all the criteria of psychosis in that it is suboptimal, has a distorted view of reality, and does not recognize that distortion. Indeed, from the ultimate mystical perspective, psychosis can be defined as being trapped or attached to, any one state of consciousness, which by itself  is necessarily limited and only relatively 'real'.  Fully developed mystics state unequivocally that our usual state of consciousness is not only suboptimal, it is dreamlike and illusory. They assert that whether we know it or not, we, as untrained individuals, are prisoners of our own minds, totally and unwittingly trapped by a continuous fantasy-dialogue that creates an all-consuming illusory distortion of perception or 'reality'. However, this condition goes unrecognized until we begin to subject our perceptual-cognitive processes to rigorous scrutiny such as meditation..." (Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan editors. Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980 p.38)

People who respect their own humanity can respect the humanity of others. Andthe basic right of the human being is the right to be responsible to their instinctive drive for developing their humanness... to be human.  So what is it to be 'human'?

topics...

human organism as a social organism...     

humanness is a function of moral  or 'spiritual' development ... 

                         construction of human conscience...

                         and human needs... 

                         and human potential...

What is the source of human wickedness or 'evil'?     failure of development of conscience .... immature conscience or 'immaturity'   

Childhood origins of psychosis...

                deprivation of spiritual values necessary for development of conscience...

             failure of moral development: neurotic development or 'neurosis'

neurosis as a deficiency disease...   neurotic needs...   

 conflicts of neurosis are based on conflicting forces in the environment which lead to inhibition of psychological development...  

             construction of authoritarian conscience...

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             psychosis as moral failure of 'adult immaturity'...  perception problem...

psychosis as egocentric dialogue of narcissism... not to be confused with so-called 'psychotic episodes' of psychospiritual crisis... 

psychopathy...   or 'malignant egophrenia'...   projecting the shadow..    evil...  scott peck on 'evil' in The Road Less Travelled

implications for education...   needs based education... experiential richness should be 'teachable'...       

  What is it to be human?

The human organism is a social organism which is instinctively responsible to itself for its complete psychological development or 'humanness'. The human personality or 'human nature' is a function of the complete devlopment of the social intelligence of moral consciousness or 'conscience', an emergent property of brain functioning. The moral values or 'morality' of rational conscience, is required for creative and therefore effective adaptation to changing social condition and ultimately for species survival. The human ability for socially adaptive behaviour or human adaptability is a function of the development of the brain's intrinsic capacity for complete cognition or 'holistic perception' of the social reality... a precondition for the ability to relate to others, to initiate understanding and to create amicable relations between individual and social groups. Complete development for humanness involves moral or 'spiritual' development. If development is not complete the individual remains at the egocentric level of consciousness, so 'immature'.The immature individual has a dichotomous perception of the social reality ('they' and 'us') which leads to incomplete cognition and lack of understanding. If immature individuals are in positions of power over others and yet have not reached the appropriate level of understanding, they will make decisions which lead to conflict, destruction, wars and other so-called 'evils' of human societies. Much of recorded human history involves power politics and power struggles involving immature humans who have mature adult powers of influence of the mature adult but who have motives and reactions of the immature adult. "The most dangerous members of our society are those grownups whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile" ( Overstreet. The Mature Mind. 1949)

The human organism is a social organism which is instinctively responsible to itself for complete psychological development or 'humanness'. The human personality or 'human nature' is a function of the complete development of social intelligence of moral consciousness or 'conscience', an emergent property of the the social brain. Morality of rational conscience is required for creative and so effective adaptation to changing social conditions and ultimately for species survival. The human ability for socially adaptive behaviour or human 'adaptability' is a function of the development of the intrinsic capacity for complete cognition resulting from 'holistic perception' of the social reality, a precondition for the ability to relate to others, to create understanding and amicable relations between individuals and social groups. If human development, that is moral or 'spiritual' developlent, is not complete and the individual remains at the egocentric level of consciousness, so 'immature', the result is a dichotomous perception of the social reality which leads to incomplete cognition and lack of understanding. If immature individuals are in positions of power over others and yet have no understanding, they can make decisions which lead to conflict, destruction, wars and so on ... the 'evil' of the so-called 'human consition'. Much of recorded human history involves power politics and power struggles of immature adults who have adult powers of influence but infantile motives and reactions. "The most dangerous members of our society are those grownups whose powers of influence are adult but whose motives and responses are infantile." (H.A. Overstreet The Mature Mind 1949)

Human adaptability depends on growth as moral or 'spiritual growth' involving development... construction of moral consciousness or 'conscience'... the human 'spirit'... The word 'conscience' is derived from Latin 'conscientia’ for moral awareness - from ‘con’ meaning 'with' and ‘scire’ meaning 'to know'. Conscience is awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'.  Awareness or 'knowledge' of human nature is 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge is necessary for rational evaluation of the social environment. Conscience is rational moral consiousness... awareness of human morals... 'spiritual values'...  the 'moral faculty' ... a naturally flexible valuing system... guiding values which enable the organism to solve the problems of human existence. (One of the most difficult problems is deciding the extent of one’s responsibilities).

The conscience is the biological mechanism which allows for the preservation of personality integrity... during the process of adaptation to changing social conditions... required for 'adaptability'.The conscience is the core of guiding values... the 'human values'... prescribed by the various religious and philosophical authorities and sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history i.e.  Human values are values of the highest consciousness state - goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy, 'truth' and so on i.e. 'virtues'. The virtues have evolved through natural selection as a result of their survival value to the human organism as a social organism. The virtues constitute the human 'spiritual equipment' with which the organism depends for adaptability to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of 'intuition' of 'creative intelligence'. Creative intelligence is intelligence of the higher consciousness state, the most effective for social adaptation.

Complete development of the human conscience... is a function of normal moral, intellectual, emotional and psychological development... 'moral development' ...spiritual development. The extent of moral development determines the extent to which the individual is able to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is the most effective at the highest levels of personality and cultural development which perceives a reality which is is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which can be described in terms of the being-Values or 'ultimate values' of self-transcendence. Being values are the guiding values for solving the problems of life i.e. 'natural ethics' of human morality. Morality is responsibility for growth and responsibility for growth as a function of responsibility for human needs or 'values' which derive from the instrinsic striving for self-actualisation. Morality is a product of  'spiritual richness' and positive attitudes which lead to creative strategies of problem-solving. All the person's energy is focused on what they want to achieve. Their creative accomplishments enhance their own welfare and happiness as well as that of others. If psychic development is thwarted then spiritual growth is inhibited, the conscience is deformed and the individual is dehumanised. The result is mental imbalance of psychopathology or 'psychosis'. 

Conscience as moral consciousness is an emergent property of the human social brain brain.

The proper development of the human brain depends on a social environment which provides for the biologically based motives for behaviour ... psychological needs for growth or 'human needs'.  The human needs are instinctive 'values' by which the organism operates in its intrinsic striving for mature growth.  Human needs are 'operative values' which make up the inner core of human nature.  They include the obvious physiological needs for food and water, the basic psychological needs for security and self-esteem or 'ego' needs and the so called 'higher' needs for psychological growth and development, the moral or 'spiritual' needs ('metaneeds'). The metaneeds are the moral or 'ethical' spiritual values... 'metavalues' or 'being-values' of truth, justice, beauty, 'unconditional love' and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation'. In a social environment which respects the metaneeds for spiritual growth, the individual is motivated to remain truthful to themselves, to assume  responsibility for their own growth and to invest their constructive energies into the realisation of their human potential... self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'.

 Recognition of human needs is the basis for education for human growth and development towards the realisation of human potential...  personality integration and realisation of the self in a process of 'mature growth' i.e. self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation forms the basis for complete psychological development and natural self-esteem. The feelings of natural self-esteem are functional in the development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Maturity of conscience is necessary for psychological integration of the personality resulting from complete human development in all its aspects...  intellectual, psychological, emotional, moral or 'spiritual'...  and ...psychological wholeness or 'wellness'. 

The ego-needs are more urgent than the spiritual needs in the sense that in conditions of deficiency a child will give up spiritual growth to maintain security and self-esteem. In a social environment which is deficient in spiritual values, motivation is driven by ego-needs... also called 'deficiency needs' (see Maslow). Development motivated by ego-needs is neurotic development or 'neurosis'.

The failure to relate to others and to adapt successfully to changing social conditions results in behaviour which is socially 'non-adaptive' - destructive or 'evil'... misunderstandings and unresolvable conflicts.

 Rational or ‘mature’ conscience is required for preservation of personality integration during the process of adaptation to changing social conditions.

Development of rational conscience depends on actualisation of human potential   Development of the conscience is a product of 'moral development' or 'spiritual' growth. Spiritual growth is a slow process of construction - according to laws of nature - which takes place during continuous concentrated activity in a close relationship with the environment. In the developmental process of the conscience the values... moral or 'spiritual' values...  found within the intrinsic conscience or  'subconscious' are raised to the conscious level of brain functioning so they are raised to 'consciousness'. Development of conscience... human 'goodness'... depends on favorable conditions of emotional security communicated through the affection and trust of unconditional love. Emotional security is the prerequisite for interest in the environment or 'curiosity', the natural drive for motivation of spiritual growth through learning. Spiritual growth depends on learning in a social environment of freedom - freedom to learn, freedom to concentrate on work and freedom of self-expression and inquiry.Moral development involved in the construction of rational conscience depends on realisation of human potentialities for growth, for happiness, for love and for reason and results in the manifestation of characteristically human traits - the natural human values of 'morality'. But the innate potentialities are like seeds. They become manifest in later life only if provided with the right enviromental for spiritual growth and development i.e. self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is a function of growth in the context of freedom from external authoritarianism which breeds fear i.e. spiritual freedom or 'inner freedom'. The fully developed conscience... inner freedom or 'free will' impels the organism towards attitudes and behaviours which are beneficial to life.

 Development of rational conscience depends on a learning environment which favours its construction through concentration on creative productiveness or 'work'. Work has psychological value in the construction of conscience if it is functional in personal growth and development while involving the development of human potentiality for creative intelligence. The aim of education is to provide the right conditions for growth and development of rational conscience, to provide for 'human needs' which include spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'.

".... man by his very nature and of his own accord strives toward self-realisation, and his set of values derives from such striving." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself)

Normal human growth... development of human conscience  involves psychological, emotional, intellectual, moral or spiritual development and

depends on affection of 'unconditional love' which communicates the trust and security of knowledge, understanding, responsibility and care...

 Unconditional love stimulates interest in the environment i.e. ‘intrinsic motivation’. Intrinsic motivation engages the spiritual needs or ‘metaneeds. Engagement of metaneeds stimulates spiritual growth which is a precondition for adaptability to changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or ‘social intelligence’. Social intelligence depends on achievement of the human potential for emotional and psychological development to spiritual maturity of moral consciousness or ‘conscience’. Mature conscience is the source of guiding values foritualr human behaviour i.e. spiritual values or 'human values'.

    "Unconditional love is an essential for the child's normal development, and when this is refused, the environment comes to be dreaded... the environment is perceived as a menace to his individuality, his development, his instinctive strivings to grow, his freedom and his happiness. Anxiety feelings arise in children whose parents fail to give them genuine warmth and affection - usually because of their own neuroses. These children do not experience the 'blissful certainty of being wanted'. In an environment in which the basic anxiety develops, the child's free use of energies is thwarted, his self-esteem and self-reliance are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, his expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'. The fear is grounded in reality." (Karen Horney  M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.1956 )   

If these conditions are lacking and intrinsic psychological and spiritual needs are denied, then the will of the conscience is broken and development arrested.

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Man's 'animal nature'... the human personality or 'human nature' is not evil. So what is the source of 'evil'?

 "Disorder and violence are signs of emotional disturbance and suffering. They are not acts of the will. According to laws of nature, "will is a force which impels activities beneficial to life. The will can be broken in a moment. Its development is a slow process that evolves through a continuous activity in relationship with the environment."   

Immature conscience (authoritarian conscience) is the source of human wickedness or 'evil'. In the absence of security, intimidation by brutality and isolation by overprotection can undermine the individual’s self-esteem and instil in them a fear which prevents cooperation required for social adaptation. The fear is real and results in the perception of the environment as threatening to the free use of energies for growth i.e. ‘freedom’. Interest in the environment becomes warped diminishing self-reliance and creating the basic anxiety which damages the instinctive strivings for growth and development. If normal development is thwarted in this way it can lead to emotional immaturity and  immature conscience i.e. irrational behaviour of  neurotic growth or ‘neurosis’. Neurosis which results in the loss of contact with reality… the inability to relate to others develops as psychopathy  or 'psychosis'. 

Immaturity of conscience can result in behaviour for which the individual finds it too painful to decide on the extent of their responsibility and so will avoid it altogether. And they will perceive freedom as painful since that implies responsibility as well.The inability to accept the responsibility of freedom leads to the incapacity for creative and adaptive decision-making... to the decline in self-reliance... to the predominance of negative emotions such as fear and hatred. As a result the individual resorts to methods of power politics and control – methods which violate the rights of others. The controlling behaviour of the immature conscience results in the destructiveness of human wickedness or ‘evil’. Evil is a product of education which inhibits spiritual growth of ego transcendence or 'self-transcendence'.  

