Human motvations for growth: spiritual needs or metaneeds

The well developed and balanced personality is motivated by the growth needs or 'metaneeds' of the value-life. The value-life... spiritual, religious, philosophical, aesthetic... is an aspect of human nature.

 The human motivations are intrinsic biological 'needs' essential for successful socialisation and assimilation. Intrinsic human needs include the physiological needs, the basic psychological needs, and the 'higher' psychological needs, the spiritual needs known as the 'growth needs' or 'metaneeds'.

   The human value life is an aspect of biology. The human organism is a social organism which depends on 'values for living' or 'human values' for the successful adaptation to a changing social environment... preservation of the interconnectedness of human beings... i.e. social cooperation or 'socialisation'. Effective socialisation depends on the biologically functional spiritual equipment of human spirituality. Human spirituality is a function of normal personality development in the unfolding of human potential 'self-actualisation'... depends on activation of motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'.  Human needs include not only the obvious physiological needs for survival of the organism and the species but also the basic psychological 'ego needs' and the 'higher psychological needs' - the spiritual needs for growth or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds function in the complete development of full humanisation... defined human spirituality  by spiritual values of truth, beauty, justice, wisdom, universal love and so on.

  "How is growth accomplished? Through a series of changes. Without change there can be no development. And indeed, the most characteristic quality of life as we know it is change. Life is eternally changing, and the inevitable flow of life from one event or state to another is an eternal truth ." (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l974" page l19                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                

human organism as social organism...  

physiological needs...   basic psychological needs...   higher psychological needs: growth needs or 'spiritual needs'...

biological function of the metaneeds...

repression of metaneeds inhibits growth...

implications for education...

references...

 The human organism is a social organism with a social brain  instinctively motivated to relate to others - to 'socialise' and to 'assimilate' - in order to acquire the things which it needs for work and for defense. Motivations for successful socialisation and assimilation are intrinsic to the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of biologically based or 'instinctive' motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. Intrinsic human needs include the physiological needs, the basic psychological needs, and the 'higher' psychological needs, the spiritual needs - the growth needs of the highest consciousness state or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds... core of social values or 'virtues'.

Physiological needs include the needs for the survival of the species as well as the survival of the individual organism. The physiological needs for the survival of the human species are the needs associated with reproduction of the organism. The physiological needs for the survival of the human organism are the needs connected with hunger and thirst - the needs for food and water.

Physiological needs are obviously instinctive in nature... include the needs for the survival of the species as well as the survival of the individual organism. The physiological needs survival needs of the organism... protection, food, water and so on.... survival of the species... the needs associated with reproduction of the organism.

 Basic psychological needs include the need for personality development which is requisite to a sense of belongingness in the society. The psychological needs for personality development are the needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and belongingness ...have a biological basis... they are instinctive... The basic psychological needs - the 'deficiency needs' - for self-respect and self-esteem provide the conditions for psychological growth.

Basic psychological needs are also instinctive in nature...'security needs', 'belongingness needs'... needs for self respect and self esteem i.e. 'ego needs':  The basic psychological needs are the needs for love, affection and belongingness. These needs must be gratified in order for a person to achieve the basic sense of worthiness and purpose which are the prerequisite conditions for full personality development ...social intelligence and a sense of belongingness in the society. When the basic psychological needs are met, the individual becomes a fully developed personality - a 'mature' personality. If the basic psychological needs - sometimes called the 'deficiency needs' are not met, they become more urgent than the needs for continued psychological development - the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'.  Motivation by the deficiency needs - so-called 'deficiency motivation' - becomes more predominant than motivation by the growth needs - so-called 'growth motivation' for maturity or 'metamotivation'.

The basic psychological needs are the instinctive needs for the self-respect and self-esteem which provide the conditions for psychological growth and full personality development....  The most urgent or 'prepotent' is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety i.e. the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs which includes the need to strive for  perfection or 'ideals' is communicated through loving care and affection of 'unconditional love' i.e. the need for 'belongingness'. The sense of belongingness is the basis for approval of one's identity and expectations for oneself - faith in oneself as 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem' i.e. the 'ego needs'. Gratification of ego needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or 'healthy ego'. The healthy ego involves a high evaluation of the self based on faith in one's potentialities, recognition and appreciation of one's personal achievements, competence and confidence in the sense of importance of one's status. This basic sense of worthiness leads to the sense of purpose - 'self-directedness' or 'self-discipline' - which is prerequisite to 'spiritual growth' of complete 'personality development' of maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation. Self-actualisation is mature growth which involves the harmonising of psychic forces i.e.'growth motivation'. Growth motivation is the basis for 'individuality' which increases autonomy and independence of the environment i.e. 'true freedom'.

