MOTIVATIONS FOR HUMAN BEHAVIOUR: INTRINSIC MOTIVES OR 'HUMAN NEEDS' 

theme: The human needs are intrinsic motives for human behaviour which determine the driving force or 'motivation' characteristic of human  behaviour i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is the basis for education of the person as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education involves complete psychological and emotional development... moral development... development of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. Development of human conscience is a function of development of moral responsibility of personal freedom i.e. 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom as responsible freedom is a natural outcome of growth based on development of human needs including the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' i.e. 'spiritual development'. Spiritual development (spiritual emergence') is a function of the experience of human divinity which fulfills the deepest needs of the human personality or 'human nature'. Development of the human potential depends on education of the person as a whole or 'holistic education'.

"We can certainly now assert that at least a reasonable, theoretical and empirical case has been made for the presence within the human being of a tendency toward, or need for growing in a direction that can be summarized in general as self-actualization, or psychological health, i.e. he has within him a pressure toward unity of personality, toward spontaneous expressiveness, toward full individuality and identity, toward seeing the truth rather than being blind, toward being creative, toward being good and a lot else. That is the human being is so constructed that he presses toward fuller and fuller being and this means pressing toward what most people would call good values, toward serenity, kindness, courage, honesty, love, unselfishness, and goodness." (Robert Hartman' The Science of Value' in Maslow A.H. ed. New Knowledge in Human Values Harper, 1959, page 155)                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                               

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human organism as social organism...  

 

human needs are rooted in instinct of self-preservation...  they vary in extent of urgency or 'prepotency'... 

                         basic needs are physiological survival needs...  

                         basic psychological needs for security or 'ego needs' or 'deficit needs'....

                         psychological needs for spiritual growth: spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'...  biological function of the metaneeds...spiritual growth as construction of conscience...

                                      repression of metaneeds inhibits growth...

              intelligent behaviour is conducive to social cooperation...

             implications for education...

references...

 

Traditional education as 'schooling' is based on a fallacious mistrust of the human personality or 'human nature'. The paradigm of traditional education as 'schooling' is based on the assumption that the human personality or 'human nature' is basically immoral and antisocial. The mistrust of human nature leads to the fallacious notion that the exclusivity of the indvidual's interests and those of society provides a purpose of civilisation as the means to control human impulses or 'antisocial instincts'. The fact is that the human organism is a social organism with a social brain and no antisocial instincts. So what are the implications for education?

"Traditionally, throughout the history of philosophy, theology, psychology, natural desires have been considered annoying and even threatening... Theologians, political philosophers and economic theorists have conceived of various strategies to remove, deny or avoid people's 'unwanted' desires and needs. People's happiness has been considered in terms of improving their conditions with a view to eliminating their needs." (Maslow Toward a Psychology of Being 28)

Human nature and evolution

  "Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain indestructible qualities of his nature which compel him never to cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic needs." (Fromm Man For Himself p. 23)

Human behaviours are intelligent if they are conducive to social cooperation  For organisms of all species motivation for behaviour involves the avoidance of disagreeable activities which are injurious to the organism and cause 'pain'... involves the pursuit of agreeable activities which are  beneficial to the organism and cause 'pleasure'.  Similarly for the human organism, behaviour which is injurious causes pain and behaviour which is beneficial causes pleasure. Human evolution is a function of adaptation of the organism for the requirements of self-preservation in a social environment i.e. intelligence which allows for 'social cooperation' or 'social intelligence'. Evolution of social intelligence ultimately involves behaviours which are pleasurable because they are conducive to social cooperation and behaviours which are displeasurable because they are not. Human nature is a 'social nature' which is defined in terms of 'values for living' or 'social values' - 'human solidarity' as 'universal brotherhood' or 'love' - the instinctive motivation for peace and community as the basis for human civilisation.  Social values result from complete  development of the social brain... growth and development to spiritual maturity or 'self-actualisation'.

 The 'self-actualising' individual lives by human social values - the intrinsic motives for human behaviour rooted in the instinct for self-preservation i.e. 'human needs'.