Construction... development of irrational conscience as 'authoritarian conscience' derived from fear of authority...

 The authoritarian conscience represents the irrational internalisation of authority and the authoritarian ethics of 'moralism'. It does not represent the individual's intrinsically rational conscience which is the source of natural human values and reflective ethical judgement or 'natural ethics'.,The irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for authoritarian codes of ethics i.e. irrational morality or 'moralism'. Moralism is a system of authoritarian ethics based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority and the internalisation of the idealised authority. The authoritarian ethics of moralism does not represent the natural and rational ethics of the intrinsically rational human conscience

 "The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an internalized authority such as the parental authority, or state authority. The authoritarian 'conscience' is a fear for the authority rather than a representation of the individual's real conscience, the source of natural value judgements." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself. 143)

For the individual with authoritarian conscience, the "interaction of internalisation (of external authority) and projection results in an unshakable conviction in the ideal character of the authority, a conviction which is immune to all contradictory empirical evidence." (Fromm Man For Himself  p.146) .

The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection. Authoritarian conscience is the voice of unreflective ethical judgement resulting from the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority which is then internalised. The internalised authority is the authoritarian conscience.

Authoritarian conscience is equivalent to the 'superego' in Freud's  psychology.  "Freud had a pessimistic outlook on human nature....He had no clear vision of constructive forces in man...he denied their authenticity." (Karen Horney M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization p.377)  In the absence of the right conditions for psychological growth, development is thwarted leading to neurotic development and construction of irrational conscience i.e. 'neurosis'. The neurotic development of authoritarian conscience is characteristic of the immature adult fixated on the 'premoral level' of ethical judgement in child development (classification of Kohlberg).

Construction of the authoritarian conscience involves the interaction of two processes: first, the perfection of character is projected onto an external authority - parental, religious or state authority; second, the projected image of perfection or 'ideal' is internalised in the individual's consciousness. Internalisation of the projected image leads to the individual's unshakable conviction in the external authority as the personification of the perfect character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The individual loses the capacity for rationality and reason and this leads to rigid thinking. The power of fear for the authority replaces the power of ethical reasoning and as a result the conscience which is constructed becomes increasingly authoritarian and irrational. The irrationality of authoritarian conscience is inadequate for effective adaptation to changes in the social environment i.e 'adaptability'. In the absence of the right conditions for psychological growth, development is thwarted leading to neurotic development and construction of irrational conscience i.e. 'neurosis'. The neurotic development of authoritarian conscience is characteristic of the immature adult fixated on the 'premoral level' of ethical judgement in child development (classification of Kohlberg). In the first of the six moral stages or 'sociocognitive stages', moral value is defined in terms of obedience to authority and the avoidance of punishment (age 3). In the absence of the right conditions for continued moral development (security of unconditional love) and under conditions of intense emotional pressure (abuse, punishment, neglect etc.) the construction of conscience is determined by the friendly or unfriendly reactions of significant adults on whom the child depends for faith in their potential for growth. The fear of disapproval and the need for approval becomes the most powerful and almost exclusive source of motivation for ethical judgement and behaviour. The individual learns to differentiate between 'right' and 'wrong', 'good' and 'bad' even before learning to understand the difference by way of a process of reasoning or 'rationality'. Discouragement of rationality leads to mistrust in their own persistence for spiritual growth. The inherent potentialites are stifled and they fail to develop into manifest characteristics. The individual develops to adulthood with the deficiencies of 'immaturity'. The authoritarian conscience is characteristic of adult immaturity.The immature adult continues to evaluate the environment in terms of threat to their security and self-esteem. Their sense of identity remains dependent on the approval of others...         

 

What constitutes 'normality' in moral behaviour is a question of the social environment within which the individual functions i.e. within the cultural context. Behaviour which is regarded as 'normal' in one culture may not be considered normal in another. Acquaintance with different cultures which in many ways is different from one's own teaches that many so-called 'neurotic' conflicts are ultimately determined by social and cultural conditions. In many cases the neuroses of the individual living in modern industrial societies can be attributed to conflicting forces inherent in the culture. The neuroses of modern industrial man are based on conflicts inherent in the culture.

Implications for education: 

 The tragedy of psychosis as thwarted growth is that it is ultimately determined by conflicts in the values and assumptions of the cultural environment - For this reason, psychological health is a social affair and a concern of education. It is the responsibility of education to encourage the development of  highly awakened intelligence or spiritual insight or ‘intuition’... required for responsible decision making  in solving human problems… and depends on the individual’s capacity for personal challenge and  self-examination to see the truth. Truth is reality which combines objective reality with the subjective perception of critical consciousess. Dedication to truth is dedication to reality implying critical consciousness and a willingness to accept personal challenge for inquiry. The more clearly  one can see the reality of one’s  world the better equipped one is to deal with it, the less clearly one sees the reality of one’s world, the more one’s mind is befuddled by falsehood, misperceptions, and illusions and the less able one is to determine correct courses of action and make wise decisions.

The aim of education is the development of critical consciousness and intuitive powers of discrimination or wisdom of creative intelligence. Development of intelligence depends on development of human potential and the intrinsic power of self-reliance... self-empowerment...  as a function of spiritual growth for the development of intrinsic human spiritual values. Education for spiritual development as embedded in psychological, emotional, intellectual development is education for the whole person i.e. ‘holistic education’

Conflicts of neurosis are ultimately determined by conflicting motivational forces in the social environmentsocial conditions. .

The inherent mental conflicts of neurosis are due to the conflicting forces of motivation... cultural attitudes... of the social environment within which the individual is functioning...  the social environment of family or school...the family and/or school environment... environmental factors... These  have the effect of inhibiting  psychological development.  Neurosis is basic anxiety which originates in childhood. The conflicts of neurosis are energised by childhood anxieties... anxiety feelings which arise in children whose parents fail to give them genuine warmth and affection... 'unconditional love'... which communicates security... usually because of their own neuroses. Under these conditions the child does not experience the 'blissful certainty of being wanted'. Deprived of unconditional love and instilled with fear through the isolation of overprotectiveness and intimidation of brutality the child does not experience the sense of security which is crucial to their self-esteem. When self-esteem is undermined, the basic anxiety develops undermining self-reliance that is essential for continued healthy psychological growth and development which depends on freedom from anxiety and fear - the pre-requisite to curiosity and exploration for growth through knowledge. Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth. In the neurotic process, the environment is perceived as a menace to individuality, development, instinctive striving for growth, freedom and happiness. With fear grounded in reality, the basic anxiety develops. The individual attempts to avoid problems and the emotional suffering which they entail. The avoidance of the suffering which comes from dealing with the problem means avoidance of the opportunity for growth which comes from dealing with the problem.

In the chronic form of neurosis psychological growth stops as a result of the inhibition of constructive energies involved in metamotivation for normal growth. The chronically neurotic adult cannot separate from the power that their parents have over them. Their continued growth is inhibited through internal repression, denial and negative reaction responses... and they remain children in adult life.

.  "There is no such thing as a universal normal psychology; behavior regarded as neurotic in one culture may be quite normal elsewhere, and vice versa. What constitutes normality or abnormality can only be decided when we consider the culture within which the individual is functioning. The mental conflicts of the neurotic are not fundamental conflicts of human nature arising from biological foundations (Freud's belief). They are based on the motivating forces and conflicts of the society and the culture within which the individual is functioning.

 Energized by childhood anxieties resulting from obstruction to inner freedom, security and healthy psychological growth, the neuroses of modern industrial man are therefore based on conflicts inherent in our own culture." (Horney, K. The Neurotic Personality of Our Time p.141)

 

  Childhood origins of psychosis... The mental condition of psychopathy originates in the inhibition of development of moral consciousness or ‘conscience' as a result of a childhood characterised by emotional impoverishment caused by parental indifference. In the absence of unconditional love, when a child’s normal feelings are not acknowledged... if they are intimidated by brutality and isolated by overprotection and possessiveness, their self-esteem is undermined and they perceive their environment as a threat to their growth and happiness. Basic fear and anxiety is instilled and this inhibits the normal progression of instinctive strivings for growth i.e. ‘moral development’ as the development of rational conscience.

 

  In dealing effectively with the psychopathic personality one must understand that they still suffer from the pain which they endured as children when they were treated as objects to be owned rather than persons to be set free for growth. They continue to feel the need to have their feelings acknowledged while at the same time repressing those same feelings. They experience inner conflict and as a result they don’t recognise the feelings of others. They don’t understand why their lack of feeling has the detrimental effect which it does. This personality type has a problem which they can’t and won’t deal with so they project it onto others. People who comply unwittingly with their demands follow a dangerous course. By internalising other people’s projections, one creates real problems for oneself. Projection is a protective mechanism which the disordered personality uses in order to protect their integrity which is damaged as a result of failure to develop moral consciousness or ‘conscience’… so ‘without conscience’.

Anxiety feelings result from the deprivation of spiritual values or 'value-starvation'. Spiritual deprivation thwarts the free use of energies in the expansiveness of personality and warps progress of  spiritual growth which is required for the creative ability to deal with life problems... the indivdual lacks the freedom to be independent from obligation to accept the beliefs of others i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom is a function of the complete development of personality integration characerised by critical consciousness or moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience'

Conditions of extreme emotional stress in children can lead to their alienation from themselves resulting in a shift of energies in an attempt to mold their character into an ideal self-image which they create for themselves. In this way they develop a conscience which is a distortion of the rational conscience of humanisation i.e. deformed conscience or 'authoritarian conscience'. The authoritarian conscience has an inhibitory effect on psychological development and the result is immature growth of neurosis and  spiritual poverty which produces immoral or 'unethical' behaviour. The individual potentially compromises whatever they may truly want for the sake of safety and security and illusory sense of peace. They focus their energies on what they don't want designing strategies to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances... 'defensive strategies'... as well as longer range strategies to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place... 'pre-emptive strike'. They are forced to take action only when external or internal stimuli deriving from overwhelming circumstances - 'circumstantial stimuli' - evoke spontaneous reactions or so-called 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive character orientation' of failed moral development and the creation of neurotic conflicts.

In a state of inner stress, the individual becomes alienated from their real self, shifting their energies in an effort to mold their character into an ideal self image which they create for themselves. (This is evidence for the strong human striving for 'perfection'.) In the neurotic process, the environment is perceived as a menace to individuality, development, instinctive striving for growth, freedom and happiness. With fear grounded in reality, the basic anxiety develops. The individual attempts to avoid problems and the emotional suffering which they entail. The avoidance of the suffering which comes from dealing with the problem means avoidance of the opportunity for growth which comes from dealing with the problem.

"Under inner stress, a person may become alienated from his real self. He will then shift the major part of his energies to the task of molding himself, by a rigid system of inner dicates into a being of absolute perfection. He idealizes the image he has of himself. This neurotic development illustrates the strong human striving for 'perfection'. (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization)

 neurosis is caused by parental indifference, lack of warmth and affection in childhood... a matter of the child's perceptions, not the parents  intentions. 'The road to hell is paved with good intentions'.The first reaction to parental indifference is anger. Basic hostility the basic coping mechanism or strategy... "If I have power then no one can hurt me" The neurotic swings back and forth between self-hatred and desire for perfection (internal conflict) resulting in alienation from their true human core... the dehumanisation aspect of neurosis.

The conflicts of neurosis are the manifestation of a basic anxiety which originates in childhood.  Anxiety feelings arise in children whose parents fail to give them genuine warmth and affection - usually because of their own neuroses.These children do not experience the 'blissful certainty of being wanted'.

Basic anxiety develops when fear is instilled through intimidation of brutality and isolation of overprotective 'love'. It is unconditional spiritual love that is essential for healthy psychological growth and development. Children who are deprived of unconditional love do not experience the sense of security which is crucial to their self-esteem. When self-esteem is undermined, so is self-reliance.  "Neurosis - manifest 'basic anxiety' - derives from environmental factors which obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development". (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 366)

"In an environment in which the basic anxiety develops, the child's free use of energies is thwarted, his self-esteem and self-relaince are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, his expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'." (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1956. p.?) The fear is grounded in reality - see New Ways in Psychoanalysis)

 If children's instinctive strivings for growth are thwarted, this creates a basic anxiety which can be damaging to normal growth because it inhibits development and this can lead to psychological ill health... neurotic growth or 'neurosis'. Neurosis can be prevented with education which allows for growth to spiritual maturity i.e. holistic education.   

"Neurosis - manifest 'basic anxiety' - derives from environmental factors which obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development". (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 366)

 "Unconditional love is an essential for the child's normal development, and when this is refused, the environment comes to be dreaded... it is perceived as a menace to his individuality, his development, his instinctive strivings to grow, his freedom and his happiness... In an environment in which the basic anxiety develops, the child's free use of energies is thwarted, his self-esteem and self-relaince are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, his expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'... the fear is grounded in reality. " (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1956.)  