 The basic psychological needs are requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations and are known as 'deficiency needs'. Motivation by the deficiency needs or 'deficiency motivation' is more urgent or 'prepotent' than motivation by the growth needs or 'growth motivation'. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. With a basic sense of worthiness and a sense of purpose, the individual becomes self-disciplined and self-directed towards growth to maturity or 'self-actualization'. The self-actualized individual is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. Self-actualising individuals are motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. The 'metaneeds' of the value-life The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' The B-Values are spiritual values... described as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc.   perfection, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The metaneeds - spiritual, ethical and moral values - along with the basic psychological needs are also instinctive and have a biological basis. They are all components of the biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. 

At the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development, motivation by the metaneeds eliminates the mutual exclusiveness implied in the unnecessary 'dichotomies' such as good/evil, selfish/unselfish, freedom/responsibility. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metaneeds for ego-transcendance are naturally intrinsic to human nature and form the basis of religious and philosophical life. The spiritual life of growth motivation is instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of human nature and its role in human evolution.

Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the homan organism as a social organism. At the highest levels of consciousness - the transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness.

    'Higher psychological needs' for growth: growth needs... spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'

Metaneeds are human motivations for spiritual growth of the human organism as a social organism...subconscious needs for awareness of human values for living: 'social values' or 'human values' Metaneeds are instinctive needs of the human organism as a social organism which depends for survival on human solidarity and social cooperation. Metaneeds are the survival needs of creative  socialisation - the higher psychological needs for personality integration. The metaneeds are the so-called 'higher spiritual needs' - the 'Being needs' ('B-needs') for self-transcendence - the needs for truth, morality, goodness, beauty, perfection, justice, kindness, happiness, serenity, wisdom, love simplicity, lawfulness, and ego-transcendance etc. The metaneeds are equally urgent or 'potent' and each can be defined in terms of the others. In the process of normal psychological growth the subconscious B-needs rise to the conscious level of awareness as the human values for living - the 'social values' i.e. 'Being-values' or 'B-values' i.e. 'human values'. In the transcendental realm, the being needs become the 'being-values'. They are just as biologically based as are the so-called 'lower needs' - the  obviously physiological needs of hunger and thirst. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs. Each of the human values represents a different facet of the development of 'moral conciousness' or 'conscience'. As the source of human values the functions to maintain the integration of personality while adapting to changes in the socal environment. Development of conscience depends on gratification of metaneeds in a process of 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth is a function of motivation by the metaneeds i.e. growth motivation or 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation  is motivation which arises from the 'metaneeds' for the value-life

Metamotivation associated with healthy psychological development is the basis for the individual's objective perception of the social reality...the social reality is perceived independently of distorted perceptions which result from the contaminating effects of human fears and human wishes. This occurs at the highest level of consciousness.

The objective perception of an 'ultimate' reality is described in terms of the ultimate values such as truth, goodness, justice, beauty, and so on... by the same words used to describe the ultimate values. Ultimate reality is described in terms of values-as-facts and facts-as-values.

Metamotivation by the metaneeds of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. ...'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is also biologically based and instinctive. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the avoidance of mental 'illness' or 'metapathology' of dehumanisation... Metamotivation and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy. This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. ...metaneeds and metamotivation.

 For their actualisation, the metaneeds require a growth promoting cultural environment. Metamotivation by the metaneeds can be lost in a cultural environment which denies them acknowledgement as part of human nature. Understanding of the biological nature of the metaneeds is of paramount importance to the education of the human organism. For growth towards fullest humanness, both deficiency needs and growth needs must be met. Deprivation of the metaneeds during development results in value-starvation and leads to value-hunger and dehumanization. The failure to acknowledge the metaneeds for growth constitutes the external cutural force which deprives the individual of conditions essential to personal growth. Resulting internal forces of repression, denial and reaction responses inhibit metamotivation for growth through learning. Recognition, acknowledgement and respect for the instinctive metaneeds as well as the basic psychological needs constitute the external cultural forces which foster metamotivation and growth towards self-actualization and full humanness or 'experiential richness'. The capacity for growth through experiential richness is 'teachable'. It is p

The failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology - the 'metapathologies' - in the same way that the failure to satisfy the basic psychological needs leads to pathologies of  'neurosis'... 'psychosis'.

"...the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organised religions and religious experiences." (Abraham Maslow 'A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life' Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan (eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology

Developmental stage determines motivational type The individual's level of psychological development -'sociocognitive stage' - determines the way in which they perceive their social reality and therefore their capacity for socialisation... their 'motivation'... 'motivational type'.