 The human organism is a social organism with a social brain     The human value life is an aspect of biology. The human organism is a social organism which depends on 'values for living' or 'human values' for the successful adaptation to a changing social environment... preservation of the interconnectedness of human beings... i.e. social cooperation or 'socialisation'. Effective socialisation depends on the biologically functional spiritual equipment of human spirituality. Human spirituality is a function of normal personality development in the unfolding of human potential 'self-actualisation'... depends on activation of motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'.  Human needs include not only the obvious physiological needs for survival of the organism and the species but also the basic psychological 'ego needs' and the 'higher psychological needs' - the spiritual needs for growth or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds function in the complete development of full humanisation... defined human spirituality  by spiritual values of truth, beauty, justice, wisdom, universal love and so on.

instinctively motivated to relate to others - to 'socialise' and to 'assimilate' - in order to acquire the things which it needs for work and for defense. Motivations for successful socialisation and assimilation are intrinsic to the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of biologically based or 'instinctive' motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. Intrinsic human needs include the physiological needs, the basic psychological needs, and the 'higher' psychological needs, the spiritual needs - the growth needs of the highest consciousness state or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds... core of social values or 'virtues'.

Physiological needs include the needs for the survival of the species as well as the survival of the individual organism. The physiological needs for the survival of the human species are the needs associated with reproduction of the organism. The physiological needs for the survival of the human organism are the needs connected with hunger and thirst - the needs for food and water.

Human needs are rooted in the instinct for self-preservation and are functional in human motivation for learning behaviour  Human needs include physical needs for survival, psychological needs for security and spiritual needs for growth and development of the social brain i.e. 'socialisation'. The human organism has an instinctive responsibility to its own needs. As intrinsic motives for behaviour the human needs are the source of 'motivation' for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation - unlike 'extrinsic motivation' - engages personality growth and development. At the different stages of developmental growth and personality development - 'socio-cognitive stages' - the human needs rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational for behaviour. The individual's behaviour is dominated by the need which is motivational at the particular sociocognitive stage which they have reached.

Human needs vary with respect to their urgency or 'prepotency' The motives for learning behaviour are built into the biological constitution of the human organism as a 'hierarchy of needs' which can be described in terms of varying degrees of urgency or 'prepotency' (Maslow 'scale of sufficiency'). One need is more prepotent than another if it is more urgent and inhibits other needs. In the order of urgency or 'prepotency', first are the physiological needs and physical needs for safety and survival and  - the 'survival needs'; second are the basic psychological needs for security - the 'security needs'; third are the needs for care and affection or 'unconditional love' - the 'belongingness needs'; fourth are the basic psychological needs for self-respect and 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'; fifth are the needs for spiritual growth and development of the social brain or 'socialisation' - the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds are also known as the Being needs of the value-life - the spiritual, ethical or moral values i.e. the moral values of 'morality'. Being needs are instinctive biological components of the human organism. The so-called 'hierarchy of human needs' - the physiological needs or 'survival needs', the security and belongingness needs for self-esteem  or 'ego neeeds', growth needs for self-actualization and self-transcendance or 'spiritual needs' - is related to the range of drives of individual meanings known as 'deep meanings'. Deep meanings are at the core of intrinsic motivation. They provide the individual with a sense of direction and the energy needed to carry out a particular task. The various needs - the survival needs, security needs, the belongingness needs, the ego needs and the metaneeds are interrelated.

The basic physiological needs for survival: 'survival needs' The most urgent or 'prepotent' human needs are the basic physiological needs for survival of the organism and the basic reproductive needs for survival of the species. Physiological needs are obviously instinctive in nature... include the needs for the survival of the species as well as the survival of the individual organism. The physiological needs survival needs of the organism... protection, food, water and so on.... survival of the species... the needs associated with reproduction of the organism.

 Basic psychological needs include the need for personality development which is requisite to a sense of belongingness in the society. The psychological needs for personality development are the needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem, and belongingness ...have a biological basis... they are instinctive... The basic psychological needs - the 'deficiency needs' - for self-respect and self-esteem provide the conditions for psychological growth.