  Neurosis represents failure of moral development and the 'moral failure' of 'adult immaturity'. Failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality, self-actualisation, realisation of human potential or 'humanness' is a moral failure. Neurosis is the product of frustration of moral development... development of conscience... incomplete psychological development as incomplete integration of the personality. The result is incomplete development of critical consciousness or 'incomplete cognition' resulting in inefficent or 'inappropriate' reaction responses to environmental stimuli. The individual's deformed conscience represents a value system which is so distorted and unbalanced that subsequent behaviour patterns can contradict their own interests as well as the interests of others. They can inflict grave harm on themselves and others as well. Neurotic reactions which constitute attempts to safeguard personal integrity often tend towards destruction of others... the so-called 'death instinct' or 'death drive' of Freud and 'downward union' of Weber.

 thwarted psychological growth and development: psychological ill health resulting from neurotic growth or 'neurosis'.  

 "The neurotic process is a special form of human development, and because of  waste of constructive energies which it involves - is a particularly unfortunate one. Under favorable conditions, man's energies are put into the realization of his own potentialities."(Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1956. p.13)

"The mind which is neurotic or psychotic is one that has linked itself to an environment not really there: its responses are to fantasies and illusions - to dangers that are the projections of its own fears; to slights that are the projections of its own self-doubtings. The life that is rich and happy is one that is fulfilling its possibilities through creative linkages with reality" (Overstreet The Mature Mind)

  What is neurosis?  Neurosis is  a deficiency disease. .Neurosis results from deprivation of spiritual values necessary for development of human conscience Neurosis represents incomplete development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'.  The conscience is the source of guiding values for solving life's problems i.e. 'natural ethics'.  Natural ethics constitute human morality. Neurosis involves a waste of constructive energies hampering normal growth and producing a deformed conscience. Deformed conscience is the product of deprivation of spiritual values necessary for spiritual growth. Value-starvation is a product of unfavorable social conditions. If growth stops the spirit shrivels. The individual remains a child in adult life and doesn't separate from the power that parents had over them. Metamotivation for growth is inhibited through internal repression, denial and negative reaction responses. As a result of the obstruction to their security and growth, the indivdual lacks the freedom from obligation to accept the beliefs of others to be independent of dogma i.e. 'freedom'. Inner freedom involves the development of personality integration, critical consciousness and development of conscience. Spiritual deprivation thwarts the free use of energies and warps the expansiveness of personality.

 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'... The term 'neurosis' - from Greek 'neuron' for nerve and 'osis' for diseased or abnormal - was coined by Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769. Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, believed that the mental conflicts of neurosis were fundamental conflicts arising from biological foundations of the human personality or 'human nature'. Freud's understanding of neurosis was based on his pessimistic outlook on human nature which was in keeping with the general thinking of his time. He accepted the traditional belief in the individual's basic 'moral depravity'. He believed that each individual is naturally antisocial with antisocial instincts which had to be controlled. The so-called 'antisocial instincts' are in fact not instincts at all but symptoms of neurosis as a pathological process of human development... The neurotic process is a form of hampered human development and involves a waste of constructive energies.

 So-called 'neurotic needs' are essentially exaggerated needs of security and self-esteem i.e. 'ego needs'...  ... the need to view life from an egocentric viewpoint, as if it is reasonable to assume that it should revolve around the person's own needs even though in reality this is impossible.... the desperate need for acceptance and affection originates from an impoverished emotional environment during childhood ... the need to have control and power over others originating in the controlling environment of childhood.... the need to manipulate others originating in the insensitivity to the person's feelings during childhood. This results in the fear of being manipulated and made to look stupid. ... the need to be recognized socially which leads to conscious attempts to be outgoing.... the need to be admired for their own inner qualities... resulting in their unrealistic striving for perfectionism and their fear of being considered unimportant to others... the need for personal accomplishment which becomes an obsession... and leads to desire to be in charge of all situations of which they are a part.... the need for independence which excludes outside assistance to the extent of discarding those who might have been of use to them previously... the need to avoid 'failure' originating in the disapproval of failures in childhood.

PLEASURE AS NORM FOR LIVING. neuroses can be understood as the result of unconscious strivings which tend to harm and block a person's growth. study  of neuroses confirms the fact that PLEASURE CAN BE RATIONALISATION OF UNHAPPINESS THUS IN CONTRAST TO MANs REAL INTERESTS WHICH ARE FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF HAPPINESS.(fromm 180) happiness unhappiness expression of state of total personality. happiness conjuntive with increase in vitality, intensity of feeling and thinking; unhappiness conjunctive with decrease in vitality, intensity of feeling and thinking.

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    Psychopathic personality and the so-called 'perception problem'... In failing to develop their potentialities, the neurotic individual fails to achieve maturity and personality integration and consequently critical consciousness and complete cognition of a developed conscience... They suffer from a 'perception problem'... misperceptions result from the ‘perception problem’... The antisocial personality type goes through life trapped in the same irrational fears which they experienced in their childhood growing up of spiritually as well as materially poor dysfunctional family in which the father as the authority figure denies the mother’s  individuality. Unconditional love… mature responsibility… universal love for people as fellow human beings… all these things are not understood because they are not experienced. Parents’ possessive ‘love’ replaces the unconditional love required for security and proper growth. The children who grow up in this spiritually impoverished environment in which they are  treated as property and obliged to meet parental demands for compensation for their own childhood deprivations… they suppress their feelings to dull the pain of indifferent parenting… they are inclined to arrest their own development in favor of holding onto the security which they desperately need. Proper growth and development of conscience is almost impossible. If material poverty is perceived as contributing to their own spiritual impoverishment then they disguise their own personal suffering in the form of negative disdainful attitudes which they subconsciously project onto others. They learn to hide behind a ‘persona’ which they create for themselves. They actively cling to a view of reality or ‘fantasy’ which they inappropriately transfer to their adult environment even though it becomes outmoded.  If their adult environment includes family with children they continue to live in their illusory world of  fantasy and will attempt to mold the new family according to the ‘fantasy’ family which they imagined in their own childhood. The mother of the family becomes the mother of the childhood fantasy family but at the same time is perceived as the disappointing mother experienced in the childhood of reality. The person compensates for the absence of validation during their own impoverished childhood by validating themselves and continually strive for validation in the form of material success and monetary gain. Attitudes towards money and material status override validation of human sensitivities and human values which become degraded. Such attitudes can be overwhelming if they coincide with similar attitudes in the society in which one lives. Growing up in this kind of family situation is fraught with obstacles and requires constant vigilance. For these reasons it is essential to have an understanding of one’s family background in order to understand the emotional forces which impact one’s own life and then put those forces into the right perspective. These should be properly identified and analysed in order to protect oneself from the detrimental effects to one’s life, liberty and happiness. 

 The insecurity of neurosis results in tendency to avoid problems ... to avoid the emotional suffering which is inherent in tackling problems. Avoiding problems is avoiding reality, avoiding growth and building fantasies. . In avoiding the suffering which comes from dealing with the problem one avoids the oppportunity for growth which also comes from dealing with the problem. As a result the neurosis becomes the problem

 Perception of dichotomies is the result of 'incomplete cognition' of the immature or 'neurotic' mind.. product of thwarted human development... incomplete personality integration... incomplete cognition is the ego-centered mental process which perceives dichotomies... distorted neurotic perception of reality  ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment... culture

 Obstruction to normal psychological development leads to the inhibition of spiritual or moral development. The result is abnormal or 'neurotic' development i.e. 'neurosis'. Neurosis is a function of distorted perception which leads to incorrect evaluation of social conditions and subsequent destructive or 'inadaptive' behaviour i.e. 'evil'.

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 Neurotic development involves incomplete psychological development, incomplete integration of the personality, incomplete development of critical consciousness and incomplete cognition of the deformed conscience. They acquire a value system which is so distorted and unbalanced that it contradicts their own interests and the interests of others. Their distorted thought and behaviour patterns can inflict grave harm on themselves and on others. The neurotic reaction tends towards destruction of others in an attempt to safeguard personal integrity. (Freud's 'death instinct' or 'death drive' and Weber's 'downward union').

 Incomplete psychological development means incomplete development of the human conscience.  "The problem of psychic health and neurosis is inseparably linked up with that of ethics. It may be said that every neurosis represents a moral problem. The failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality is a moral failure." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself 224

    Moral attitudes (responsibility)  foster growth. Responsibility for growth is a function of responsibility for human needs or 'values' which derive from the instrinsic striving for self-realization. The most urgent or 'prepotent' need is the need for safety and security. Security needs are prepotent to growth needs. A child will give up growth to retain security. Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth.

Freedom from anxiety and fear is the pre-requisite to curiosity and exploration for growth through knowledge. Denial or frustration of human needs leads to neurotic growth, incomplete psychological development, incomplete personality integration, incomplete development of the conscience and incomplete cognition. Failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality, self-actualization, realization of human potential or 'humanness' is a moral failure which produces neurotic conflicts.

Neurosis is a tragedy because its inherent mental conflicts are based on the conflicting motivating forces and cultural attitudes of the social environment within which the individual is functioning - immoral attitudes (irresponsibiltiy) which obstruct growth.

     neurosis  manifest in the immorality of human wickedness or 'evil

 "To the extent that the individual is denying to awareness (repressing) large areas of his experience, then his creative formings may be pathological, or socially evil or both. To the degree that the individual is open to all aspects of his experience, and has available to his awareness all the varied sensings and perceivings which are going on within his organism, then the novel products of his interaction with his environment will tend to be constructive both for himself and others.... Repressing an impulse means removing it from awareness but it does not mean removing it from existence. Freud has shown that the repressed impulse continues to operate and to exercise a profound influence upon the person although the person is not aware of it. The effect of the repressed impulse on the person is not even necessarily smaller than if it were conscious; the main difference is that it is not acted upon overtly but in disguise, so that the person acting is spared the knowledge of what he is doing." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961. 352)

"The problem of psychic health and neurosis is inseparably linked up with that of ethics. It may be said that every neurosis represents a moral problem. The failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality is a moral failure." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself  p.224)

 transference…outdated map of realiity… Revising the map of reality is only possible if one has the discipline to overcome the pain. And such discipline depends on total dedication to the truth. Truth is more important than comfort. Truth is avoided when it is painful. Mental health is an ongoing process of dedication to true reality or ‘truth’... based on his own life which was bound by rules… including your right to be yourself and lead the kind of authentic life that you want to lead...

 Projecting the darker intentions or 'shadow'... 'the lie' ('devil' means ‘liar'). From Paul Levy (awakeninthedream.com) "The person is unwilling and afraid to consciously feel and experience their own guilt and shame. In order to hide from their shadow they split it off and project it onto the outside world. Projecting the shadow is lying to others as well as lying to themselves . disassociation from oneself is self-deception....  self delusion... the person deludes themselves into believing their own lies They hide their own lie from themselves thus further feeding the sense of guilt and creating the process which  they are hiding from.. This process of splitting-off from  guilt develops a momentum and a sovereignty of its own and the person is taken over in the process... they are manipulated, victimized and possessed by the darker forces which they themselves set in motion through their refusal to reflect on their feelings of guilt and then experience them consciously. Fighting against their own shadow is a losing battle. The person gets caught up in a self-created and self-creating self-reinforcing feedback loop that is ‘closed’...  it is insular and not open to any feedback from the ‘real’ world an infinite regression  as the endless wheel of cyclic, problematic, involuted spiral of ever increasing madness... a crazy-making double-bind with no 'exit strategy'... this is acted out in the outside world.  The person is so dissociated from their shadow that they split off from it and  project it onto others and then try to destroy the dis-owned shadow. the person becomes possessed by the very thing they are trying to destroy, thereby perpetuating a never-ending cycle of violence. This inability to experience their guilt sets in motion a self-perpetuating cycle of denial, cover-up and projecting the shadow, all of which are based on a lie... suffering-filled existence is known in Buddhism as 'samsara'. Their unconscious, fear-based re-actions have dangerous implications". 

