link: neurosis

                        

                                                     FAILURE OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT NEUROTIC GROWTH OR 'NEUROSIS' 

 

theme: Insights into normal psychological development can be produced from investigation into abnormal or 'pathological' processes. All behavioural reactions, whether normal or pathological, represent psychological solutions to problems of social adaptation and preservation of personal integrity. They are all expressions of the individual's attempt to deal with the demands of a changing social environment i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptive behaviour is creative or 'moral' behaviour. Human morality is a function of the complete development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Rational conscience which allows for the accurate perception of the social reality is a function of correct perception of the self i.e. 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge depends on the provision of social conditions ('education') which integrates the moral or 'spiritual' dimension of 'ego-transcendance' with other dimensions of the human personality or 'human nature' i.e. integral education or 'holistic education'. Holistic education for development of the person as a whole is based on respect for human developmental needs including spiritual needs for 'moral development' i.e. 'metaneeds'. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is inhibited in a social environment which ignores the metaneeds. The  result is the obstruction of normal psychological development and the progression of a pathological process of neurotic development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis is a distorted variation of normal human development involving distorted perception or 'perception problem' which leads to incorrect evaluations of environmental conditions and subsequent inadaptive behavioural reactions leading to the destructive behaviour of human wickedness or 'evil'.

"The neurotic process is a special form of human development, and because of the waste of constructive energies which it involves - is a particularly unfortunate one. Under favorable conditions, man's energies are put into the realisation of his own potentialities." (Karen Horney M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1956. p.13) see New Ways in Psychoanalysis)      

"The mind which is neurotic or psychotic is one that has linked itself to an environment not really there: its responses are to fantasies and illusions - to dangers that are the projections of its own fears; to slights that are the projections of its own self-doubtings. The life that is rich and happy is one that is fulfilling its possibilities through creative linkages with reality" (Overstreet The Maturing Mind)

Subconscious failings of personality which persist in the adult life of the parents will be in opposition to the emergence of their children's true nature.... 'human nature'.

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the human organism as a social or 'moral' organism... human growth is moral growth or 'spiritual growth'...

neurosis as a deficiency disease...   neurotic needs...

neurosis as a moral failure...   deprivation of spiritual values necessary for development of conscience...

 conflicts of neurosis are based on conflicting forces in the environment which lead to inhibition of psychological development...   psychosis...

implications for education...   experiential richness should be 'teachable'...

 The human organism is a social organism which depends on morality for social adaptation i.e. 'adaptability'.  The human organism is a social organism with a social brain. The human brain reacts to social change on the basis of biologically based motives for behaviour i.e. 'human needs'. The human needs include the spiritual needs - the growth needs or 'metaneeds' as well as the basic psychological needs for security and self-esteem - the 'ego' needs, and the obvious physiological needs. Security and self-esteem needs are more urgent or 'prepotent' to the growth needs. (The child will give up growth to retain security). The human needs are instinctive 'values' by which the organism operates in its intrinsic striving for mature growth for self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Human needs are 'operative values' which make up the inner core of the human personality or 'human nature'. The metaneeds are 'metavalues' or 'being-values' - the moral or 'ethical' or spiritual values of truth, justice, beauty, 'unconditional love' and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds is 'metamotivation'. With  respect for the metaneeds for spiritual growth, the individual is motivated to remain truthful to themselves, to assume  responsibility for their own growth and to invest their constructive energies into the realisation of their human potential.

".... man by his very nature and of his own accord strives toward self-realisation, and his set of values derives from such striving." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself).

 Human growth is moral growth or 'spiritual growth' involving development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Complete development of the human conscience... the human 'spirit'... is a function of 'moral development'. The extent of moral development determines the extent to which the individual is able to adapt to changing social conditions i.e. 'adaptability'. Human adaptability is the most effective at the highest levels of personality and cultural development which a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which can be described in terms of the being-Values or 'ultimate values' of self-transcendance. Being values are the guiding values for solving the problems of life i.e. 'natural ethics' of human morality. Morality is responsibility for growth and responsibility for growth is a function of responsibility for human needs or 'values' which derive from the instrinsic striving for self-actualisation. Morality is a product of  'spiritual richness' and positive attitudes which lead to creative strategies of problem-solving. All the person's energy is focused on what they want to achieve. Their creative accomplishments enhance their own welfare and happiness as well as that of others. 