Development of conscience depends on spiritual growth Metamotivation as the basis for spiritual growth is consistent with education for the individual as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for spiritual freedom as 'inner freedom'. Its aim is to foster growth and development of the human potential for living life according to the human social values which are equivalent to the 'spiritual values' prescribed by the various religions - the instinctive human yearnings for love as 'charity', goodness, truth, perfection, justice, beauty, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendence. Human spiritual values constitute the 'spiritual equipment' of the human organism as a social organism. It is the spiritual equipment which allows for coherence and cooperation within and between social groups thus creating social conditions which are favourable to the resolution of conflict and which therefore guarantees survival. The source of human conflict is the ego-centered dichotomous perception of reality which is subject to the contaminating effects of sorrow, fear, prejudice, hatred - psychological conditions which detract from the human capacity for social adaptability. Social adaptability depends on individual awareness of the social values - metaneeds - at the highest level of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm i.e. ego- or 'self-transcendance'.

Biological function of the metaneeds: social adaptability depends on holistic perception possible in the transcendental level of consciousness  Self-transcendance is the capacity to transcend the ego-centered perception of social reality thereby eliminating the dichotomous perception of mutual exclusiveness such as good vs. evil, male vs. female, selfish vs. unselfish, freedom vs. responsibility and so on. At the 'transcendental level of consciousness' - the highest level of human consciousness - the individual becomes aware of the possibilities of life according to values which guarantee the preservation of interconnectedness of human individuals and human societies. In a process of 'enlightenment' the individual appreciates the 'essence of life' or 'ultimate reality' which replaces the innacurate perception of so-called 'dichotomies' with the accurate perception of complementarities i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception of the social reality is perception in terms of the 'fused unity' of the polar extremes of dichotomies. Holistic perception is  accurate perception of 'complete cognition' or 'Being-cognition which leads to accurate evaluation of the social reality. The capacity for holistic perception depends on the individual's capacity to live beyond the 'limited cognition' of 'ego-centred perception'. Holistic perception is non-judgmental and non-interfering and allows for the comprehensive understanding of others in terms of their own intrinsic qualities. This allows for meaningful interpersonal relations and full functioning within a society and it allows for decision-making behaviour which is socially adaptive or 'intelligent' i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of social awareness or 'social consciousness' - consciousness of social values required for accurate perception and evaluation of complex social realities and subsequent creative or adaptive behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'. Social intelligence is equivalent to 'spiritual intelligence' - the capacity to experience the world through understanding in all its dimensions - intellectually through the rationality of 'reason' and emotionally through the wisdom of care or 'compassion'. Reason and compassion together constitute human solidarity as universal brotherhood or 'spiritual love'. Spiritual love is the instinctive motivation for peace and community as the basis for human civilisation. Human civilisation depends on 'spiritual growth' of 'spiritual maturity' and  'spiritual independence'. Spiritual independence depends on fulfilment of spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds for spiritual growth are the basis for development of the human conscience. Development of the conscience is a function of spiritual growth. Inhibition of spiritual growth leads to uncivilised or 'antisocial behaviour'.

 Transcendental meditation and creative intelligence  The natural tendency of the mind is to move in the direction of greater happiness. (Forem p.36) "The mind's attention naturally shifts to the more enjoyable situation. The technique of transcendental meditation utilizes this natural tendency of the mind to wander in search of fulfillment. Based on the very stucture of life, it is entirely natural. It is a way of "allowing our authentic human nature to express itself, eleased from the bondage of stress and tension, which have nothing to do with what we really are. Stress is not natural to life... Stress can be removed by deep rest such as that obtained in transcendental meditation." 75) Projecting the attention outward through the senses thwarts the mind's natural tendency to shift towards the realm of creative intelligence, the union ('yoga' in Sanscrit) of the never-changing aspect of life (Absolute) and the ever-changing aspect of life (relative). "This integration of life's inner and outer phases is an effortless process, involving neither concentration nor control."(38) "The habit of the mind has been to search outside, to be turned toward external objects of experience in its search for happiness."(37) "The laws of our own nature carry us to our fulfillment."(37) The human being's creative intelligence allows him to live the highest values spontaneoously and naturally. Creative intelligence is the 'spontaneous unfolding of life.' (78) "there is an organismic base for an organized valuing process within the human individual." In accordance with the biological need for self-preservation and adaptation, the human organism has the natural capacity to adjust its behaviour and reactions to a continuously changing environment. Second, "the valuing process in the human being is effective in achieving self-enhancement to the degree that the individual is open to the experiencing which is going on within himself."