What is Psychosis? Psychosis is a suboptimal state of consciousness that views... perceives... 'reality' in a distorted way. The person's perception of reality is 'suboptimal' because it involves the egocentric dialogue of 'immaturity'. The immature person does not recognize the distortion of their perception. They have a 'perception problem'. From this perspective, we can say that people in western cultures who are attached to the waking state of consciousness fit the criteria of psychosis. Their perception of reality is suboptimal and therefore distorted. Such individuals are psychotic if they do not recognize the distortion of their perception. Their 'reality' is in fact their own perception of reality i.e. their worldview or ‘paradigm’. Different paradigms represent different perceptions of reality. The psychotic individual is ‘prisoner of their own mind’ - they are unwittingly but totally trapped by a continuous fantasy dialogue with themselves. This egocentric dialogue produces a perceptual-cognitive mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality and creates the all-consuming illusion of that distorted reality. The distorted reality is a function of the distortion in perception. Psychosis is a mental condition in which the individual is attached to one state of consciousness which by itself is necessarily limited and only partially represents the reality of their world or 'map'... the map is not the territory... Perception is not the ‘truth’. Different psychoses represent different forms of egocentric dialogue. For the individual with irrational fears of immaturity, reality is perceived and understood in terms of a cognitive process which is trapped in those fears. This might be expressed as the active clinging to an outmoded view of reality developed in childhood and inappropriately transferred to the adult environment i.e. 'transference'. The psychosis often goes unrecognized until the individual accepts the personal challenge for self-examination in the form of observation and reflection i.e. contemplation or ‘meditation’. (Ram Dass Journey of Awakening: a Meditator's Guidebook. New York: Doubleday, l978)

 From the mystical perspective (high stage of psychological development), psychosis defined as being trapped or attached to, any one state of consciousness ... the individual is psychotic if... the psychotic individual ... is trapped in any one state of consciousness which by itself is necessarily limited and therefore only relatively 'real'. From this perspective, the individual in western cultures who is attached to the waking state of consciousness fits the criteria of psychosis. Such an individual's perception of reality is suboptimal and therefore distorted. Their perception of reality is 'suboptimal' and distorted. Such an individual is ... psychotic...if he does not recognize the distortion our usual state fits all the criteria of psychosis in that it is suboptimal, has a distorted view of reality, and does not recognize that distortion... the individual of western culture who is attached to the waking state of consciousness fits the criteria of psychosis. ... Fully developed mystics state unequivocally that our usual state of consciousness is not only suboptimal, it is dreamlike and illusory... whether we know it or not... are prisoners of our own minds, totally and unwittingly trapped by a continuous fantasy-dialogue that creates an all-consuming illusory distortion of perception of 'reality'. However, this condition goes unrecognized until we begin to subject our perceptual-cognitive processes to rigorous scrutiny such as meditation. The Western pathology of view is to equate 'reality' with the world as perceived in waking state awareness, so denying access or credibility to reality as perceived in other states of consciousness. The multipe-states-of-consciousness model of human psychology involves a wide range of modes of perception. The Western definition of 'psychosis' - having a perception of reality which is suboptimal (not wholistic) and therefore distorted and not recognizing the distortion - is itself psychotic. Based on the assumption that the most 'normal' state of consciousness is the waking state of the ego level, it is suboptimal and distorted and the distortion is not recognized. Psychotic perception produces illusion.

 Psychosis as ‘psychopathy'...derived from the Greek ‘psych’ for ‘soul’ and ‘pathos’ for ‘suffering’. Psychopathy is psychological ill health also known as ‘antisocial personality disorder’... dissocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder.. a mental condition which is characterised by undeveloped ‘immature’ conscience or ‘lack of conscience’ and so the inability to relate to the humanity of others i.e. ‘empathy’. The psychopath is a pathologically egocentric prisoner of their own mind… totally trapped by a continuous ‘fantasy’ dialogue with themselves… distorting reality and creating an all-consuming illusion of that distorted reality. They have high verbal intelligence but no ‘emotional intelligence’ and consequently no insight which explains their callousness and poor judgement. Their emotions are superficial and shallow, they are unable to love and they do not experience remorse or shame because they do not feel responsible for their actions. They have no concern for the feelings of other people or even of their own. They don't understand the impact of their antisocial behaviour on other people and this has to be explained to them.. They have a distorted sense of the potential consequences of their actions, not only for others, but also for themselves. Their ‘friends’ are people who protect them from the consequences of their own antisocial attitudes. They are pathological liars and will blame others for their own failings. They are insincere but with superficial charm they watch and mimic other people and manipulate their emotions in order to control them and use them for their own selfish needs. They show poor impulse control and a low tolerance for frustration and aggression   generally unresponsive  no life plan. incurable also untreatable. impulsively violent  ... shallow friendships Their stories are characteristically shallow with respect to their emotional aspect… they have difficulty describing or explaining their own feelings.  ...in the early part of the 20th century the term for psycopathy was ‘moral insanity’... Hervey Cleckley (1903-1984) wrote one of the first definitive studies of psychopathy, the classic entitled Mask of Sanity first published in 1941. The 5th edition was published in1988. The book is out of print but can be accessed on the internet. It is still the most useful source of knowledge of the subject. It is easy to read and very interesting. More recent studies have been done by Dr. Robert Hare of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. He wrote Without Conscience which was published in1997.

 

Psychopaths are "intraspecies predators who use charm, manipulation, intimidation, and violence to control others and to satisfy their own selfish needs. Lacking in conscience and in feelings for others, they cold-bloodedly take what they want and do as they please, violating social norms and expectations without the slightest sense of guilt or regret."(Hare, R. D. Without Conscience 1997).

 

Humiliating effects of psychopathic attitudes... Humiliation is a natural consequence of violation of one’s human rights.  If it is understood and dealt with intelligently, then one appreciates not only one’s own rights but also the rights of others and human rights in general. One generally associates discussion of human rights in terms of the larger social context of human societies. But it is also important to understand one’s rights in the limited social context of the ‘family’ (in the legal sense). This is particularly important if that family involves parental power of a psycopathic personality who doesn’t feel responsible for their attitudes but accepts them as natural and normal even if they are hurtful. The psychopathic parent often projects their problems onto their children who then must deal with their attitudes of moral irresponsibility towards them. In addition their failure to understand their own children’s intelligence and integrity can develop into mental abuse with its subsequent humiliating effects. Humiliation originating from internalisation of projected problems is based on the lack of understanding of what is really happening. Protection of the ego consciousness from harmful effects of irresponsible parenting depends on critical consciousness involving careful observation and comprehensive understanding of the situaton as it unfolds. It is always easier to understand with hindsight. With inner resources for increasing one’s knowledge and understanding, things turn out for the better. It’s a long process which takes work and patience but in the end all the effort is well worthwhile… whatever form it takes. With positive attitudes to the challenges of life’s problems, one gets over it each time and ends up much the wiser. Furthermore one realises that one has many advantages over the person or persons whose behaviour was responsible for the humiliation. What’s more that same humiliation can even become an important motivating force.    

   

'narcissism': .

 Psychosis as 'malignant egophrenia' (Paul Levy. www.awakeninthedream.com "...  an active dynamic exists "inside" and reveals itself as it gets "dreamed up" in the "outside" world. The inner psychological process of turning away from the problem within gives shape to the person's view of the outside world... like a dream. As in a dream, the perception of the outer world is an unmediated expression or reflection of what is going on inside the dreamer...  Just like a dream, the 'inner" process of the psyche reveals itself literally and symbolically through events in the 'outside' world. This synchronistic correspondence between the inner and the outer world is not recognized because it is so obvious. This correlation between what is happening inside of ourselves and what is happening in the outside world It is fully apparent or 'transparent' while at the same time being invisible like a see-through medium. One is asked to recognize what is being revealed. Any person who integrates their own problem into their image of themselves has a non-local effect on the entire field. The only way to "fight" evil is by coming to terms with it within oneself.

...traumatized soul ...   the person reacts sadistically to others who mirror back his guilt and don’t support and enable his narcissism... collapses the boundary between inner and outer.. healthy parts of personality are co-opted by the pathology, which drafts them into its service.  personality organizes an outer display of coherence around a pathogenic core malignant egophrenia can be very destructive, particularly if the person is in a position of power.  resist self-reflection iPsychosis as n denial of reality...  interpret any feedback from the real world which reflects back their unconsciousness as itself evidence that proves the correctness of their view gigantic catastrophes of wars and revolutions  as psychic events or  epidemic   when an inner situation is not made conscious, it manifests itself in the exterior world. The person's inner process gets dreamed up and played out on the world stage.

The daemonic aspect of malignant egophrenia develops a certain autonomy and literally possesses the person or group, as it is self-generating, self-perpetuating and self-organizing in nature, like a closed and negative feedback loop. The person who is taken over doesn't suspect a thing, as the field secretly conspires and colludes with and enables their psychosis.  delusion, imagines he is divinely guided. His supporters want to believe this to feed their own adolescent fantasies of wanting to have a divinely inspired leader to take care of and protect them. unconscious narcissistic needs in a truly pathological, and ultimately self-destructive co-dependent relationship. believies he has a Messianic mission forces tyrannous doctrines upon his fellow-beings become inflated.by the  unconscious identification with ...possessed... by the saviour archetype... forfeited one's humanity... humility becomes impossible.... embodiment of arrogant... corrupt... prefers power over truth. addicted to power

  characteristics of malignant egophrenia...  resistance to self-reflection and endless cycle of self- deception Self-deceiving people misuse everything so as to avoid having to confront themselves. They seem convinced of what they say and project this conviction so well that they can have a  mesmerizing and gripping effect on others. Nothing has such a convincing effect as a lie one invents and believes oneself….. the pathological liar is dangerous.

  malignant egophrenia is very hard  to deal with because the person seems so normal. and even . They can be very endearing and ‘charming’ and charismatic... in this way they entrance those who don't see through their subterfuge. They are concerned about nothing other than themselves, they are indifferent to other people’s suffering, while professing compassion, like a wolf in sheep’s clothing

under-developed psychological process that deals simplistically with issues as if they  haven't grown out of the realm of mythic, archetypal fantasy that is typical of early adolescence. The immature aspect of their inner  process resonates with people for whom it is a reflection  of their own under-developed inner process.. they are blind to what is obvious to others... as if they’ve become hypnotized and fallen under his spell   People who support their narcissism also have a predisposition for it based on their own trauma, dissociated psyche and tendency to project the shadow... they are suggestible and susceptible.

  Malignant egophrenia is crazy-making... the person becomes bewitched by their own projections, accusing other people of doing what they themselves are doing.   

the individual embedded in the greater field (family system, society, and planetary culture)  is an expression of this field. The individual and the field around them interpenetrate and condition each other so fully that they must be seen as inseparable parts of a greater whole. 

 archetypal in nature...   diabolical in nature.  demons Jung calls autonomous complex. split-off parts of the psyche that can possess a person and seemingly develop an independent life of their own.  The person will shape-shift and do everything in its power to resist being exposed.

 To name something is to symbolize it. The word ‘symbolic,’ which means that which unites antonym to the word ‘diabolic’ that which divides and separates

  protection is cooperation of people in lucid awareness so that it can be contained

 The need to coerce and dominate others is an external displacement of the need to overcome the fear of being overwhelmed by one’s own unconscious.

 Psychosis of psychopathy is not to be confused with 'spiritual crisis' or 'spiritual emergency' which is  a warning to the person that their spiritual growth is in grave danger... they need to make adjustments which are essential for their self-preservation and adaptation i.e. 'self-sustainability' or 'adaptability'... 'spiritual emergence' (Christina and Stanislaus Grof coined the term 'spiritual emergency' and founded the Spiritual Emergency Network (SEN) at the Esalen Institute in 1980.In 1998 the SEN moved to the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS) in San Francisco. (website SEN@CIIS... www.senatciis.org)  also in Europe: SENGermany 

Spiritual work is not appreciated in a materialistic society and on the whole people don’t understand. The human values make for truly meaningful life... Important to keep an open and discerning mind. If the experience is too distressing the emergence can become an emergency... 'spiritual emergency'... Information and understanding are essential to keeping the condition under control.The psyche instinctively tries to bring about a re-equilibrium and this takes awhile... depends on self-respect, strong character and good disposition.

 The change of personality leading to mystic experience and self-transcendence is one of increasing integration as opposed to psychotic change of increasing disintegration. Spiritual crisis is intense spiritual experience ... pursuance of 'self-knowledge'... knowledge of the self beyond the ego sense of self… i.e. ‘transpersonal self’ is spiritual growth or 'transpersonal experience' or 'spiritual emergence'. Spiritual emergence is a positive growth process in which the unconscious overwhelms the ego consciousness.

    “It is a grave error to accuse a man who pursues self-knowledge of 'turning his back on society’. The opposite would be more nearly true: that a man who fails to pursue self-knowldege is and remains a danger to society, for he will tend to misunderstand everything that other people say or do, and remain blissfully unaware of the significance of many of the things he does himself". (Schumacher,E A Guide for the Perplexed. New York, Harper and Row, l977)

 "Once a person has awakened to the transpersonal dimensions of existence, life itself is held in a different perspective." This is an aspect of healthy psychological and intellectual growth...

Dichotomies disappear with increased mental health... If the individuals in a society remain attached to that level of consciousness dealing with gratification of physical and emotional needs, then they would perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom 'to pursue happiness' and their responsibility to the society. If the level of consciousness of those same individuals is raised to a healthier state then they are motivated by so-called 'higher needs' or 'metaneeds'.

The only way to realize the union of opposites is through an expansion of consciousness in which we recognize our interconnectedness and interrelatedness, and develop a more complete and holistic vision of our inseparable relationship to each other and the universe as a whole. Not only "subjects" of our inner process, we become the "objects" of a deeper, mythic, archetypal and divine process .

"our normative cultural reality is state-specific. Insofar as 'reality' is a consensually validated, but arbitrary, convention, an altered state of consciousness can represent an anti-social, unruly mode of being... This fear of the unpredicatable may have been a major motivating force behind the repression in our own culture of means for inducing altered states- e.g. psychedelics- or for a more general suspicion of techniques such as meditation".