 Basic psychological needs are also instinctive in nature...'security needs', 'belongingness needs'... needs for self respect and self esteem i.e. 'ego needs':  The basic psychological needs are the needs for love, affection and belongingness. These needs must be gratified in order for a person to achieve the basic sense of worthiness and purpose which are the prerequisite conditions for full personality development ...social intelligence and a sense of belongingness in the society. When the basic psychological needs are met, the individual becomes a fully developed personality - a 'mature' personality. If the basic psychological needs - sometimes called the 'deficiency needs' are not met, they become more urgent than the needs for continued psychological development - the spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'.  Motivation by the deficiency needs - so-called 'deficiency motivation' - becomes more predominant than motivation by the growth needs - so-called 'growth motivation' for maturity or 'metamotivation'.

The basic psychological needs are the instinctive needs for the self-respect and self-esteem which provide the conditions for psychological growth and full personality development....  The most urgent or 'prepotent' is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety i.e. the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs which includes the need to strive for  perfection or 'ideals' is communicated through loving care and affection of 'unconditional love' i.e. the need for 'belongingness'. The sense of belongingness is the basis for approval of one's identity and expectations for oneself - faith in oneself as 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem' i.e. the 'ego needs'. Gratification of ego needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or 'healthy ego'. The healthy ego involves a high evaluation of the self based on faith in one's potentialities, recognition and appreciation of one's personal achievements, competence and confidence in the sense of importance of one's status. This basic sense of worthiness leads to the sense of purpose - 'self-directedness' or 'self-discipline' - which is prerequisite to 'spiritual growth' of complete 'personality development' of maturity i.e. 'self-actualisation. Self-actualisation is mature growth which involves the harmonising of psychic forces i.e.'growth motivation'. Growth motivation is the basis for 'individuality' which increases autonomy and independence of the environment i.e. 'true freedom'.

 The basic psychological needs are requisite to the 'metamotivation' for gratification of the 'metaneeds' or 'growth motivations and are known as 'deficiency needs'. Motivation by the deficiency needs or 'deficiency motivation' is more urgent or 'prepotent' than motivation by the growth needs or 'growth motivation'. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. With a basic sense of worthiness and a sense of purpose, the individual becomes self-disciplined and self-directed towards growth to maturity or 'self-actualization'. The self-actualized individual is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. Self-actualising individuals are motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. The 'metaneeds' of the value-life The 'metaneeds' are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.' The B-Values are spiritual values... described as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc.   perfection, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendance etc. Each one can be fully defined in terms of all the others. Thus they appear to represent different facets of a unified and composite whole. The metaneeds - spiritual, ethical and moral values - along with the basic psychological needs are also instinctive and have a biological basis. They are all components of the biological life. Consequently the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based, legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. 

The 'basic psychological needs' or 'ego needs': self-esteem or 'healthy ego' depends on fulfillment of 'security needs' and 'belongingness needs' The basic psychological needs are the needs for security, belongingness and self-esteem. The most prepotent is the need for freedom from fear and anxiety - the need for safety or 'security'. Security needs include the need to admire an ideal and to strive for perfection. Security is communicated through loving care and a sense of 'belongingness' or 'unconditional love'. Unconconditional love is required for faith in the persistence of the self, respect and approval of one's identity and expectations of oneself i.e. 'self-respect' or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'. Gratification of ego needs establishes a natural condition of self-identity or self-esteem or 'healthy ego'. Healthy ego is the basis for mature growth or 'spritual growth' The healthy ego involves a high evaluation of the self based on faith in one's potentialities, recognition and appreciation of one's personal achievements, competence and confidence in one's sense of importance and one's status. The healthy ego provides the inner strength of 'psychological independence' - the foundation of harmonious development and mature growth which is prerequisite to the solitude required for understanding  communications of the conscience i.e. 'inner dialogue' of contemplation or 'meditation'. Meditation is the practice of 'stillness of mind' or 'relaxed alertness' to the cognitive process i.e. 'insight of intelligence'. Development of intelligence depends on conditions for growth and development i.e. 'freedom' . Freedom of as 'spiritual freedom' is the basis for gratification of the less prepotent needs for 'normal growth' or 'spiritual growth' - 'the 'higher psychological needs' known as 'spiritual needs' for 'ego-transcendance' i.e. the 'Being needs', 'B-needs' or 'metaneeds'. Gratification of metaneeds depends on independence and reliance on inner resources in a process of creativity and productivity i.e. meaningful 'work' - a function of exploration and discovery or 'curiosity'.