If psychic development is thwarted then spiritual growth is inhibited, the conscience is deformed and the individual is dehumanised. The result is mental imbalance of psychopathology of neurotic development or 'neurosis' . 

  Neurosis is  a deficiency disease. .. 'deficiency motivation' or 'deficit motivation'... The term 'neurosis' - from Greek 'neuron' for nerve and 'osis' for diseased or abnormal - was coined by Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769. Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, believed that the mental conflicts of neurosis were fundamental conflicts arising from biological foundations of the human personality or 'human nature'. Freud's understanding of neurosis was based on his pessimistic outlook on human nature which was in keeping with the general thinking of his time. He accepted the traditional belief in the individual's basic 'moral depravity'. He believed that each individual is naturally antisocial with antisocial instincts which had to be controlled. The so-called 'antisocial instincts' are in fact not instincts at all but symptoms of neurosis as a pathological process of human development... The neurotic process is a form of hampered human development and involves a waste of constructive energies.

  Conditions of extreme emotional stress in children can lead to their alienation from themselves resulting in a shift of energies in an attempt to mold their character into an ideal self-image which they create for themselves. In this way they develop a conscience which is a distortion of the rational conscience of humanisation i.e. deformed conscience or 'authoritarian conscience'. The authoritarian conscience has an inhibitory effect on psychological development and the result is immature growth of neurosis and  spiritual poverty which produces immoral or 'unethical' behaviour. The individual potentially compromises whatever they may truly want for the sake of safety and security and illusory sense of peace. They focus their energies on what they don't want designing strategies to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances... 'defensive strategies'... as well as longer range strategies to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place... 'pre-emptive strike'. They are forced to take action only when external or internal stimuli deriving from overwhelming circumstances - 'circumstantial stimuli' - evoke spontaneous reactions or so-called 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive character orientation' of failed moral development and the creation of neurotic conflicts.

"Under inner stress, a person may become alienated from his real self. He will then shift the major part of his energies to the task of molding himself, by a rigid system of inner dicates into a being of absolute perfection. He idealizes the image he has of himself. This neurotic development illustrates the strong human striving for 'perfection'. (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization)

 So-called 'neurotic needs' are essentially exaggerated needs of security and self-esteem or 'ego needs'.

° ... the need to view life from an egocentric viewpoint, as if it is reasonable to assume that it should revolve around the person's own needs even though in reality this is impossible.... the desperate need for acceptance and affection originates from an impoverished emotional environment during childhood.

° ... the need to have control and power over others originating in the controlling environment of childhood.

° ... the need to manipulate others originating in the insensitivity to the person's feelings during childhood. This results in the fear of being manipulated and made to look stupid.

° ... the need to be recognized socially which leads to conscious attempts to be outgoing.

° ... the need to be admired for their own inner qualities... resulting in their unrealistic striving for perfectionism and their fear of being considered unimportant to others.

°  ... the need for personal accomplishment which becomes an obsession... and leads to desire to be in charge of all situations of which they are a part.

°... the need for independence which excludes outside assistance to the extent of discarding those who might have been of use to them previously.

° ... the need to avoid 'failure' originating in the disapproval of failures in childhood.

"The observation and analysis of pathological phenomena... yield greater insight into the processes of the organism than do those of the normal. As long as one regards the pathological simply as curiosa, created by disease, we cannot hope, in studying them, to advance our knowledge of normal phenomena... It has become increasingly evident that pathological phenomena can be recognized as an indication of lawful variations of the normal life process...." (Kurt Goldstein 1995. The Organism: A Holistic Approach to Biology Derived from Pathological Data in Man page 29-30)