 Implications for education: The tragedy of psychosis as thwarted growth is that it is ultimately determined by conflicts in the values and assumptions of the cultural environment - the social environment of family or school. For this reason, psychological health is a social affair and a concern of education. It is the responsibility of education to encourage the development of  highly awakened intelligence or ‘intuition’. Intuition is required for responsible decision making  in solving human problems… and depends on the individual’s capacity for personal challenge and  self-examination to see the truth. Truth is reality which combines objective reality with the subjective perception of critical consciousess. Dedication to truth is dedication to reality implying critical consciousness and a willingness to accept personal challenge for inquiry. The more clearly  one can see the reality of one’s  world the better equipped one is to deal with it, the less clearly one sees the reality of one’s world, the more one’s mind is befuddled by falsehood, misperceptions, and illusions and the less able one is to determine correct courses of action and make wise decisions. The aim of education is the development of critical consciousness and intuitive powers of discrimination i.e. wisdom or ‘intelligence’. Development of intelligence depends on development of human potential and the intrinsic power of self-reliance  which is a function of spiritual growth for the development of intrinsic human spiritual values. Education for spiritual development as embedded in psychological, emotional, intellectual development is education for the whole person i.e. ‘holistic education’.      

"Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education... Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation'. The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational curriculum around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs. The curriculum would be based on the effective acknowledgement of the instinctive capacities of children for motivation to satisfy the basic needs for self-respect and self-esteem in the attainment of self-actualisation. The curriculum would include possibilities and opportunities for experiential enrichment by way of recognition and enforcement of the instinctive capacities of children for 'metamotivation' to satisfy the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds.'"   (Maslow... no.l0 thesis)

   

   “It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinions; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the Great Man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.”  Ralph Waldo Emerson

 

  “When we are no longer able to change a situation, we are challenged to change ourselves”. Victor Frankl

 

 individual in cultural context: distorting influences of language and culture...' neuro linguistic programing'

 

 evil is related to, not separate from, and a revelation of our true nature... evil helps us to realize who we are in a deeper, more ultimate sense. Evil awakens in us the recognition of our true nature, similar to how we would never notice the surface of the mirror without its reflections... evil can potentially enliven the part of us that is truly free.
            —C. G. Jung

 when we become truly acquainted with our true nature – which embraces both light and dark and is simply aware of what it witnesses  Acting from the living experience of our basic goodness and primordial purity, we can then truly be of benefit to the world. 
            —C. G. Jung

 

From Paul Levy (www.wakeninthedream.com) ...healthy parts of personality are co-opted by the pathology, which drafts them into its service.  personality organizes an outer display of coherence around a pathogenic core... malignant egophrenia can be very destructive, particularly if the person is in a position of power.  resist self-reflection in denial of reality...  interpret any feedback from the real world which reflects back their unconsciousness as itself evidence that proves the correctness of their view gigantic catastrophes of wars and revolutions  as psychic events or  epidemic   when an inner situation is not made conscious, it manifests itself in the exterior world. The person's inner process gets dreamed up and played out on the world stage.

pathological part of his psyche has co-opted all of the healthy parts into its service. pathological ...condition,  "…an unknown  ‘something’ has taken possession of a smaller or greater portion of the psyche and asserts its hateful and harmful existence undeterred by insight, reason, and energy... proclaims the power of the unconscious over the conscious mind, the sovereign power of possession."

Being so taken over by his unconscious as a result of his unwillingness to feel his guilt, the inner process is incarnated into outer forms which become the embodied "revelation" of the inner process.

 like a figure in a dream - reflecting back to us the part of ourselves that is feeding and thereby supporting our own darkness. Seen as a dreaming process, in which George Bush is a figure that we’ve all dreamed up into materialization, we have dreamed him up to mirror back to us our own ignorance, madness, and darkness, so as to help us recognize and integrate these pathological parts within ourselves of which he is merely a reflection.

Being an embodied reflection of this part of ourselves is to say that Bush is not separate from us, as we are all interconnected parts and expressions of the underlying unified field. We don’t exist in isolation from Bush, nor him from us, but rather, in co-relation to each other.

Avoiding relationship with one's shadow results in a chronic 'guilty conscience'... an expression of "unconsciousness". turning away from consciously experiencing one's  own guilt and shame literally feeds the shadow, both on the personal level, and on the collective, archetypal level.  To the extent that each person is not dealing with their own guilt they  contribute to the collective shadow that plays out in the outside world.

  When one is unwilling to consciously experience their shadow they necessarily project it outside of themselves. The shadow is split off and gets "dreamed up" into materialization in the outside world. Once we meet our projected shadow in the outside world, we immediately contract against it...

the way to work on our inner process is by actively participating in the outside world, while concurrently, the very way to change the outer world is by looking within and working on our inner process.  

Once we project our shadow, we fall into a vicious cycle in which we are endlessly hiding from and lying to ourselves. In order to justify our shadow projections, we continually have to entrance ourselves into believing the lie that is inherent in our shadow projection. Jung refers to "shadow projection" as "the lie." Etymologically, lying is related to the word "Devil" who is the "liar." Shadow projection is intimately related to the evil that plays out in the world.

intrinsic wholeness enables us to not split-off from nor identify with, but rather contain, transmute and liberate deleterious effects of evil. Becoming engaged with and intimately related to the transpersonal evil within us simultaneously acquaints us with the part of ourselves that is beyond the personal ego...  

We secretly feel a sense of guilt when we project our shadow, because inwardly we know we are not in harmony with our integrity. This sense of guilt itself is the very feeling from which we split-off. Our guilt does not allow us to feel our guilt, which is what we secretly feel guilty over. To the extent that we don’t consciously experience our guilt, we become caught in an infinitely-perpetuating double-bind in which we project out our darkness, which just perpetuates the very thing we feel guilty about... insidious futility of shadow projection... one cannot project one’s shadow on to others, and there is no advantage in insisting on their guilt, as it is much more important to know and possess one’s own guilt, because it is part of one’s own self and a necessary factor... it is of primary importance to get in touchwith one's  own guilt.... be conscious of it... Once we consciously access our own guilt, we withdraw our projection of the shadow onto others... the evil we’re seeing in the other is our own evil… we realize that we can no longer keep evil at bay by projecting it outside of ourselves.

Becoming "intimately related" to our own darkness empowers us to effectively deal with the darkness in the world in a way that was unavailable to us as long as we were avoiding a confrontation with our own inner darkness. When we were hiding from our own darkness, we were trying to destroy it as it appeared in the outside world (which is merely an "externalized" reflection of our "inner" act of contracting against our own darkness). In other words, the darkness (inside of us) is trying to get rid of the darkness (in the outside world), as if the darkness is trying to get rid of itself, which is the very act that generates and is generated by the darkness in the first plac

 the part that experiences the guilt that is bound up in the evil within is the guilt-free innocent) part of us. When we consciously experience our "feelings" of guilt  the underlying guilt begins to melt and transform. The "innocent" part temporarily hidden by our unwillingness to experience our guilt. Paradoxically, by consciously experiencing one's guilt and shame one experiences remorse and then becomes acquainted with one's innocence. This "innocent" part has never been tainted by darkness... unstained This innocent part can be identified as human divinity... or 'God'.

Once we withdraw our shadow projections from external reality, we dis-spell and dis-engage from the diabolical feedback loop which we were unknowingly feeding and in which we were imprisoned. Once we withdraw our shadow projection from the outside world and recognize it within ourselves, we are able to snap out of our self-created double-bind and consciously feel our guilt and shame and sin. Once we become fluent and engaged with the darkness within ourselves, we no longer have to hide from it, which is to say from ourselves, by projecting our shadow outside of ourselves. We can thereby take responsibility for our role in perpetuating this cycle of self-deceit and denial, and with our increased consciousness, bring our complicity in this dynamic to an end. We are then able to deal with the "sublunary world" of the dark unconscious, both within ourselves and as it appears in the outside world. Once we are acquainted with the archetypal darkness which expresses itself non-locally throughout the field, this darkness reveals itself to be an expression of the light, as it is the darkness itself that has illumined us.

Once we consciously take the shadow back into ourselves, we become an instrument, a flash of light that illumines the darkness in the outside world. Instead of reacting to the darkness in the outside world through the lens of our own unembraced darkness, which simply creates, through projection, more darkness, we are able to see the darkness through the part of ourselves that is separate from it. Paradoxically, seeing our own evil is the very thing which activates the part of us which is "other" than and free of evil. This part of us that is "other" than evil is the only part of us that can clearly see evil (as it plays itself out both within ourselves and in the outside world) because it is not "mixed up" with it, and thus, is not blinded or deceived by it.

At the same time we see the evil part of ourselves, the part of us that is seeing evil is free of it, for we couldn’t objectify it otherwise. For example, if we have jaundice, we couldn’t pick out what objects are truly yellow, for everything looks yellow. The part of us that is seeing the color yellow is the part of us that is "yellow-free." Paradoxically, it is only in recognizing and owning the evil within ourselves that allows us, by virtue of being the witness of it, to relate to it as "other" than ourselves, which is to be free of it ("evil-free").

This is a very subtle, but immensely profound point. When we see the evil within us, by owning it we simultaneously witness it as other than and separate from ourselves, which is to get in relationship with it as an "other." Simply aware of what it is witnessing, the part of us that is the witness of "evil" is free of the attribute that is being witnessed; it is not the "guilty party." The evil I am witnessing within myself is an aspect of me and I own it but it is not mine. This is the personal/impersonal paradox of the soul: what is most me is not mine.

We are only able to bear the experience of the evil within us and not fall into overwhelming despair if we recognize the "transpersonal" origin of evil Instead of identifying with the evil we have found within, thinking it "belongs" to us individually, we recognize that evil is 'archetypal' in nature...

 We speak of a mother complex, or a father complex...  a savior complex... embodies  the unconsciousness of the time.  the person playing the archetypal role of savior reflects this unconsciousness and becomes inflated by the power of the archetype. He is compelled to act out his hubris in a way that is destructive for all who are under his dominion... delusions of grandeur, and has become megalomaniacal... unconsciously identified with the archetype of the Messiah. One should listen to the inner voice attentively, intelligently and critically Just because one hears an inner voice doesn’t necessarily mean it should be followed.

 By projecting the shadow in this manner one becomes possessed by the very shadow one projects. This is falling  under the spell of the Devil... possessed byu the  devil... "the deceiver."... 'beast'  Because of inflation, the person feels they are above human morality,  under the delusion that he is the supreme moral arbiter, not realizing that he has fallen into his unconscious, whose dark side he is acting out... pathological condition, he is the last person who should be the judge of morality

 ‘identification with the shadow,’  occurs at moments of collision with the unconscious." by dissociating and projecting out our shadow, we become unconsciously identified with it, possessed by it, and unconsciously act it out. complexes are unconscious this  guarantees them freedom of action.  unconsciousness helps the complex to assimilate the ego, resulting in momentary and unconscious alteration of personality... identification with the complex. In Middle Ages it was called possession of the devil.

Because of complete unconsciousness one becomes an instrument for evil...  symbolized by the devil. The devil is a variant of the "shadow" archetype. The person is unconsciously taken over by the shadow... become possessed... genuine humility is impossible. the perverse nature... depravity  avoid self-criticism, preach to others,  know nothing of themselves. no self-knowledge so that nothing can disturb their illusions.

By being inflated, one is unconsciously accessing and unleashing the power inherent in the archetype…  an enchanting power over his followers. By identifying with the archetype, the archetype acts as an amplifier, enhancing hypnotic power over his followers. taken over by the unconscious, he has a compelling and entrancing effect on the unconscious of others

 Only one who is seized by an archetype has a gripping effect on others. It is a psychological fact that an archetype can seize hold of the ego and even compel it to act as it wills. A man can then take on archetypal dimensions and exert influence accordingly By being so seized by an archetype of the collective unconscious, becomes an agent that has a very powerful effect on the field around. He becomes a portal through which an underlying psychic epidemic which non-locally pervades the field "malignant egophrenia" feeds, replicates, and actualizes itself

When we become unconsciously gripped by an archetype, we become pawns in the hand of a deeper power. Succumbing to the compulsive adrenaline rush of the "will to power" inherent in the shadow Bush has become arrogant and full of himself, a legend in his own mind, someone who feels he is not bound by law, and believes himself entitled to get away with murder. Speaking about being unconsciously taken over by an archetype Here we see the characteristic effect of the archetype: it seizes hold of the psyche with a kind of primeval force and compels it to transgress the bounds of humanity." When we are gripped by an archetype and forced to unconsciously act out its effects destructively, we are acting out the dark side of this greater power. Etymologically, the word "transgress" is related to the word "evil."