Repression of metaneeds inhibits growth... arrested development of 'neurosis'... and pathology of antisocial behaviour... human wickedness or 'evil' of psychopathy or 'psychosis'... If the basic psychological needs - the 'ego-needs' - are not met, they become more urgent than the needs for continued growth. As a result of failed spiritual growth, the individual's sense of identity is threatened and this leads to their continual dependence on others for approval i.e. 'psychological dependence'. The psychologically dependent individual persists in their efforts to retain the approval of others even if it means the repression of their growth needs - the metaneeds. In the absence of motivation for growth, the basic psychological needs dominate the individual's motivation for behaviour.  For this reason the basic psychological needs are sometimes called 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Motivation by deficit needs (characteristic of the insecure individual with low self-esteem) is 'deficit motivation'. Deficiency motivated growth results in the 'metapathology' of 'diminished humanness' or 'dehumanisation' i.e. 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis'. Neurosis involves the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority and its subsequent internalisation as 'authoritarian conscience'. Authoritarian conscience interferes with comprehensive understanding of the self and of others. This  prevents the formation of meaningful interpersonal relations and the result is pathological behaviour which is socially inadaptive i.e. 'antisocial behaviour'... human wickedness or 'evil' of psychopathy or 'psychosis'. Psychosis is a direct result of the abnormal conditions for growth prevalent in a cultural environment which focuses on the control of human needs. Control by external forces - indoctrination, manipulation, regimentation, punishment - deprives the individual of the means for gratification of instinctive spiritual needs so that they have ambivalent feelings towards them perceiving them as not only appealing but frightening as well. The subsequent psychological reaction responses of repression and denial further inhibit motivation by the growth needs, stimulate continued deficit motivation and further inhibit growth thus preventing the development of the human potential for effective socialisation.

Implications for education: True freedom depends on education which fosters self-actualisation and the fulfillment of 'human potential'. The concept of human potential is only meaningful in connection with normal psychological development which leads  to the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being. Fulfillment of human potential depends on provision of the right conditions for growth. Human potentialities are like seeds which only develop if provided with the freedom for 'growth through learning - a 'growth-promoting climate' or 'learning environment'. Freedom for growth allows for the realisation of the human potential for creative behaviour or 'goodness'. Human goodness combines the rationality of 'wisdom' and the serenity of 'compassion' to produce 'human solidarity' or 'love'. Love manifested as creativity and productivity is meaningful 'work'. Work behaviour is an aspect of human behaviour which represents connectedness or oneness with the environment - an expression of successful adaptation to the complexities of social change i.e. 'social adaptation' or 'adaptability'. Social adaptability depends on the gratification of human needs for psychological and spiritual growth - 'growth needs of being' or 'Being-needs' i.e. the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'.  

 Aim of education is cultivation of human needs including metaneeds... education for 'social intelligence' or 'spiritual intelligence' Development of social intelligence depends on the cultivation of  metaneeds... of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' mental components. The degree of mental health or 'maturity' is based on the degree of balance between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' mental components. They are connected with the individual's level of psychological development and awareness... with the individual's perception of the social environment. Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. At the highest levels of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness. At the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development, motivation by the metaneeds eliminates the mutual exclusiveness implied in the so-called 'dichotomies' between good and evil, selfish and unselfish, freedom and responsibility and so on. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metaneeds for ego-transcendance are naturally intrinsic to human nature and form the basis of religious and philosophical life... of religions and philosophies. The spiritual life of growth motivation is instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of human nature and its role in human evolution.

It should be possible to design an educational curriculum around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology' - the metaneeds as well as the basic physiological and psychological needs. The curriculum would be based on children's instinctive motivation to satisfy the basic needs for self-respect and self-esteem in the process of self-actualization. The curriculum would include opportunities for experiential enrichment through metamotivation to satisfy metaneeds.

It should be possible to 'teach' for growth to full humanness by the replacement of deficiency with growth motivation or 'metamotivation'. Education based on the human capacity for growth motivation would incorporate the instinctive human yearnings for goodness, truth and perfection. It would be possible to formulate educational programs on the basis of the instinctive needs of the human organism to function fully within a society. In order to foster the human capacity for metamotivation essential for social intelligence, it is essential that education be designed within the framework of a wholistic description of the human organism as a social organism.

 In the current educational systems, emphasis is placed almost entirely on the acquistion of data. There is little concern for the development of the reasoning mode of learning. Training of the observational and contemplative modes are almost completely lacking. And the affective dimension of learning is completely ignored.