Conflicts of neurosis are ultimately determined by conflicting motivational forces in the social environment. The inherent mental conflicts of neurosis are due to the conflicting forces of motivation... cultural attitudes... of the social environment within which the individual is functioning... the family and/or school environment... environmental factors... These  have the effect of inhibiting  psychological development.  Neurosis is basic anxiety which originates in childhood. The conflicts of neurosis are energised by childhood anxieties... anxiety feelings which arise in children whose parents fail to give them genuine warmth and affection... 'unconditional love'... which communicates security... usually because of their own neuroses. Under these conditions the child does not experience the 'blissful certainty of being wanted'. Deprived of unconditional love and instilled with fear through the isolation of overprotectiveness and intimidation of brutality the child does not experience the sense of security which is crucial to their self-esteem. When self-esteem is undermined, the basic anxiety develops undermining self-reliance that is essential for continued healthy psychological growth and development which depends on freedom from anxiety and fear - the pre-requisite to curiosity and exploration for growth through knowledge.

Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth. In the neurotic process, the environment is perceived as a menace to individuality, development, instinctive striving for growth, freedom and happiness. With fear grounded in reality, the basic anxiety develops. The individual attempts to avoid problems and the emotional suffering which they entail. The avoidance of the suffering which comes from dealing with the problem means avoidance of the opportunity for growth which comes from dealing with the problem.

"Neurosis - manifest 'basic anxiety' - derives from environmental factors which obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development". (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 366)

 "Energized by childhood anxieties resulting from obstruction to inner freedom, security and healthy psychological growth, the neuroses of modern industrial man are therefore based on conflicts inherent in our own culture." (Horney, K. The Neurotic Personality of Our Time p.141)

Anxiety feelings result from the deprivation of spiritual values or 'value-starvation'. Spiritual deprivation thwarts the free use of energies in the expansiveness of personality and warps progress of  spiritual growth which is required for the creative ability to deal with life problems... the indivdual lacks the freedom to be independent from obligation to accept the beliefs of others i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom is a function of the complete development of personality integration characerised by critical consciousness or moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience'

In the chronic form of neurosis psychological growth stops as a result of the inhibition of constructive energies involved in metamotivation for normal growth. The chronically neurotic adult is  they cannot separate from the power that their parents have over them. Their continued growth is inhibited through internal repression, denial and negative reaction responses... and they remain children in adult life.

 Essential for normal human growth is love which communicates security or 'unconditional love'.

 "Unconditional love is an essential for the child's normal development, and when this is refused, the environment comes to be dreaded... it is perceived as a menace to his individuality, his development, his instinctive strivings to grow, his freedom and his happiness... In an environment in which the basic anxiety develops, the child's free use of energies is thwarted, his self-esteem and self-relaince are undermined, fear is instilled by intimidation and isolation, his expansiveness is warped through brutality or overprotective 'love'... the fear is grounded in reality. " (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. 1956.)  

 What constitutes 'normality' in moral behaviour is a question of the social environment within which the individual functions i.e. within the cultural context. Behaviour which is regarded as 'normal' in one culture may not be considered normal in another. Acquaintance with different cultures which in many ways is different from one's own teaches that many so-called 'neurotic' conflicts are ultimately determined by social and cultural conditions. In many cases the neuroses of the individual living in modern industrial societies can be attributed to conflicting forces inherent in the culture. The neuroses of modern industrial man are based on conflicts inherent in the culture.

  Neurosis represents failure of moral development and the 'moral failure' of 'adult immaturity'. Failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality, self-actualization, realization of human potential or 'humanness' is a moral failure. Neurosis is the product of frustration of moral development... development of conscience... incomplete psychological development as incomplete integration of the personality. The result is incomplete development of critical consciousness or 'incomplete cognition' resulting in inefficent or 'inappropriate' reaction responses to environmental stimuli. The individual's deformed conscience represents a value system which is so distorted and unbalanced that subsequent behaviour patterns can contradict their own interests as well as the interests of others. They can inflict grave harm on themselves and others as well. Neurotic reactions which constitute attempts to safeguard personal integrity often tend towards destruction of others... the so-called 'death instinct' or 'death drive' of Freud and 'downward union' of Weber.

 The insecurity of neurosis results in tendency to avoid problems ... to avoid the emotional suffering which is inherent in tackling problems. Avoiding problems is avoiding reality, avoiding growth and building fantasies. As a result the neurosis becomes the problem. In avoiding the suffering which comes from dealing with the problem one avoids the oppportunity for growth which also comes from dealing with the problem.