Ego-needs are also known as 'deficit needs': inhibition of growth results in antisocial behaviour Gratification of the basic psychological needs depends on significant others. Failure to gratify the ego-needs results in inhibition of spiritual growth. As a result the individual's sense of identity is threatened and this leads to their continual dependence on others for approval i.e. 'psychological dependence'. The psychologically dependent individual will persist in their efforts to retain the approval of others even if it means the repression of their growth needs. In the absence of motivation for growth, the basic psychological needs dominate the individual's motivation for behaviour. Hence they are designated as 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Motivation by deficit needs is  'deficit motivation'. Deficiency motivated growth results in the 'metapathology' of 'diminished humanness' or 'dehumanisation' i.e. 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis'. Neurosis involves the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority and its subsequent internalisation as 'authoritarian conscience'. Authoritarian conscience interferes with comprehensive understanding of the self and of others. This  prevents the formation of meaningful interpersonal relations and the result is socially inadaptive or 'antisocial behaviour' i.e. 'evil'. Antisocial behaviour is a direct result of the abnormal conditions for growth which are prevalent in a cultural environment which focuses on the control of human needs. Control by external forces deprives the individual of the means for gratification of instinctive spiritual needs so that they have ambivalent feelings towards them and perceive them as both appealing and frightening. The subsequent psychological reaction responses of repression and denial further inhibit motivation by the growth needs. Inhition of motivation by the growth needs - 'metamotivation' - stimulates continued deficit motivation which prevents the development of inherent human potentialities for socialisation.  

'Higher psychological needs' for growth: spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'Human motivations for growth

  The well developed and balanced personality is motivated by the growth needs or 'metaneeds' of the value-life. The value-life... spiritual, religious, philosophical, aesthetic... is an aspect of human nature.

 The human motivations are intrinsic biological 'needs' essential for successful socialisation and assimilation. Intrinsic human needs include the physiological needs, the basic psychological needs, and the 'higher' psychological needs, the spiritual needs known as the 'growth needs' or 'metaneeds'.

  "How is growth accomplished? Through a series of changes. Without change there can be no development. And indeed, the most characteristic quality of life as we know it is change. Life is eternally changing, and the inevitable flow of life from one event or state to another is an eternal truth ." (Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l974" page l19                                                                                                                                                                 At the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development, motivation by the metaneeds eliminates the mutual exclusiveness implied in the unnecessary 'dichotomies' such as good/evil, selfish/unselfish, freedom/responsibility. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metaneeds for ego-transcendance are naturally intrinsic to human nature and form the basis of religious and philosophical life. The spiritual life of growth motivation is instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of human nature and its role in human evolution.

Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the homan organism as a social organism. At the highest levels of consciousness - the transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness.