For the human organism as a social organism, gratification of the metaneeds is an important aspect of development of the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being  - 'humanisation' - and their ability to adapt successfully to the complexities of social change - 'socialisation'. Effective socialisation depends on humanisation which depends on social intelligence. Social intelligence depends on education which involves the recognition, acknowledgement and respect for human needs - the instinctive metaneeds as well as the basic psychological needs i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for growth and full humanness of self-actualisation. The function of the teacher is to foster growth through learning   through experiential richness and meaningful work by replacing motivation of deficiency or 'deficit motivation' with motivation of sufficiency or  'metamotivation'. The teacher's role is described as 'facilitator of learnin

References:

Abraham Maslow A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life see Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology.

Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l97

The nature and experience of self-actualisers and self-transcenders... 

The metaneeds constitute an aspect of human biology and as components of human nature, they lie on the same continuum with the physiological or 'animal needs' and the so-called 'lower' psychological needs... rather than being in separated, dichotomised, or mutually exclusive realms... they are species-wide or 'supracultural' but they must be actualised by culture to exist.

The metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. They are essential for the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being who depends on the ability to perceive accurately a complex social environment. Accurate perception of the social environment depends on the instinctive capacity for transcendance of the limited cognition of ego-centered perception. The capacity to transcend ego-centered perception... 'ego-transcendance'... is essential for successful adaptation to a complex social environment. ..'social intelligence'.  The biologically based metaneeds are psychological components connected with consciousness  

 Metaneeds are made up of psychological components connected with the individual's level of psychological development and their perception of the social environment. Motivation by the metaneeds or metamotivation is associated with healthy psychological development.  

For their actualisation, the metaneeds require a growth promoting cultural environment. The 'metaneeds' must be actualized by culture ...Metamotivation by the metaneeds can be can be lost in a culture which does not acknowledge the metaneeds as a part of human nature. The mature individual whose basic psychological needs are gratified, who has self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, is otherwise known as a 'self-actualizing' individual. Motivation of self-actualizing individuals is motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation'. The self-actualized individual is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. The prerequisite for a sense of belongingness in a social context ...basic psychological needs for personality development... the needs for self-respect and self-esteem. Known as 'deficiency needs' ... are more urgent than the growth needs. Motivation by the deficiency needs or 'deficiency motivation' is more urgent than motivation by the growth needs or 'growth motivation'. The basic psychological needs for self-respect and self-esteem provide the conditions for psychological growth. With a basic sense of worthiness and a sense of purpose, the individual becomes self-disciplined and self-directed towards growth to maturity or 'self-actualization'. The metaneeds are the spiritual needs for truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, and ego-transcendance needs which a essential for coherence within the social group.

Each of the metaneeds represents a different facet of the human potential for transcendence of ego-centered perception of dichotomies. Each can be defined in terms of the others. 

"The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences." (Maslow)

 The human organism is a biological organism with a social brain. Each individual is instinctively motivated to relate to other individuals in order to acquire the things which it needs for survival. Each is instinctively motivated to 'socialize' and to 'assimilate' for work and for defense. The instinctive motivations to socialize and to assimilate are intrinsic to human nature and thus have a biological basis.

 