The world literally shape-shifts around someone who is inflated and blown up with an archetype, as this inner state of possession is able to synchronistically express itself through the medium of the outside world. To quote Jung, "…archetypes are not found exclusively in the psychic sphere, but can occur just as much in circumstances that are not psychic (equivalence of an outward physical process with a psychic one)." [Emphasis in original] When we become inflated by an archetype, there is a synchronistic correlation between the inner experience of being identified with the archetype and outer events. The inner state of being possessed by the archetype expresses itself by arranging external events so as to give shape and form to itself. A person inflated by an archetype, such as Bush, literally becomes the channel through which transpersonal, mythic forces become materialized into our third-dimension, which just reinforces his inflation in a diabolical feedback loop.

By identifying with the archetype, Bush becomes seized by the archetype’s irresistible field of force and unwittingly becomes the agent who does the archetype’s bidding. By being so taken over by an impersonal force, Bush has become a "magnet" which torques the field around him so as to insatiably feed his own pathology, while simultaneously wreaking havoc on the field.

Taken over by the archetype’s magnetic power, Bush achieves a certain magnetism, which polarizes the field around it. Like a magnet, archetypes are bi-polar, having a negative and a positive aspect. On the one hand, the power of the archetype coming through Bush attracts people to support him in his delusion who are suggestible to the overwhelming unconscious power inherent in the archetype. In a co-dependent relationship, Bush’s followers feed his identification with the archetype, which simultaneously nourishes their own bewitchment, in a perverse, self-perpetuating feedback loop which develops an autonomous life of its own.

At the same time, Bush’s identification with the archetype repels other people, who react against the one-sidedness and perversity of his inflation. By being so unconsciously identified with the archetype, Bush will literally attract to himself, like a lightning rod attracts lightning, other people’s negative, shadow projections. These people will strongly condemn Bush, and see him as being evil. And yet, people who react against Bush in this way are unwittingly feeding the polarization in the field, perpetuating the very diabolical energy they are reacting against. 

If we concretize Bush as being evil, we are projecting our own shadow onto him and are then guilty of the very evil of which we are accusing Bush. Interestingly, another inner meaning of the word Devil is "the accuser." If we are accusing Bush of being evil, we are guilty of the very evil of which we are accusing Bush. Bush is merely an ignorant human being who, due to his unrestrained greed, desire, and lust for power is unwittingly allowing himself to be used as an instrument of evil. Evil itself is a power, or principality that transcends the merely human dimension, as it is archetypal in nature and thereby is a content belonging to the collective unconscious. Bush is simply a deluded human being who is dangerous because of his position of power, which allows him to act out his pathological process on the world stage. We do not want to make the mistake of attributing evilÑüan archetypal content of the collective unconsciousÑüto Bush as a person.

Becoming possessed by an archetype of the collective unconscious is an expression of not only forfeiting our humanity, but of abdicating our personal responsibility as well. A true Faustian pact with the Devil, we discover too late that what we have lost in the bargain is our soul. As in any such bargain, we are ultimately responsible and accountable for our choices. Identifying with the archetype of the savior is a compensation for a deep inferiority, fear, and weakness. We become absorbed into the archetype due to our inability and unwillingness to deal with the darker part of ourselves that needs saving.

Though describing Hitler, Jung just as easily could have been describing Bush when he said that he had a "…conceit that bordered on madness, a very mediocre intelligence combined with the hysteric’s cunning and the power fantasies of an adolescent." Bush is acting out the adolescent fantasies of a war of good versus evil with our living sons and daughters as his toy soldiers. Being inflated, Bush doesn’t relate to other human beings as being autonomous or independent, but as pawns to serve his own narcissistic blindness and masturbatory fantasies.

Jung pointed out that "Inflation magnifies the blind spot of the eye…. A clear symptom of this is our growing disinclination to take note of the reactions of the environment and pay heed to them." When we are inflated, we don’t accept any reflection or feedback from the outer universe that contradicts our puffed up image of ourselves. Instead of being open, receptive, and learning from the outer world, we continually interpret everything to support our delusory self-image. When we become inflated, we become closed to any information or in-forming influence from the outside world, which is a form of psychic blindness. Instead of being in genuine relationship to the world, a person who is inflated relates to the world through their own narcissistically self-serving, grandiose self-image.

Speaking about madness, Jung said that it "…consists essentially in the fact that the unconscious in large measure ousts and supplants the function of the conscious mind. The unconscious usurps the reality function and substitutes its own reality." Jung continued that this resulted in "…senseless, unshakable judgments upheld in the face of reality [for example, Bush saying, ‘the war in Iraq is going well,’ despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary]." Being caught up in inflation is like being sucked up by a cyclone, as there is literally no getting through to the person who is inflated, who has been taken over and lifted off the ground by a more powerful energy. Bush and his supporters feed into and off of and support each others’ unconscious madness so as to conjure up an impenetrable field around them that resists consciousness at all costs. It is only when their world destructs that the universe forces them out of their psychosis.

Consciousness of guilt acts as a powerful moral stimulus… without consciousness of guilt there can be no psychic ... spiritual maturation... widening of the spiritual horizon.  genuine regret... remorse brings a renewal of the spirit. This is the 'remorse of conscience' source of  humility.

Just as the unconscious always compensates a one-sidedness, inflation inevitably results in all of the air (life, breath, spirit) being taken out of the person who is inflated. Inflation is ultimately self-destructive and always results in catastrophe. Talking about inflation, Jung said that it "…can be damped down only by the most terrible catastrophe to civilization, another deluge let loose by the gods upon inhospitable humanity." The fact that our government, led by an inflated madman, is insanely and endlessly investing in and feeding the industry of creating weapons of mass destruction is an extremely dangerous situation for all of us. To quote Jung, "Let man but accumulate sufficient engines of destruction and the devil within him will soon be unable to resist putting them to their fated use. It is well known that fire-arms go off of themselves if only enough of them are together."

                 ...collapses the boundary between inner and outer..         

  [An inflated consciousness] is incapable of learning from the past, incapable of understanding contemporary events, and incapable of drawing right conclusions about the future. It is hypnotized by itself and therefore cannot be argued with. It inevitably dooms itself to calamities that must strike it [and others within its sphere of influence] dead.

."In making the shadow conscious we must be very careful that the unconscious prevent a real confrontation with the shadow which increases consciousness of the good and the positive aspects of one's nature. The shadow itself is not "bad" it is a mere "shadow" with no substance. It is our turning away from and avoiding our shadow creates the darkness from which we are turning away.

 danger of identifying with the shadow feeling  possessed by it and acting it out unconsciously. Once we develop a strong enough sense of self, however, we relate to it as an "object" other than ourselves, but we then experience the darkness "subjectively," as we experience ourselves as the source of the darkness...  a form of clinging and grasping, which is the very act that generates the darkness against which we are resisting.

Christ said "resist not evil." embrace unconditionally both the light and dark sides of ourselves. Snapping out of the self-created and infinitely-regressing feedback loop of fighting against our own darkness is to realize that our very grasping itself is the origin of the problem of evil... we are then able to transmute the darkness into light. Christ said, "My burden IS light."

 spell of dualistic mind  separates the world into alienated fragments that seem to be at "odds" with each other.

The only way to change the collective nightmare we are sharing is through inner transformation in the individual, which collectively gets mobilized on the world stage so that we can effect genuine change. As each of us wakes up, we discover that we can reciprocally empower each other so that we can consciously activate the archetypal figure of the savior in the collective unconscious itself. Mediating, humanizing and incarnating this archetypal figure consciously throughout the field, we connect in lucidity, stepping into being agents of light who collectively dis-spell the darkness in the field.

Bush has let the spirit out of the bottle which will undoubtedly destroy him. Being possessed by the unconscious is a very dangerous situation, particularly when the person so taken over is in a position of power where he can act out as well as activate a virulent madness on the world stage. Bush’s madness affects all those under his sphere of influence, which in this case is the entire planet. Jung commented, "It is abundantly clear that such an abaissement du niveau mental [lowering of the mental level], i.e., the overpowering of the ego by unconscious contents and the consequent identification with a preconscious [as compared to conscious] wholeness, possesses a prodigious psychic virulence, or power of contagion, and is capable of the most disastrous results." When such a "lowering of the mental level" happens collectively, a psychic epidemic becomes activated in the field. The (collective) unconscious goes from being in the background and comes actively to the foreground, where it makes itself known by (destructively) giving shape and form to world events. It is merely a question of mitigating the damage of this virulent psychic epidemic for the rest of us.

Seen as a dreaming process, we are all complicit in dreaming up Bush to pick up the archetypal role of savior. Our doing this is clearly a reflection of the part of ourselves which is disempowered and is not in touch with the savior within ourselves. To be in touch with the savior within ourselves is to be in touch with the wholeness of our true nature, which is to be truly saved and redeemed. To the extent that any of us get in touch with the part of ourselves that is a genuine redeemer and leader, we literally are dis-investing energy from the archetypal role of leader being dreamed up outside of ourselves in a pathological way. When we consciously and collectively access the part of ourselves that is a leader by our very nature, we become truly empowered. Being in touch with our God-given power engenders a situation in which the savior archetype is consciously distributed throughout the field, rather than being localized and concentrated in a single figure, which is a set-up for abuse.

 

      In the field of behavioural psychology, the term ‘inferiority complex’ is a technical term referring to subconscious feelings of inadequacy which motivate the individual to escape from difficulties and overcompensate in the form of some sort of spectacular achievement. This is the basis for neurosis and extreme antisocial behavior or ‘psychopathy’. Early work in this field was pioneered by Alfred Adler who illustrated his theory with personality and character traits of Napoleon. It is true that the inferiority complex can explain human behaviour on the higher social and political levels and as such can affect entire cultures. Symptoms of inferiority complex contrast with normal feelings of inferiority and discouragement even in an advanced state. It is natural to experience the healthy feeling that one is inferior to others in some way. However and such feelings can also serve to provide one with the incentive for personal achievement which results in feelings of accomplishment necessary for self-confidence.

Subconscious failings of personality which persist in the adult life of the parents will be in opposition to the emergence of their children's true nature.... 'human nature'.                                                                                                                                                 

 Implications for education Immoral attitudes of parental irresponsibilty obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development...  Education which does not respect psychological growth is irresponsible because it results in the neurotic process of immature development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis originates from the denial and frustration of human needs and leads to incomplete psychological development which is chacterised by incomplete personality integration, value distortion and incomplete cognition of undeveloped conscience. Irresponsible education contradicts the interests of humanity. Humanity is defined by the spiritual values of the 'humaness' of mature adulthood. Children become adults with the attributes of humanity only if they are offered an education which provides for the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' and is therefore conducive to their proper psychological, emotional, intellectual, moral and spiritual development. Experiential richness in principle should be 'teachable.' Education for the person as a whole... personality integration of moral development or 'spiritual development is 'holistic education'. Holistic education is characterised by moral attitudes of responsibility which foster human growth and development... inner freedom as responsible freedom - a function of critical consciousness or moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience'. Developed conscience...  necessary for complete cognition of 'holistic perspective' as integral part of human intelligence...  social intelligence... creative intelligence required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptability'.

The irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for authoritarian codes of ethics i.e. irrational morality or 'moralism'. Moralism is a system of authoritarian ethics based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority and the internalisation of the idealised authority. The authoritarian ethics of moralism does not represent the natural and rational ethics of the intrinsically rational human conscience. Development of rational conscience depends on a learning environment which favours its construction through concentration on creative productiveness or 'work'. Work has psychological value in the construction of conscience if it is functional in personal growth and development while involving the development of human potentiality for creative intelligence. The aim of education is to provide the right conditions for growth and development of rational conscience, to provide for 'human needs' which include spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' . Needs based education is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'.

Anxiety disorders are usually accompanied by a variety of defense mechanisms which are use in the person's effort to overcome anxiety.

Pathological emotional dysfunction...  'psychosis'... 'psychopathology'...  Dr. Robert Hare  Without Conscience  published 1999

 industry of creating weapons of mass destruction is an extremely dangerous situation for all of us. To quote Jung, "Let man but accumulate sufficient engines of destruction and the devil within him will soon be unable to resist putting them to their fated use. It is well known that fire-arms go off of themselves if only enough of them are together."

    UNDEVELOPED immature conscience or IRRATIONAL CONSCIENCE AS SOURCE OF HUMAN WICKEDNESS OR 'evil'. 'EVIL'...   HUMAN DISEMPOWERMENT and THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN WICKEDNESS  OR 'EVIL'

The development of rational conscience is the source of empowerment required for adaptation to changing conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is compromised with a sense of powerlessness which is the source of negative emotions leading to 'sham dominance' and the 'will to power'. These are characteristics of thwarted psychological development i.e. neurotic development or 'neurosis'.  Neurosis is a function of thwarted development of rational conscience and the construction of 'irrational conscience'. Irrational conscience is the source of human wickedness or 'evil'. The so-called 'problem of evil' ...where does evil come from and why does it persist?...can only be understood in terms of human psychology. Failed psychological development... failure to develop rational conscience... irrrational conscience... is a direct result of deprivation of unconditional love which communicates the sense of security necessary for normal human growth.