 Once the basic psychological needs are met the individual becomes autonomous and is motivated by the needs 'higher psychological needs' - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are values of being - 'being-values' or 'B-values' or 'metavalues'. The metavalues  are values which guarantee survival of the human organism as a social organism - the social 'values for living'  or 'human values'. Human values are the same as the 'spiritual values' prescribed by the various religions - the instinctive human yearnings for lovingkindness or 'compassion', charity, truth, goodness,reason, perfection, justice, beauty, simplicity, lawfulness, ego- or 'self-transcendance. Self-transcendance is the capacity to transcend ego-centered dichotomous perception of social reality... the perception of  social reality in terms of the 'fused unity' of the polar extremes of dichotomies i.e. 'Being-cognition of 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception of social reality is non-judgmental and non-interfering. Others are perceived in terms of their own intrinsic qualities. The comprehensive understanding of others allows for meaningful interpersonal relations and a capacity for making decisions which are socially adaptive or 'intelligent'. Intelligence is the capacity to experience the world through understanding in all its dimensions - intellectually through the rationality of 'reason' and emotionally through the wisdom of care or 'compassion'. Reason and compassion together constitute human solidarity as universal brotherhood or 'love' - the instinctive motivation for peace and community as the basis for human civilisation. Civilisation depends on 'spiritual growth' to 'spiritual maturity' or 'spiritual independence'... the realm of self- or 'ego-transcendance' i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation  depends on provision of conditions for growth as fulfillment of 'human potential' - a concept which is meaningful in connection with the specific conditions required for development or 'growth through learning' as 'meaningful work' i.e. 'growth-promoting climate' or 'learning environment'. Inherent potentialities are like seeds which grow with the provision of the right learning environment  i.e. 'freedom'. Freedom for growth leads to the realisation of the human potential for adaptive behaviour or 'goodness' through the rationality of 'wisdom' and the serenity of 'compassion'. Wisdom and compassion or 'human solidarity' as 'love' is the basis for human adaptation to changes in social conditions i.e. 'social adaptation' or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the gratification of needs for spiritual growth - equally potent growth needs or 'Being needs',  'B-needs', 'B-values' 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds'. 

Working for one's personal growth is a law of nature "Like any other living organism, the human individuum needs favorable conditions for his growth 'from acorn to oak tree'; he needs an atmosphere of warmth to give him both a feeling of inner security and the inner freedom enabling him to have his own feelings and thoughts and to express himself. He needs the good will of others, not only to help him in his many needs but to guide and encourage him to become a mature and fulfilled individual. He also needs healthy friction with the wishes and wills of others. If he can thus grow with others, in love and in friction, he will also grow in accordance with his real self... that central inner force, common to all human beings and yet unique to each, which is the deep source of growth" (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 18)  

    Metaneeds are human motivations for spiritual growth of the human organism as a social organism...subconscious needs for awareness of human values for living: 'social values' or 'human values' Metaneeds are instinctive needs of the human organism as a social organism which depends for survival on human solidarity and social cooperation. Metaneeds are the survival needs of creative  socialisation - the higher psychological needs for personality integration. The metaneeds are the so-called 'higher spiritual needs' - the 'Being needs' ('B-needs') for self-transcendence - the needs for truth, morality, goodness, beauty, perfection, justice, kindness, happiness, serenity, wisdom, love simplicity, lawfulness, and ego-transcendance etc. The metaneeds are equally urgent or 'potent' and each can be defined in terms of the others. In the process of normal psychological growth the subconscious B-needs rise to the conscious level of awareness as the human values for living - the 'social values' i.e. 'Being-values' or 'B-values' i.e. 'human values'. In the transcendental realm, the being needs become the 'being-values'. They are just as biologically based as are the so-called 'lower needs' - the  obviously physiological needs of hunger and thirst. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs. Each of the human values represents a different facet of the development of 'moral conciousness' or 'conscience'. As the source of human values the functions to maintain the integration of personality while adapting to changes in the socal environment. Development of conscience depends on gratification of metaneeds in a process of 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth is a function of motivation by the metaneeds i.e. growth motivation or 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation  is motivation which arises from the 'metaneeds' for the value-life

Metamotivation associated with healthy psychological development is the basis for the individual's objective perception of the social reality...the social reality is perceived independently of distorted perceptions which result from the contaminating effects of human fears and human wishes. This occurs at the highest level of consciousness.

The objective perception of an 'ultimate' reality is described in terms of the ultimate values such as truth, goodness, justice, beauty, and so on... by the same words used to describe the ultimate values. Ultimate reality is described in terms of values-as-facts and facts-as-values.