THE VALUE LIFE IS AN ASPECT OF HUMAN BIOLOGY GRATIFICATION OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AS BIOLOGICALLY FUNCTIONAL IN ITS PRESERVATION OF THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF HUMAN BEINGS: SPIRITUAL VALUES AS SPIRITUAL EQUIPMENT...OF SURVIVAL VALUE TO THE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN ORGANISM AND TO THE HUMAN SPECIES... METANEEDS ARE THE INSTINCIVE AND INTRINSIC NEEDS OR 'VALUES' OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE OF THE HUMAN ORGANISM ...HUMAN NEED FOR CERTAINTY...METAVALUES OF TRUTH, LOVE ETC... NEED FOR EGO TRANSCENDANCE..METANEEDS ARE THE ETHICAL VALUES...MORAL VALUES... OF THE SELF-ACTUALIZED HUMAN ORGANISM ...transpersonal model of motivation .. a system of needs ranging from basic survival through security, to sense of belonging to a group, self-esteem, and self-actualization... with growth and gratification of needs, motives shift from strong to subtle... from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. The needs at the end of the scale of sufficiency are the needs for self-transcendance ...called 'metaneeds' or Being-needs... also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values' .... The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of B-values- the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality . the needs for...related to... the spiritual values of self-transcendance: love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness..The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality... Metaneeds are the instinctive and intrinsic values of the spiritual life of the human organism... the spiritual intellectual needs of the spiritual 'value-life'...the spiritual, ethical and moral values. .... instinctive yearnings ... for the spiritual values of love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, self-transcendance, dichotomy transcendance etc.... the 'metaneeds' of the value-life... The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.'..metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average... may be hierarchically arranged according to constitutional differences..... any intrinsic metaneed can be defined by other metaneeds...The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality. the metaneeds represent different facets of a unified and composite whole... each metaneed can be fully defined in terms of the others. ...the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based...legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. ...the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis...'metamotivation'... motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive....motivation by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism... . The basic psychological needs ...biologically based psychological needs ...are instinctive....need for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-discipline, self-respect and a sense of worthiness, self-directedness and sense of purpose. They are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life...the so-called 'higher needs' for love, truth, beauty, self-transcendance and so on are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore have a biological basis. As 'higher needs', the transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs... are just as biologically based as are the more obviously physiological needs such as hunger and thirst... ... The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life... components of the biological basis of human nature ... the 'spiritual' values - necessary for psychological growth... are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Like the instinctive physiological needs and the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds are components of the biological life of the human organism. They are all components of our biological life.They are biological components of human nature... Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life components of the biological life of the human organism. They are biological components of human nature. As biological components of human nature, the metaneeds are natural...they are just as biologically based as are the physiological needs and the basic psychological needs...Metaneeds are psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. As psychological needs the metaneeds consist of mental components. The psychological development of the human organism involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of an individual's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment. ...as the human organism becomes 'self-actualized' ...the guiding principles for morality... for living...and for education are revealed as biologically rooted principles of morality within the consciousness of the human organism ... necessary for survival in a changing social environment ... transcendant, religious, esthetic, spiritual, philosophical facets of life - rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs....it is therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist... Creativeness, spontaneity, self-hood, authenticity, caring for others, being able to love, yearning for truth, are embryonic potentialities belonging to his species-membership as much as his arms and legs and brain and eyes... living in a family and in a culture are absolutely necessary to actualize what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed. For gratification of the B-needs, the individual relies on his own inner resources. Making his personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, he naturally makes his choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the 'Being-values'. Motivated by the Being needs for growth, he can be described as 'growth motivated'. He becomes independent other people for the gratification of his growth needs. Characteristically autonomous and self-sufficient, he experiences 'true' freedom and enjoys the pleasure of insight and production. He has the capacity for 'self-actualization': to make decisions in his 'true' self interest; to perceive other people in terms of their intrinsic qualities; to have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others; to perceive reality holistically. His comprehensive understanding of other human beings forms the basis for his meaningful interpersonal relations. A self-transcender is a self-actualizer who lives in the realm of B- values. Metamotivation and the gratification of the metaneeds for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasure, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism'. The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' ... true pleasure is serenity of mind and absence of fear... derives from the ability to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction ... obtained by prudence and foresight... At the transcendental level of consciousness, metamotivation leads to a perception of reality which transcends dichotomies. In the conscious state of self-transcendance...at the transcendental level of consciousness... so-called 'dichotomies' are dissolved in a wholistic perspective of ultimate reality...Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness... no dichotomy between 'personal freedom' and 'social responsibility'. The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is reponsible to himself and responsible to 'society' ...metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. At this level of consciousness, the individual's perception of reality transcends the unnecessary dichotomies. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, the individual lives in the transcendental realm of consciousness... a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'... words which are used to describe the ultimate reality are the same as those used to describe B-Values. The B-Values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts'... facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion - words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The understanding of ultimate reality is the function of the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to ... external authorities... the 'supernatural,' the individual's 'communion with what transcends him' becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' The 'B-Values' satisfy the human longing for certainty. Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed. At the 'higher' levels of consciousness, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love ... The dichotomy 'selfishness vs. unselfishness' disappears. Survival of the individual and the species depends on interconnectedness. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs - 'deficiency needs' - are prerequisite to the metaneeds - the 'growth motivations'... 'subjective biology'... includes the basic physiological and psychological needs which are obviously instinctive in nature... and the biologically based 'metaneeds' although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs.