     In failing to develop their potentialities, the neurotic individual fails to achieve maturity and personality integration and consequently critical consciousness and complete cognition of a developed conscience... They suffer from a 'perception problem'.

 Perception of dichotomies is the result of 'incomplete cognition' of the immature or 'neurotic' mind.. product of thwarted human development... incomplete personality integration... incomplete cognition is the ego-centered mental process which perceives dichotomies... distorted neurotic perception of reality  ultimately results from conflicting forces in the social environment... culture

"The problem of psychic health and neurosis is inseparably linked up with that of ethics. It may be said that every neurosis represents a moral problem. The failure to achieve maturity and integration of the whole personality is a moral failure." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself  p.224)

'psychosis'  From the mystical perspective (high stage of psychological development), psychosis defined as being trapped or attached to, any one state of consciousness ... the individual is psychotic if... the psychotic individual ... is trapped in any one state of consciousness which by itself is necessarily limited and therefore only relatively 'real'. From this perspective, the individual in western cultures who is attached to the waking state of consciousness fits the criteria of psychosis. Such an individual's perception of reeality is suboptimal and therefore distorted. Their perception of reality is 'suboptimal' and distorted. Such an individual is ... psychotic...if he does not recognize the distortion our usual state fits all the criteria of psychosis in that it is suboptimal, has a distorted view of reality, and does not recognize that distortion... the individual of western culture who is attached to the waking state of consciousness fits the criteria of psychosis. ... Fully developed mystics state unequivocally that our usual state of consciousness is not only suboptimal, it is dreamlike and illusory... whether we know it or not... are prisoners of our own minds, totally and unwittingly trapped by a continuous fantasy-dialogue that creates an all-consuming illusory distortion of perception of 'reality'. However, this condition goes unrecognized until we begin to subject our perceptual-cognitive processes to rigorous scrutiny such as meditation. The Western pathology of view is to equate 'reality' with the world as perceived in waking state awareness, so denying access or credibility to reality as perceived in other states of consciousness. The multipe-states-of-consciousness model of human psychology involves a wide range of modes of perception. The Western definition of 'psychosis' - having a perception of reality which is suboptimal (not wholistic) and therefore distorted and not recognizing the distortion - is itself psychotic. Based on the assumption that the most 'normal' state of consciousness is the waking state of the ego level, it is suboptimal and distorted and the distortion is not recognized. Psychotic perception produces illusion.

 transference…outdated map of realiity… Revising the map of reality is only possible if has the discipline to overcome the pain. And such discipline depends on total dedication to the truth. Truth is more important than comfort. Truth is avoided when it is painful. Mental health is an ongoing process of dedication to  true reality or ‘truth’.based on his own life which was bound by rules… including your right to be yourself and lead the kind of authentic life that you to lead

 Implications for education Immoral attitudes of parental irresponsibilty obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development...  Education which does not respect psychological growth is irresponsible because it results in the neurotic process of immature development or 'neurosis'. Neurosis originates from the denial and frustration of human needs and leads to incomplete psychological development which is chacterised by incomplete personality integration, value distortion and incomplete cognition of undeveloped conscience. Irresponsible education contradicts the interests of humanity. Humanity is defined by the spiritual values of the 'humaness' of mature adulthood. Children become adults with the attributes of humanity only if they are offered an education which provides for the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' and is therefore conducive to their proper psychological, emotional, intellectual, moral and spiritual development. Experiential richness in principle should be 'teachable.' Education for the person as a whole... personality integration of moral development or 'spiritual development is 'holistic education'. Holistic education is characterised by moral attitudes of responsibility which foster human growth and development... inner freedom as responsible freedom - a function of critical consciousness or moral consciousness i.e. 'conscience'. Developed conscience...  necessary for complete cognition of 'holistic perspective' as integral part of human intelligence...  social intelligence... creative intelligence required for adaptation to  changing environmental conditions i.e. 'adaptability'.