Metamotivation by the metaneeds of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. ...'metamotivation' or motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is also biologically based and instinctive. Gratifications of the instinctive 'metaneeds' are necessary for the avoidance of mental 'illness' or 'metapathology' of dehumanisation... Metamotivation and the gratification of the 'metaneeds' for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasures, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism.' At this level 'metamotivation' becomes the same for both the highest pleasures and the highest obligations to truth, justice, beauty etc. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness. Gratification of the 'metaneed' of unelfishness is the source of the highest selfish 'metapleasure'. The mutual exclusivesness disappears. With 'metamotivation' what is 'good' for the individual (selfish) is good for others (unselfish). Hence the disappearance of the mutual exclusiveness implied in such a dichotomy. This notion lends itself to the potential transcendence of unnecessary dichotomies such as good and evil. Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life are components of the biological basis of human nature. ...metaneeds and metamotivation.

 For their actualisation, the metaneeds require a growth promoting cultural environment. Metamotivation by the metaneeds can be lost in a cultural environment which denies them acknowledgement as part of human nature. Understanding of the biological nature of the metaneeds is of paramount importance to the education of the human organism. For growth towards fullest humanness, both deficiency needs and growth needs must be met. Deprivation of the metaneeds during development results in value-starvation and leads to value-hunger and dehumanization. The failure to acknowledge the metaneeds for growth constitutes the external cutural force which deprives the individual of conditions essential to personal growth. Resulting internal forces of repression, denial and reaction responses inhibit metamotivation for growth through learning. Recognition, acknowledgement and respect for the instinctive metaneeds as well as the basic psychological needs constitute the external cultural forces which foster metamotivation and growth towards self-actualization and full humanness or 'experiential richness'. The capacity for growth through experiential richness is 'teachable'. It is p...

The failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology - the 'metapathologies' - in the same way that the failure to satisfy the basic psychological needs leads to pathologies of  'neurosis'... 'psychosis'.

"...the theoretical structure for the biological basis of 'metamotivation' and the 'metaneeds' of the value-life can assimilate all the functions of organised religions and religious experiences." (Abraham Maslow 'A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life' Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan (eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology

Developmental stage determines motivational type The individual's level of psychological development -'sociocognitive stage' - determines the way in which they perceive their social reality and therefore their capacity for socialisation... their 'motivation'... 'motivational type'.

Development of conscience depends on spiritual growth Metamotivation as the basis for spiritual growth is consistent with education for the individual as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for spiritual freedom as 'inner freedom'. Its aim is to foster growth and development of the human potential for living life according to the human social values which are equivalent to the 'spiritual values' prescribed by the various religions - the instinctive human yearnings for love as 'charity', goodness, truth, perfection, justice, beauty, simplicity, lawfulness, dichotomy transcendence. Human spiritual values constitute the 'spiritual equipment' of the human organism as a social organism. It is the spiritual equipment which allows for coherence and cooperation within and between social groups thus creating social conditions which are favourable to the resolution of conflict and which therefore guarantees survival. The source of human conflict is the ego-centered dichotomous perception of reality which is subject to the contaminating effects of sorrow, fear, prejudice, hatred - psychological conditions which detract from the human capacity for social adaptability. Social adaptability depends on individual awareness of the social values - metaneeds - at the highest level of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm i.e. ego- or 'self-transcendance'.