THE VALUE LIFE IS AN ASPECT OF HUMAN BIOLOGY GRATIFICATION OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AS BIOLOGICALLY FUNCTIONAL IN ITS PRESERVATION OF THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF HUMAN BEINGS: SPIRITUAL VALUES AS SPIRITUAL EQUIPMENT...OF SURVIVAL VALUE TO THE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN ORGANISM AND TO THE HUMAN SPECIES... METANEEDS ARE THE INSTINCIVE AND INTRINSIC NEEDS OR 'VALUES' OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE OF THE HUMAN ORGANISM ...HUMAN NEED FOR CERTAINTY...METAVALUES OF TRUTH, LOVE ETC... NEED FOR EGO TRANSCENDANCE..METANEEDS ARE THE ETHICAL VALUES...MORAL VALUES... OF THE SELF-ACTUALIZED HUMAN ORGANISM ...transpersonal model of motivation .. a system of needs ranging from basic survival through security, to sense of belonging to a group, self-esteem, and self-actualization... with growth and gratification of needs, motives shift from strong to subtle... from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. The needs at the end of the scale of sufficiency are the needs for self-transcendance ...called 'metaneeds' or Being-needs... also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values' .... The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of B-values- the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality . the needs for...related to... the spiritual values of self-transcendance: love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness..The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality... Metaneeds are the instinctive and intrinsic values of the spiritual life of the human organism... the spiritual intellectual needs of the spiritual 'value-life'...the spiritual, ethical and moral values. .... instinctive yearnings ... for the spiritual values of love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, self-transcendance, dichotomy transcendance etc.... the 'metaneeds' of the value-life... The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.'..metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average... may be hierarchically arranged according to constitutional differences..... any intrinsic metaneed can be defined by other metaneeds...The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality. the metaneeds represent different facets of a unified and composite whole... each metaneed can be fully defined in terms of the others. ...the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based...legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. ...the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis...'metamotivation'... motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive....motivation by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism... . The basic psychological needs ...biologically based psychological needs ...are instinctive....need for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-discipline, self-respect and a sense of worthiness, self-directedness and sense of purpose. They are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life...the so-called 'higher needs' for love, truth, beauty, self-transcendance and so on are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore have a biological basis. As 'higher needs', the transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs... are just as biologically based as are the more obviously physiological needs such as hunger and thirst... ... The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life... components of the biological basis of human nature ... the 'spiritual' values - necessary for psychological growth... are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Like the instinctive physiological needs and the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds are components of the biological life of the human organism. They are all components of our biological life.They are biological components of human nature... Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life components of the biological life of the human organism. They are biological components of human nature. As biological components of human nature, the metaneeds are natural...they are just as biologically based as are the physiological needs and the basic psychological needs...Metaneeds are psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. As psychological needs the metaneeds consist of mental components. The psychological development of the human organism involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of an individual's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment. ...as the human organism becomes 'self-actualized' ...the guiding principles for morality... for living...and for education are revealed as biologically rooted principles of morality within the consciousness of the human organism ... necessary for survival in a changing social environment ... transcendant, religious, esthetic, spiritual, philosophical facets of life - rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs....it is therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist... Creativeness, spontaneity, self-hood, authenticity, caring for others, being able to love, yearning for truth, are embryonic potentialities belonging to his species-membership as much as his arms and legs and brain and eyes... living in a family and in a culture are absolutely necessary to actualize what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed. For gratification of the B-needs, the individual relies on his own inner resources. Making his personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, he naturally makes his choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the 'Being-values'. Motivated by the Being needs for growth, he can be described as 'growth motivated'. He becomes independent other people for the gratification of his growth needs. Characteristically autonomous and self-sufficient, he experiences 'true' freedom and enjoys the pleasure of insight and production. He has the capacity for 'self-actualization': to make decisions in his 'true' self interest; to perceive other people in terms of their intrinsic qualities; to have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others; to perceive reality holistically. His comprehensive understanding of other human beings forms the basis for his meaningful interpersonal relations. A self-transcender is a self-actualizer who lives in the realm of B- values. Metamotivation and the gratification of the metaneeds for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasure, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism'.

The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' ... true pleasure is serenity of mind and absence of fear... derives from the ability to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction ... obtained by prudence and foresight... At the transcendental level of consciousness, metamotivation leads to a perception of reality which transcends dichotomies. In the conscious state of self-transcendance...at the transcendental level of consciousness... so-called 'dichotomies' are dissolved in a wholistic perspective of ultimate reality...Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness... no dichotomy between 'personal freedom' and 'social responsibility'.

The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is reponsible to himself and responsible to 'society' ...

metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. At this level of consciousness, the individual's perception of reality transcends the unnecessary dichotomies. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... 

At the highest levels of personality and cultural development, the individual lives in the transcendental realm of consciousness... a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'... words which are used to describe the ultimate reality are the same as those used to describe B-Values. The B-Values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts'... facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion - words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The understanding of ultimate reality is the function of the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to ... external authorities... the 'supernatural,' the individual's 'communion with what transcends him' becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values.' The 'B-Values' satisfy the human longing for certainty. Like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed.

At the 'higher' levels of consciousness, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love ... The dichotomy 'selfishness vs. unselfishness' disappears.