    A pervasive sense of powerlessness is the source of negative emotions and internal conflicts of neurotic development or 'neurosis'. The inability to control negative emotions - in the sense of 'balance' or 'master' - results in failure to adapt to the complexities of a changing social reality... leads to unbalanced or wicked behaviour i.e. 'evil'. As a question of human wickedness, the 'problem of evil' can only be understood in terms of human psychology. Evil is the result of denial or frustration of human needs, human capacities and human yearnings ...failure to realise human potential... a failure of education.  Hence the importance of education for empowerment... for freedom as 'freedom to learn' and 'freedom to work' i.e. 'holistic education'. Source of evil as human wickedness is disempowerment... fight evil  with education for human empowerment... education for freedom as inner freedom.

 "If life's tendency to grow, to be lived, is thwarted, the energy thus blocked undergoes a process of change and is transformed into life-destructive energy. Destructiveness is the outcome of unlived life. Those individual and social conditions which make for the blocking of life-furtheriing energy produce destructiveness which in turn is the source from which the various manifestations of evil spring." (Fromm Man For Himself p. 216) 

  "One of the most basic problems of theological and philosophical thought: is man basically evil and corrupt, or is he basically good and perfectable?" (Fromm The Heart of Man p.19)

   The mature conscience is the biological mechanism for preservation of personality integrity required for adaptation to changing social conditions i.e.'adaptability'. Human adaptabilty depends on the guiding values of rational conscience which enables the organism to solve the problems of human existence. One of the most difficult problems is deciding  the extent of one’s responsibilities.

Immaturity of conscience can result in behaviour for which the individual finds it too painful to decide on the extent of their responsibility and so will avoid it altogether. And they will perceive freedom  as painful since that implies responsibility as well.The inability to accept the responsibility of freedom leads to the incapacity for creative and adaptive decision-making... to the decline in self-reliance... to the predominance of negative  emotions such as fear and hatred. As a result the individual resorts to methods of power politics and control – methods which violate the rights of others. The controlling behaviour of the immature conscience results in the destructiveness of human wickedness or ‘evil’. Evil is a product of education which inhibits spiritual growth of ego transcendance or 'self-transcendence'.                                                                     

 

 evil is not the corruption of human nature...   evil as human wickedness.. traditional psychology provides evidence... 

 source of human wickedness or 'evil' is undeveloped or 'irrational' conscience ...

'irrrational conscience' results from the failure to develop rational conscience is a direct result of deprivation of unconditional love which communicates the sense of security necessary for normal human growth.

neurosis...    neurosis determined by social conditions...   authoritarian conscience...                                      

                                              

Christian concept of basic corruption or 'evil'...

human nature as social in nature...    what is evil and why does it persist?   source of evil...

human motivation: natural self-interest or 'egoism' versus egocentric motivation of 'egotism'...

thwarted development produces irrational conscience...

evil as result of immature neurotic behaviour...

neurotic individual...  development of rational conscience...

implications for education...

                                                                                                                                          

"One of the most basic problems of theological and philosophical thought: is man basically evil and corrupt, or is he basically good and perfectable?" (Fromm The Heart of Man p.19)

"The Old Testament does not take the position of man's fundamental corruption. Adam and Eve's 'disobedience' to God are not called sin; nowhere is a hint that this disobedience has corrupted man. On the contrary, the disobedience is the condition for man's self-awareness, for his capacity to choose, and thus in the last analysis this first act of disobedience was man's first step toward freedom. It seems that their disobedience was even within God's plan; for according to prophetic thought, man is able to make his own history because he was expelled from paradise. He is able to develop his own human powers and to attain new harmony with man and nature as a fully developed individual instead of the former relationship with God in which he was not an individual. The Messianic concept of the prophets certainly implies that man is not fundamentally corrupt and that he can be saved without any special act of God's grace...the Old Testament view is that man has both capacities - that of good and that of evil - and he must choose between good and evil, blessing and curse, life and death. Even God does not interfere in his choice; he helps by sending messengers - the prophets, to teach the norms which lead to the realization of goodness, to identify evil, and to warn and to protest. But this being done, man is left alone with his two 'strivings' that for good and that for evil - and the decision is his alone. The Christian development was different. In the course of the development of the Christian Church, Adam's disobedience was conceived as sinful. In fact a sin so severe, that it corrupted his nature and with it that of all his descendents, and thus man by his own effort could never rid himself of this corruption. Only God's own act of grace, the appearance of Christ, who, died for man, could extinguish man's corruption and offer salvation for those who accepted Christ." (Erich Fromm The Heart of Man p. 20)

Evil is 'human wickedness'  Evil is real but it has no independent existence of its own.  . 'Evil' is identified with human behaviour which is morally wrong or 'wicked' ...socially non-adaptive behaviour such as greed, malice, sadism, cruelty, violence, destructiveness, war and so on. Evil is the same as the pain and destruction which which results from human wickedneess.

 The problem of human wickedness or 'evil' derives from sense of disempowerment... inability to accept responsibilities of freedom... The sense of powerlessness is the source of negative emotions... The inability to control (in the sense of 'balance' or 'master') negative emotions results in unbalanced behaviour which is unadaptive, destructive or 'evil'.  As a question of human wickedness the 'problem of evil'  can only be understood in terms of human psychology... and human development. The problem of evil is therefore an issue of education.

 Christian concept of basic corruption of human nature or 'evil'... Traditionally, psychologists and philosophers have defined good as the absence of evil...

Human motivation...motivation by natural self-interest or 'egoism' as opposed to motivation by  over self-defensive domination...  overvaluation of one's own importance and activities... or egocentrism of 'egotism'...  Egotism is the anaesthetic that dulls the pain of stupidity...

 "Disorder and violence are signs of emotional disturbance and suffering. They are not acts of the will. According to laws of nature, "will is a force which impels activities beneficial to life. The will can be broken in a moment. Its development is a slow process that evolves through a continuous activity in relationship with the environment."   

  Problem of evil: Man's 'animal nature'... the human personality or 'human nature' is not evil. What is evil? what is the source of 'evil'? where does it come from? why does it persist?

 Evil is not the same as the fundamental corruption of the human personality or 'human nature' but the corruption of its development i.e. personality growth or 'human development'. Evil results from the human failure to realise human potentiality. Human behaviour becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking...

 'Evil' is identified with the wickedness of human behavior...  Human behavior becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking...evil human behavior results from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem...evil results from the failure to realize life...failure to achieve self-realization... Evil is the the result of the failure to realize life. Man becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The so-called 'evil' in human nature is the result of factors which stand in the way of growth - evasion fixation, regression, defensiveness ... Evil is real but it has no independent existence of its own. Evil is the same as the destruction which results from socially non-adaptive behaviour... 'human  wickedness'. Evil is manifest in the forms of human behaviour which are morally wrong such as greed, malice, sadism, cruelty, violence, destructiveness, war and so on are violent reactions against frustration of the organism's intrinsic needs, emotions and capacities... there are people who respond with hatred in the presence of goodness and would destroy the good insofar as it is in their power to do so... not with conscious malice but blindly, lacking awareness of their own evil...and trying to avoid at all costs any awareness of their own evil... they hate the light and will do anything to extinguish it... they will destroy the light in their own children and in all other beings subject to their power... they hate the light because it reveals themselves to themselves... they hate goodness because it reveals their own badness...they will hate the light, the love, the goodness in order to avoid the pain of self-awareness ... evil people take any action in their power to preserve the integrity of their sick self ...the evil person will continue to be evil ...destroy others to preserve the integrity of their bad conscience... they will kill to escape the pain of spiritual growth... the integrity of the sick self is threatened by the the spiritual health of the good and loving people around them... ...'evil' is identified with the wickedness of human behavior... human behavior becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking... evil human behavior results from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem... evil results from the failure to realize life... failure to achieve self-realization... The 'evil' of human nature results from the failure of the human being to achieve realization of their human potential or 'self-actualisation'. The evil of human nature results from the failure to achieve 'humanness'.

It is the socially unadaptive and destructive behaviour which constitutes human wickedness or 'evil'.   

"...man is not necessarily evil but becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The evil has no independent existence of its own. It is the absence of good, the result of the failure to realize life." (Erich Fromm p.218)

 Wicked human behaviour is the result of failure to achieve self-realization through proper growth and development i.e. the 'right education'.

 The creative energy for growth is blocked and that same energy is transformed to destructive ends. The individual remains  insecure with low self-esteem and attempts to compensate for this with feelings of sham dominance. The domineering attitudes which result are the source of wicked behaviour or  'evil'.

Those we consider 'evil' are really just retarded to some degree and not fully human... their development has been arrested and they are not healthy specimens of the species. Their influence can be deadly if it is combined with authoritarianism and dominance.  They hold on to power because people don't think and those who think are considered to be dangerous.  Evil human behavior results from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem... Human behaviour becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking... evil results from the failure to realize life...failure to achieve self-realization...   Evil is derived from the social disorder of disordered societies.  Evil results from the failure to realize human potential: The 'evil' of human nature results from the failure of the human being to achieve self-actualization - realization of human potential - the failure to achieve 'humanness'... manifestations of 'evil'...

Traditional psychology which emphasizes the pathologies, neuroses and psychoses provides abundant evidence that human acts of wickedness are symptoms of emotional disturbance and suffering resulting from the frustration of the natural development of the human conscience.

Developed conscience is source of empowerment required for adaptation to changing conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is compromised with sense of powerlessness - the source of negative emotions leading to 'sham dominance'... 'will to power'... characteristics of neurotic growth or 'neurosis'.

The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization. ...incomplete psychological development results in incomplete development of the human conscience.. neurosis...neurotic behavior is immoral ...neurosis represents a moral problem. The failure to achieve maturity - integration of the whole personality is a moral failure. Frustration of human growth as source of human neurosis and human wickedness. Evil has no independent existence of its own. What is the source of evil?

"The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization." Erich Fromm Values, Psychology, and Human Existence in Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper, 1959)

 The actualisation of a potentiality depends on the presence of certain conditions...the concept of potentiality has no meaning except in connection with the specific conditions required for actualisation. If the proper conditions are present, the 'primary' potentiality is actualized ('good') and if the present conditions are in contrast to those required by the primary potentiality, then the 'secondary' potentiality is realized. The primary potentiality is manifested under normal conditions. The 'secondary' potentiality is manifested under abnormal, pathogenic conditions... man is not necessarily evil but becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The human organism has a 'natural personality' which is not 'evil'...basically good... feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behavior. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'overcompensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem.The feelings of 'sham dominance' lead to domineering attitudes which result in wicked human behavior...manifestations of 'evil'...

'Evil' human behavior is a function of immature, neurotic behavior. The problems of immaturity and neurosis are directly related to undeveloped conscience and immorality. Evil behavior results from the failure to achieve maturity, integration of the whole personality, 'wholeness', self-actualization, realization of human potential, the failure to become 'human', to achieve 'humanness'.  Incomplete psychological development means incomplete development of the conscience. Instead of the natural wholistic perception of reality of complete cognition, the dichotomous perception of reality (perception of dichotomies) 'incomplete cognition' of immaturity and neurosis... results in evil behavio

the individual who denies to awareness ...represses... large areas of his experience... then his creative formings become pathological... socially evil. .. 'Evil' behavior is the manifestation of psychopathology (psychological ill health, psychosis). Thwarted psychological development: The problem of 'evil' and 'evil' behavior is the manifestation of psychopathology... attractiveness of psychopathology ...power for the immature and insecure, the incompletely developed...The neurotic personality depends on political power of control over others...

the problem of what stands in the way of growth...problem of 'evil'. . what is the cause of evil human behavior? ..what is the source of evil? ...'evil' is identified with the wickedness of human behavior...human behavior becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking....derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem.... evil results from the failure to realize life... Hatred and fear result from emotional immaturity and psychological ill health.... disciplinary measures are injurious to growth ....result of discipline is the thwarting of natural human development which requires favorable conditions...

 "The actualization of a potentiality depends on the presence of certain conditions...the concept of potentiality has no meaning except in connection with the specific conditions required for actualization... ( If the proper conditions are present, the 'primary' potentiality is actualized ('good' and if the present conditions are in contrast to those required by the primary potentiality, then the 'secondary' potentiality is realized. (the socalled 'evil' aspect of  human nature) The primary potentiality is manifested under normal conditions. The 'secondary' potentiality is manifested under abnormal, pathogenic conditions." (Erich Fromm p. 217)

Wicked acts are willful acts of the irrational conscience.... a characteristic of frustrated growth... immature neurotic growth or 'neurosis'.  