Biological function of the metaneeds: social adaptability depends on holistic perception possible in the transcendental level of consciousness  Self-transcendance is the capacity to transcend the ego-centered perception of social reality thereby eliminating the dichotomous perception of mutual exclusiveness such as good vs. evil, male vs. female, selfish vs. unselfish, freedom vs. responsibility and so on. At the 'transcendental level of consciousness' - the highest level of human consciousness - the individual becomes aware of the possibilities of life according to values which guarantee the preservation of interconnectedness of human individuals and human societies. In a process of 'enlightenment' the individual appreciates the 'essence of life' or 'ultimate reality' which replaces the innacurate perception of so-called 'dichotomies' with the accurate perception of complementarities i.e. 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception of the social reality is perception in terms of the 'fused unity' of the polar extremes of dichotomies. Holistic perception is  accurate perception of 'complete cognition' or 'Being-cognition which leads to accurate evaluation of the social reality. The capacity for holistic perception depends on the individual's capacity to live beyond the 'limited cognition' of 'ego-centred perception'. Holistic perception is non-judgmental and non-interfering and allows for the comprehensive understanding of others in terms of their own intrinsic qualities. This allows for meaningful interpersonal relations and full functioning within a society and it allows for decision-making behaviour which is socially adaptive or 'intelligent' i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of social awareness or 'social consciousness' - consciousness of social values required for accurate perception and evaluation of complex social realities and subsequent creative or adaptive behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'. Social intelligence is equivalent to 'spiritual intelligence' - the capacity to experience the world through understanding in all its dimensions - intellectually through the rationality of 'reason' and emotionally through the wisdom of care or 'compassion'. Reason and compassion together constitute human solidarity as universal brotherhood or 'spiritual love'. Spiritual love is the instinctive motivation for peace and community as the basis for human civilisation. Human civilisation depends on 'spiritual growth' of 'spiritual maturity' and  'spiritual independence'. Spiritual independence depends on fulfilment of spiritual needs or 'metaneeds'. The metaneeds for spiritual growth are the basis for development of the human conscience. Development of the conscience is a function of spiritual growth. Inhibition of spiritual growth leads to uncivilised or 'antisocial behaviour'.

 Transcendental meditation and creative intelligence  The natural tendency of the mind is to move in the direction of greater happiness. (Forem p.36) "The mind's attention naturally shifts to the more enjoyable situation. The technique of transcendental meditation utilizes this natural tendency of the mind to wander in search of fulfillment. Based on the very stucture of life, it is entirely natural. It is a way of "allowing our authentic human nature to express itself, released from the bondage of stress and tension, which have nothing to do with what we really are. Stress is not natural to life... Stress can be removed by deep rest such as that obtained in transcendental meditation." 75) Projecting the attention outward through the senses thwarts the mind's natural tendency to shift towards the realm of creative intelligence, the union ('yoga' in Sanscrit) of the never-changing aspect of life (Absolute) and the ever-changing aspect of life (relative). "This integration of life's inner and outer phases is an effortless process, involving neither concentration nor control."(38) "The habit of the mind has been to search outside, to be turned toward external objects of experience in its search for happiness."(37) "The laws of our own nature carry us to our fulfillment."(37) The human being's creative intelligence allows him to live the highest values spontaneously and naturally. Creative intelligence is the 'spontaneous unfolding of life.' (78) "there is an organismic base for an organized valuing process within the human individual." In accordance with the biological need for self-preservation and adaptation, the human organism has the natural capacity to adjust its behaviour and reactions to a continuously changing environment. Second, "the valuing process in the human being is effective in achieving self-enhancement to the degree that the individual is open to the experiencing which is going on within himself."

Repression of metaneeds inhibits growth... arrested development of 'neurosis'... and pathology of antisocial behaviour... human wickedness or 'evil' of psychopathy or 'psychosis'... If the basic psychological needs - the 'ego-needs' - are not met, they become more urgent than the needs for continued growth. As a result of failed spiritual growth, the individual's sense of identity is threatened and this leads to their continual dependence on others for approval i.e. 'psychological dependence'. The psychologically dependent individual persists in their efforts to retain the approval of others even if it means the repression of their growth needs - the metaneeds. In the absence of motivation for growth, the basic psychological needs dominate the individual's motivation for behaviour.  For this reason the basic psychological needs are sometimes called 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Motivation by deficit needs (characteristic of the insecure individual with low self-esteem) is 'deficit motivation'. Deficiency motivated growth results in the 'metapathology' of 'diminished humanness' or 'dehumanisation' i.e. 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis'. Neurosis involves the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority and its subsequent internalisation as 'authoritarian conscience'. Authoritarian conscience interferes with comprehensive understanding of the self and of others. This  prevents the formation of meaningful interpersonal relations and the result is pathological behaviour which is socially inadaptive i.e. 'antisocial behaviour'... human wickedness or 'evil' of psychopathy or 'psychosis'. Psychosis is a direct result of the abnormal conditions for growth prevalent in a cultural environment which focuses on the control of human needs. Control by external forces - indoctrination, manipulation, regimentation, punishment - deprives the individual of the means for gratification of instinctive spiritual needs so that they have ambivalent feelings towards them perceiving them as not only appealing but frightening as well. The subsequent psychological reaction responses of repression and denial further inhibit motivation by the growth needs, stimulate continued deficit motivation and further inhibit growth thus preventing the development of the human potential for effective socialisation.