 "Since the spiritual life is instinctoid, all the techniques of 'subjective biology' apply to its education... Obviously instinctive in nature, the basic physiological and psychological needs come under the rubric of 'subjective biology.' The similarly biologically based 'metaneeds' come under the same rubric although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. Consequently the education of the spiritual needs, the 'metaneeds,' can be fostered through the acknowledgement, encouragement and enforcement of the individual's instinctive yearning for truth, beauty etc., the individual's capacity for 'metamotivation'. The individual's capacities for experiential richness should be 'teachable.' It should be possible to design an educational curriculum around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology', the 'metaneeds' as well as the physiological and psychological basic needs. The curriculum would be based on the effective acknowledgement of the instinctive capacities of children for motivation to satisfy the basic needs for self-respect and self-esteem in the attainment of self-actualisation. The curriculum would include possibilities and opportunities for experiential enrichment by way of recognition and enforcement of the instinctive capacities of children for 'metamotivation' to satisfy the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds.'"   (Maslow... no.l0 thesis)

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Personality theories by C. George Boeree see theory of Karen Horney: neurosis is caused by parental indifference, lack of warmth and affection in childhood... a matter of the child's perceptions, not the parents  intentionss. 'The road to hell is paved with good intentions'.The first reaction to parental indifference is anger. Basic hostility the basic coping mechanism or strategy... "if I have power then no one can hurt me" The neurotic swings back and forth between self-hatred and desire for perfection (internal conflict) resulting in alienation from their true human core... the dehumanisation aspect of neurosis.

"DIMENSIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH DICHOTOMY TRANSCENDANCE AS DIMENSION OF MENTAL HEALTH: CONCERNING THE SUPPOSED DICHOTOMY BETWEEN FREEDOM AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY See 'perennial psychology' Dichotomies disappear with increased mental health (tie in with idea of disappearance of the supposed dichotomy between personal freedom and social responsibility.) If the individuals in a society remain attached to that level of consciousness dealing with gratification of physical and emotional needs, then they would perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their responsibility to the society, their social responsibility. If those same individuals' level of consciousness is raised to a healthier state, then they would be motivated by so-called 'higher needs' to serve others and to contribute to society. They would not perceive a dichotomy between personal freedom "to pursue happiness" and their responsibility to society, their social responsibility.
See 'perennial psychology'

HEALTH-ILLNESS DICHOTOMY AND OTHER "SUBJECTIVE DICHOTOMIES."
"At the highest levels of well-being-in the transcendent realms where we experience ouselves as pure awareness transcendant to space, form, and time- very diferent possibilites for describing health become aapparent. This realm is clearly transcendent to any existing concept of health. Like the other subjective dichotomies (personal freedom and social responsibility?), the distinction between health and illness collapses in the deepest levels of being. AS VARIOUS CONSCIOUSNESS DISCIPLINES HAVE MAINTAINED FOR CENTURIES, WHO WE ARE BEHIND OUR ILLUSORY IDENTIFICATIONS IS BEYOND HEALTH AND ILLNESS"

"It follows, then, that the transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being." "A number of seeming paradoxes follow. Because this essential nature of our being continues to exist beyond any illusory constrictive identifactions, it follows that it remains transcendant to the health/illness dichotomy at all times. Thus a movement toward health does not entail changing what we are but rather recognizing what we are. Indeed there is not even any need for movement. As the perennial psychology would have it, "there is nothing to do, nothing to change, nothing to be."
Self-actualizing people perceive many so-called 'problems' as merely pseudoproblems resulting from an ego-centered mental process which dichotomizes and distorts reality. The result is the emergence of problematical false dichotomies such as reason-emotion, mystic-realistic, self-society etc. For the self-actualizing person, false dichotomies can be resolved, "the polarities disappear, and many oppositions thought to be intrinsic merge and coalesce with each other to form unities." "Critical perception obliterates the simplistic dualism that establishes a nonexistent dichotomy between consciousness and the world."
"Through their own efforts people can remake the natural path where consciousness emerges as the capacity for self-perception." Dichotomies of Aristotelian logic are integrated in the wholistic perspective.
A wholistic view of education is based on the elimination of dichotomies such as individual/society. Wholistic education based on the biologically based needs and metaneeds of the individual automatically accomodates the needs of the society.