 "To the extent that the individual is denying to awareness (repressing) large areas of his experience, then his creative formings may be pathological, or socially evil or both. To the degree that the individual is open to all aspects of his experience, and has available to his awareness all the varied sensings and perceivings which are going on within his organism, then the novel products of his interaction with his environment will tend to be constructive both for himself and others.... Repressing an impulse means removing it from awareness but it does not mean removing it from existence. Freud has shown that the repressed impulse continues to operate and to exercise a profound influence upon the person although the person is not aware of it. The effect of the repressed impulse on the person is not even necessarily smaller than if it were conscious; the main difference is that it is not acted upon overtly but in disguise, so that the person acting is spared the knowledge of what he is doing." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press 1961. 352)

TOLERATION noun, TO TOLERATE verb (from Latin 'toleratus' pp. of tolerare, to bear, sustain) To tolerate means 'to not interfere with'; allow; permit; recognize and resopect other people's beliefs without sharing them. According to Voltaire, "Toleration is the right of mankind. Since we are all of us weak and make mistakes we should forgive one another's foolish actions. This is the first law of nature. Anyone who persecutes someone else because he does not agree with him is a monster....we should forgive each other our errors. Quarreling is the greatest evil of mankind and toleration is the only remedy forit. Everyone agrees with this in theory. Why do they not practise toleration. The answer is because they make self-interest their god. They believe their power rests on the ignorance and stupidity of others."

 "The problem of psychic health and neurosis is inseparably linked up with that of ethics. It may be said that every neurosis represents a moral problem. The failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality is a moral failure." (Fromm Man For Himself page 224)

Thwarted development produces irrational conscience. Development of the conscience is thwarted when harmful factors stand in the way of growth. In the absence of the security of unconditional love, the individual learns to dread the environment and perceives it be a threat to growth. They develop immature emotional reactions of insecurity - fear and hatred. These irrational feelings dominate the individual's behaviour while large areas of experience are repressed. The result is emotional immaturity and low self-esteem which has a crippling effect on further psychological growth. If psychological development is arrested the individual is motivated by the deficiency of basic psychological needs i.e. deficiency or 'deficit motivation'. Deficit motivation results in neurotic growth or 'neurosis'. The immaturity of neurosis is directly related to the immorality of undeveloped conscience and is thus inseparably linked with lack of ethics or 'evil'. The source of neurosis is the same as the source of evil. Both neurosis and evil are products of the immaturity and spiritual poverty which results from thwarted psychological development and the frustration of spiritual growth. The incomplete development of neurotic growth leads to unethical behaviour and human wickedness. For this reason, every neurosis represents a moral problem.

Human behaviour which is evil is neurotic behaviour and as neurotic behaviour originates in the undeveloped and irrational human conscience.

The neurotic individual avoids spiritual growth The neurotic individual is unable to experience the complete or 'wholistic' cognition for correct evaluation of the social reality and engages in ego-centered mental processing which creates a distortion in perception and dichotomizes reality. The dichotomous perception of reality leads to the perception of social problems in terms of good/bad, true/false judgements - the characteristic 'incomplete cognition' of social adaptation which depends on attitudes of over-defensiveness. For the immature and insecure neurotic mind spiritual growth is painful. The individual will attempt to avoid at all costs the pain of self-awareness and will take any action in their power to do so. In their efforts to preserve unawareness while enhancing their ability to adapt to changing social conditions, they will develop pathological defensive strategies of evasion, fixation and regression. Creative energies will be channelled into pathological attitudes of domination - 'compensatory dominance' - in order to compensate for the lack of self-esteem and to preserve the integrity of the undeveloped conscience. With the continued repression of experience, the feelings of compensatory dominance become exaggerated or 'overcompensatory'. Feelings of overcompensatory dominance lead to the pretentious and arrogant attitudes of a 'sham dominance'. It is the sham dominance of the ego-centered neurotic mind which is responsible for the wickedness of human behaviour or 'evil'. The overdefensive individual becomes obsessional, controlling and self-controlling, resorting to power politics of control which violate and destroy the rights of other human beings. The normal qualities of enthusiasm, impulsiveness, whimsicality, and unpredictability are perceived as the lack of control and attempts will be made to destroy these qualities whenever possible.

 The neurotic individual feels threatened by the love and the goodness in others around them... they will even try to destroy the light in their own children - not with conscious malice but blindly.  

 "We must also face squarely the problem of what stands in the way of growth - evasion fixation, regression, defensiveness - the attractiveness of psychopathology i.e. and the so-called problem of 'evil'." (Erich Fromm)

 "The actualization of a potentiality depends on the presence of certain conditions... the concept of potentiality has no meaning except in connection with the specific conditions required for actualization. If the proper conditions are present, the 'primary' potentiality is actualized ('good') and if the present conditions are in contrast to those required by the primary potentiality, then the 'secondary' potentiality is realized. The primary potentiality is manifested under normal conditions. The 'secondary' potentiality is manifested under abnormal, pathogenic conditions... man is not necessarily evil but becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The human organism has a 'natural personality' which is not 'evil'...feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behavior. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'overcompensatory'. The feelings of sham dominance lead to domineering attitudes which result in wicked human behavior...manifestations of 'evil'...

Implications for education Many neurotic conflicts are ultimately determined by educational policy of parenting and schooling within the context of social and cultural conditions. Disordered societies which deny an education providing the conditions which are favorable for spiritual growth create conditions for the neurotic growth of children into disordered adults. They become socially evil as a result of the frustration of their efforts for normal growth. Normal growth is hampered when the basis for the education which is offered is discipline and punishment. Punishment of children develops irrrational emotions of fear and hatred leading to neurotic growth and the prevention of learning from experience and so contributes to the failure of social development. The resulting inability for social adaptation leads to pathological reactions of frustration and destructiveness. Human acts of destruction and evil are the product of continued frustration of the intrinsic human need for spiritual growth. 'holistic education'

Normal spiritual growth and the avoidance of evil depends on an education which provides for complete human development and the realization of human potential i.e. 'self-actualisation'

 Social evils are products of incomplete human development i.e. intellectual, psychological, emotional development and development of conscience. metaneeds... Basic human nature i.e. the 'intrinsic conscience' is made up of inborn capacities and preferences, psychological needs and yearnings of spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'.

 But development of the conscience and human goodness requires favorable conditions in the context of psychological security which is communicated through unconditional love.

 

 Scott Peck on 'evil': The Road Less Travelled pp 265-268

"The problem of evil is perhaps the greatest of all theological problems. Yet as with so many other 'religious' issues, the science of psychology has acted, with few minor exceptions, as if evil did not exist. Potentially however, psychology has much to contribute to the subject... four conclusions I have reached concerning the nature of evil.

First... Evil is real. It is not the figment of the imagination of  a primitive mind feebly attempting to explain the unknown. there really are people and institutions made up of people who respond with hatred in the presnce of goodness, and would destroy the good insofar as it is in their power to do so.They do this not with conscious malice but blindly, lacking awareness of their own evil, indeed seeking to avoid any such awareness. As has been described of the devil in religious literature, they hate the light and instinctively will do anything to avoid it, including attempting to extinguish it. They will destroy the light in their own children and in all other beings subject to their power. Evil people hate the light because it reveals themselves to themselves. They hate goodness because it reveals their badness; they hate love because it reveals their laziness.They willl destroy the light, the goodness, the love, in order to avoid the pain of such self-awareness.

Second... Evil is laziness carried to its ultimate extraordinary extreme. As I have defined it, love is the antithesis of laziness. Ordinary laziness is a passive failure to love. Some ordinarily lazy people may not lift a finger to extend themselves unless they are compelled to do so. Their being is a manifestation of nonlove; still they are not evil.Truly evil people, on the other hand, actively rather than passively avoid extending themselves.They will take any action within their power to protect their own laziness, to preserve the integrity of their sick self. Rather than nurturing others, they will actually destroy others in this cause. If necessary, they will even kill to escape the pain of their own spiritual growth. As the integrity of their sick self is threatened by the spiritual health of those around them they will seek by all manner of means to crush and demolish the spiritual health that may exist near them. I define evil then, as  the exercise of political power- that is the imposition of one's will upon others by overt or covert coercion - in order to avoid extending oneself for the purpose of nurturing spiritual growth. Ordinary laziness is nonlove; evil is antilove.

Third... The existence of evil is inevitable, at least at this stage of human evolution. Given the force of entropy and the fact that humans possess free will, it is inevitable that laziness will be well contained in some and completely uncontained in others. As entropy on the one hand, and the evolutionary flow of love on the other, are opposing forces, it is ony natural that these forces will be relatively in balance in most people, while a few at one extreme will manifest pure love, and a few at the other extreme pure entropy or evil, they are conflicting forces, it is also inevitable that those at the extremes will be locked in combat; it is as natural for evil to hate goodness as it is for goodness to hate evil.

Fourth... While entropy is an enormous force, in its most extreme form of human evil, it is strangely ineffective as a social force. I myself have witnessed evil in action, viciously attacking and effectively destroying the spirits and minds of dozens of children. But evil backfires in the big picture of human evolution. For every soul it destroys, it is instrumental in the salvation of others. Unwittingly evil serves as a beacon to warn others away from its shoals. Because most of us  have been graced by an almost instinctive sense of horror at the outrageousness of evil, when we recognize its presence our ownpersonalities are honed by the awareness of its existence. Our consciousness of it is a signal to purify ourselves . It was evil for instance that raised Christ to the cross thereby enabling us to see him from afar. Our personal involvement in the fight against evil in the world is one of the ways we grow."

 Traditional psychology provides abundant evidence that human acts of wickedness are symptoms of emotional disturbance and suffering resulting from the frustration of the natural development of the human conscience. Traditional psychology emphasizes the pathologies, neuroses and psychoses.

"The overemphasis of traditional psychology on the pathologies, neuroses, psychoses etc. has provided abundant evidence that men's bad and evil behavior results from frustration in his efforts toward self-actualization." Erich Fromm Values, Psychology, and Human Existence in Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper, 1959) Evil is the result of denial or frustration of human needs, capacities and yearnings ...failure to realise human potential... failure to adapt to the complexities of a changing social reality  ... failure of complete human development i.e. 'neurosis'. 

 "The actualization of a potentiality depends on the presence of certain conditions... the concept of potentiality has no meaning except in connection with the specific conditions required for actualization. If the proper conditions are present, the 'primary' potentiality is actualized ('good') and if the present conditions are in contrast to those required by the primary potentiality, then the 'secondary' potentiality is realized. The primary potentiality is manifested under normal conditions. The 'secondary' potentiality is manifested under abnormal, pathogenic conditions... man is not necessarily evil but becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The human organism has a 'natural personality' which is not 'evil'...feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behavior. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'overcompensatory'. The feelings of sham dominance lead to domineering attitudes which result in wicked human behavior...manifestations of 'evil'..."  (Fromm) 

The source of evil as 'human wickedness' is irrational conscience  Wicked acts are willful acts of the irrational conscience.... a characteristic of frustrated growth... immature neurotic growth or 'neurosis'.  

 For the neurotic individual one of the most difficult problems is deciding the extent of their responsibilities. Immaturity of conscience ca n result in behaviour for which the individual finds it too painful to decide on the extent of their responsibility and so will avoid it altogether. And they will perceive freedom  as painful since that implies responsibility as well. The inability to accept both freedom and responsibility leads to the incapacity for creative and adaptive decision-making and to the decline in self-reliance and a predominance of  negative  emotions such as fear and hatred. As a result the individual resorts to methods of power politics and control – methods which violate the rights of others. The controlling behaviour of the immature conscience results in the  destructiveness of human wickedness or ‘evil’.

Pathological behaviours are variations of normal human behaviours. An investigation into abnormal developmental processes produces insights into normal human development. All behavioural reactions, whether normal or abnormal, are expressions of the individual's attempt to deal with demands of a changing social environment. They all represent psychological  solutions to problems of social adaptation and preservation of personal integrity. Reactions to social change are based on intrinsic human needs or 'operative values'. Operative values are the biologically based instinctive values which are inherent in the organism's instinctive striving towards spiritual maturity... 'self-actualisation'... and depends on fulfillment of value-needs - moral or 'ethical' values i.e. metavalues or 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are spiritual needs which make up the inner core of human nature. In the presence of spiritual values, the individual invests their constructive energies in the realization of their human potential i.e. self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Growth depends on one's assuming of responsibility for oneself... truthfulness to oneself.

They must be met for the individual to avoid the psychopathology of dehumanisation which results from thwarted psychic development i.e. neurotic development or 'neurosis'.

Motivation by the metaneeds i.e. 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is motivation for spiritual growth and moral consciousness.   It is the socially unadaptive behaviour which constitutes wickedness of human behaviour or 'evil'.  

 Evil is a product of education which inhibits spiritual growth to maturity of conscience.             

In the first of the six moral stages or 'sociocognitive stages', moral value is defined in terms of obedience to authority and the avoidance of punishment (age 3). In the absence of the right conditions for continued moral development (security of unconditional love) and under conditions of intense emotional pressure (abuse, punishment, neglect etc.) the construction of conscience is determined by the friendly or unfriendly reactions of significant adults on whom the child depends for faith in their potential for growth. The fear of disapproval and the need for approval becomes the most powerful and almost exclusive source of motivation for ethical judgement and behaviour. The individual learns to differentiate between 'right' and 'wrong', 'good' and 'bad' even before learning to understand the difference by way of a process of reasoning or 'rationality'. Discouragement of rationality leads to mistrust in their own persistence for spiritual growth. The inherent potentialites are stifled and they fail to develop into manifest characteristics. The individual develops to adulthood with the deficiencies of 'immaturity'.