 Survival of the individual and the species depends on interconnectedness. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs - 'deficiency needs' - are prerequisite to the metaneeds - the 'growth motivations'... 'subjective biology'... includes the basic physiological and psychological needs which are obviously instinctive in nature... and the biologically based 'metaneeds' although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs.

     The mature personality is self-disciplined and self-directed in mature growth or 'self-actualization'. As the individual becomes 'self-actualized', the guiding principles for morality... for ethical living... and for education are revealed as biologically rooted principles within the consciousness of the human organism ... necessary for survival in a changing social environment . The mature or 'self-actualizing' individual has a well developed and balanced personality and is fully 'humanized'. The fully humanized personality is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the so-called 'higher needs' - the metaneeds - which are related to the spiritual realm of human existence... spiritual values ...the moral or 'ethical' values.

    Beyond self-actualization lies the need for modes of experiencing and being that transcend the usual limits of human experience and identity .. that go beyond or transcend the 'ego'. The need for ego-transcendance is the drive towards the transpersonal realms of human existence beyond the self i.e. the need for 'self-transcendance'. The realm of self-trandscendance is the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality - 'ultimate reality' - a perception devoid of the contaminating effects of human fears, wishes, calculations and so on. The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of ultimate reality according to the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality - the Being-values or 'metavalues' of unconditional love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice,simplicity, lawfulness and so on. Each of the metavalues represents a different facet of the human potential for transcendence of dichotomies. Each can be defined in terms of the others.

     The metaneeds constitute an aspect of human biology and as components of human nature, they lie on the same continuum with the physiological and psychological needs. Like the instinctive physiological needs and the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds...the spiritual values and the value-life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs. They are components of the biological life of the human organism... of the biological basis of human nature. As biological components of human nature the metaneeds are natural psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. The metaneeds are psychological needs made up of psychological components connected with the individual's level of psychological development and their perception of the social environment. Motivation by the metaneeds or metamotivation is associated with healthy psychological development.

    Accurate perception of the social environment depends on the instinctive capacity for transcendance of the limited cognition of ego-centered perception. The capacity for 'ego-transcendance' is essential for successful adaptation to a complex social environment. At the highest levels of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness. The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free.

..metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. In the transcendental level of consciousness...mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on.

   In the realm of self-transcendance, dichotomies disappear. In the conscious state of self-transcendance... so-called 'dichotomies' (in fact 'pseudo-dichotomies') are dissolved. They are eliminated in the wholistic perspective of ultimate reality. Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective. At the transcendental level of consciousness... the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development... metamotivation leads to the individual's perception of reality which transcends the mutual exclusiveness implied in the unnecessary 'dichotomies' such as good/evil, selfish/unselfish, freedom/responsibility. There is no dichotomy between 'personal freedom' and 'social responsibility'. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is automatically responsible to 'society' while being responsible to him/herself. 

The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values' at the higher levels of consciousness. But like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed.

   The metaneed for self-transcendance does not belong to a domain external to human nature. On the contrary it is intrinsic to human nature and forms the basis of religious and philosophical life. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs or psychological needs... the need for perception of reality in the realm of self-transcendance... 'ultimate reality' is the aim of philosophers, scientists, artists, spiritual leaders and so. Instinctively all human beings have the same objective. The understanding of 'ultimate reality' is achieved in the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... and involving one's total acceptance of one's spiritual nature rooted in the biological instinct of self-preservation as a social being. This is part of the human evolutionary process. The spiritual life of growth motivation is an instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of one's human nature and its role in human evolution

Connection with the realm of self-transcendance is a biological experience which enables the individual to live in the realm of the Being values without having to resort to a so-called 'supernatural' Being. In the realm of self-transcendance, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings, namely justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love, compassion and so on.

 The total acceptance of the biological nature of self-transcendance is fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality'.

Healthy psychological development of the human organism results in development of social intelligence ...involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' mental components. The degree of an individual's mental health or 'maturity' is based on the degree of balance between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological ...mental components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment..

Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. Full functioning as a socially intelligent organism depends on the ability to perceive accurately a complex social environment.

Motivation by the metaneeds - metamotivation - of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... Motivation which arises from the 'metaneeds' for the value-life is 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is the basis for the individual's objective perception of the social reality. The objective perception of an 'ultimate' reality is described in terms of the ultimate values such as truth, goodness, justice, beauty, and so on... by the same words used to describe the ultimate values. Ultimate reality is described in terms of values-as-facts and facts-as-values. At the highest level of consciousness, social reality is perceived independently of distorted perceptions which result from the contaminating effects of human fears and human wishes.