"It is the dichotomized, solely abstract knowledge that is so dangerous, the abstractions and the systems that are opposed to or dichotomized from experiental knowledge instead of being built upon it and integrated with it. ...abstract knowledge dichotomized from experiential knowledge is false and dangerous; but abstract knowledge built upon and hierarchically integrated with experiential knowledge is a necessity for human life."
Taoistic science involves receptive contemplation - nonactive, noninterfering witnessing and savoring of the experience and the 'realness' of nature.
DICHOTAMOUS PERCEPTION OF REALITY RESULTS FROM ABSTRACTION FROM REALITY... DIVORCE OF REALITY FROM THEORY RESULTS IN FALSE DICHOTAMOUS PERCEPTION. The opposite is integration of theory with reality 'praxis' first define reality as ultimate reality not reality perceived with distorted dichotamous perceoption reality is a result of perception...if the perception is distorted then the perceiver's 'reality ' is distorted.. not perceiving the distortion of his own distorted perception the perceiver is psychotic.

DICHOToMOUS PERCEPTION OF "REALITY" IS RESULT OF CATEGORY ERROR. ...PERCEIVING OPPOSITE CHARACTERS AS SEPARATE CATEGORIES WHEN IN FACT THEY ARE THE "EXTREME POLES OF A SINGLE WHOLE CYCLE" PLACING THINGS IN SEPARATE CATEGORIES WHEN THEY ARE IN FACT OPPOSITE POLES OF A WHOLE CYCLE OF CHANGE IS CALLED MAKING "CATEGORY ERROR".
WHOLISTIC PERCEPTION OF REALITY "The Chinese philosophers saw reality, whose ultimate essence they called Tao, as a process of continual flow and change. In their view all phenomena we observe participate in this cosmic process and are thus intrinsically dynamic. The principal characteristic of the Tao is the cyclical nature of its ceaseless motion; all developments in nature-those in the physical world as well as those in the psychological and social realms-show cyclical patterns. e by introducing In the Chinese view, all manifestations of the Tao are generated by the dynamic interplay of these two archetypal poles, which are associated with many images of opposites taken from nature and from social life. It is important, and very difficult for us Westerners, to understand that these opposites do not belong to different categories but are extreme poles of a single whole. Nothing is only yin or only yang. All natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous oscillation between the two poles, all transitions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. The natural order is one of dynamic balance between yin and yang.
TAO THE ULTIMATE ESSENCE OF REALITY ..."ULTIMATE REALITY"
all observed phenomena are intrinsically dynamic ...ceqaseless motion...because they participate in a cosmic process of continual flow and change...all developments in nature - social and psychological as well as physical - show cyclical patterns...The Chinese gave this idea of cyclical patterns a definite structure...the two poles that set the limits for the cycles of change...the polar opposites...they called 'yin' and 'yang'...the yang reaches its climax ...retreats in favor of the yin.... the yin having reached its climax retreats in favor of the yang.' The polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang' are the extreme poles of a single whole cycle; they are not two separate categories.

In the Chinese view, all manifestations of the Tao are generated by the dynamic interplay of these two archetypal poles, which are associated with many images of opposites taken from nature and from social life.

It is important, and very difficult for us Westerners, to understand that these opposites do not belong to different categories but are extreme poles of a single whole. Nothing is only yin or only yang. All natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous oscillation between the two poles, all transitions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. The natural order is one of dynamic balance between yin and yang." The polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang' are the extreme poles of a single whole cycle; they are not two separate categories....PUTTING THEM INTO SEPARATE CATEGORIES IS CALLED "CATEGORY ERROR" ...THE RESULT OF CATEGORY ERROR IS PERCEPTION OF OPPOSITES...PERCEPTION OF DICHOTOMY...DICHOTAMOUS PERCEPTION...LIMITED COGNITION OR PERCEPTION...NOT WHOLISTIC ACCURATE PERCEPTION OF REALITY BUT INNACURATE LIMITED DICHOTAMOUS
PERCEPTION OF REALITY ...IF THE INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT "SEE" THE CATEGORY ERROR AND THINKS AND BEHAVES ACCORDING TO THE INNACURATE DISTORTED DICHOTAMPUS PERCEPTION.. THE RESULT IS BEHAVIOR WHICH IS NON_ADAPTIVE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL AND FOR THE SPECIES.

KNOWLEDGE THROUGH BEING LOVE:"The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?"
both orthodox science and orthodox religion have been institutionalized and frozen into a mutually excluding dichotomy. This separation into Aristotelian a and not-a has been almost perfect...every jurisdiction, every task has been assigned to either one or the other...one consequence is that they are both pathologized ...ripped apart into a crippled half-science and a crippled half-religion...the most important parceling out of jurisdictions is that science has nothing to do with values. Orthodox science has been defined as 'value - free'. The situation is even worse than it was during the Renaissance, because more recently all the value fields - humanities and arts - have been included in this world of nonscience i.e. of the unscientific. Science began originally as a determination to rely on one's own eyes instead of on the ancients or upon ecclesiastical authority or pure logic. It was originally just a kind of looking for oneself rather than trusting anyone else's preconceived ideas. Orthodox science today attempts to be free not only of values but of emotions... The unquestioned assumption that 'cool' perceiving and neutral thinking (without emotion) are best for discovering any kind of scientific truth...An important by-product of this dichotomizing is the desacralizing of science, the banishment of all the experiences of transcendence from the realm of the respectably known and the respectably knowable, and the denial of a systematic place in science for awe, wonder, mystery, ecstasy, beauty, and peak experiences.The book (Editor Abraham Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959) is an elaboration of a paper read at a meeting of the John Dewey society and a "continuation of Motivation and Personality - especially the first three chapters." "It was primarily the physicists and the astronomers who created the Weltanschauiung and the subculture known as Science (including all its goals, methoids, axiomatic values, concepts, languages, folkways, prejudices, selective blindnesses, hidden assumptions). ...the impersonal model failed with the personal, the unique, the holistic....the fully human person" fatal weakness of science is its inability to deal impersonally with the personal, with the problems of value, of individuality, of consciousness, of beauty, of transcendance, of ethics.(Arthur Wirth. Forward xiii)


Science is about 'truth'. "Science is in the service of a value and so are all scientists." (See Bronowski, J.1. The Common Sense of Science. London: Heinemann, 1951. 2. Science and Human Values. New York: Harper and Row, 1956. 3. "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959.)
Discussion of 'truth': Maslow, A.H. "Notes on Being-Psychology," Journal Humanistic Psychology, II (1962), 47-71)

"Several traditions make the suggestions that attachment (addiction) to having one's needs gratified is the source of suffering and that highly developed individuals are likely to be motivated by a desire to contribute to and serve others. Health might thus be associated with fewer attachments and a higher ratio of service-oriented versus egocentric behaviour. Although they do not necessarily fit neatly into any particular formal model, various other qualities have been widely assumed to be characteristic of optimal mental health. These include the recognition that one is responsible for, and the source of, one's experience and one's sense of well-being; greater sensitivity towards others as manifested by enhanced love, compassion, empathy, and generosity; an appreciation of the awesomeness and mystery of life shown by attitudes of reverence, gratitude, wonder and ecological sensitivity; and a wholehearted participation in life, opening fully to the joys as well as to the sorrows of the human condition."A number of seeming paradoxes follow. Because this essential nature of our being continues to exist beyond any illusory constrictive identifactions, it follows that it remains transcendant to the health/illness dichotomy at all times. Thus a movement toward health does not entail changing what we are but rather recognizing what we are. Indeed there is not even any need for movement. As the perennial psychology would have it, "there is nothing to do, nothing to change, nothing to be.
"It follows, then, that the transpersonal perspective on the quest for psychological well-being is very different from the traditional Western view. Changes in behaviour, thought, affect, and personality are seen not only as goals in themselves but also as means to facilitate awareness of transcendant dimensions of being."

Anxiety disorders are usually accompanied by a variety of defense mechanisms which are use in the person's effort to overcome anxiety.

Pathological emotional dysfunction...  'psychosis'... 'psychopathology'...  Dr. Robeet Hare  Without Conscience  published 1999