 

Implications for education: Respect for human needs is the basis for education of the person as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'  The needs of the individual and of the society are mutually dependent and interrelated. The function of civilised society is to foster human growth to maturity or 'self-actualisation'.  Civilised society is based on conditions which foster the fullest development of human potential for social adaptability. Social adaptability depends on education for the self-actualisation of the individual as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education  promotes human growth based on human needs and development of conscience i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development results in complete 'humaness' of the self-actualising individual with a sense of purpose or 'self-directedness',with sense of worthiness or 'self-respect', sense of obedience to their conscience or 'self-discipline'... involves both cognitive and affective aspects of learning based on natural functions of the 'brain'. Learning theory and practice - 'praxis' - based on natural brain functioning  is 'brain-based learning'.The human brain is a social brain which depends on proper development based on normal conditions for growth... conditions which allow for the recognition and respect for human nature and human needs for development of human potential as the basis of human civilisation which depends on univeral spiritual growth... possible with universal holistic education and the provision of normal conditions for growth - recognition and respect for human needs as human values...  spiritual needs for growth or 'growth needs'.

In the paradigm of holistic education the role of the teacher is described as 'facilitator of learning'.  

  True freedom depends on education which fosters self-actualisation and the fulfillment of 'human potential'. The concept of human potential is only meaningful in connection with normal psychological development which leads  to the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being. Fulfillment of human potential depends on provision of the right conditions for growth. Human potentialities are like seeds which only develop if provided with the freedom for 'growth through learning - a 'growth-promoting climate' or 'learning environment'. Freedom for growth allows for the realisation of the human potential for creative behaviour or 'goodness'. Human goodness combines the rationality of 'wisdom' and the serenity of 'compassion' to produce 'human solidarity' or 'love'. Love manifested as creativity and productivity is meaningful 'work'. Work behaviour is an aspect of human behaviour which represents connectedness or oneness with the environment - an expression of successful adaptation to the complexities of social change i.e. 'social adaptation' or 'adaptability'. Social adaptability depends on the gratification of human needs for psychological and spiritual growth - 'growth needs of being' or 'Being-needs' i.e. the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'.  

 Aim of education is cultivation of human needs including metaneeds... education for 'social intelligence' or 'spiritual intelligence' Development of social intelligence depends on the cultivation of  metaneeds... of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' mental components. The degree of mental health or 'maturity' is based on the degree of balance between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' mental components. They are connected with the individual's level of psychological development and awareness... with the individual's perception of the social environment. Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. At the highest levels of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness. At the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development, motivation by the metaneeds eliminates the mutual exclusiveness implied in the so-called 'dichotomies' between good and evil, selfish and unselfish, freedom and responsibility and so on. In the transcendental realm of consciousness, mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on. Motivation by the metaneeds of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metaneeds for ego-transcendance are naturally intrinsic to human nature and form the basis of religious and philosophical life... of religions and philosophies. The spiritual life of growth motivation is instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of human nature and its role in human evolution.

It should be possible to design an educational curriculum around the instinctive needs of 'subjective biology' - the metaneeds as well as the basic physiological and psychological needs. The curriculum would be based on children's instinctive motivation to satisfy the basic needs for self-respect and self-esteem in the process of self-actualization. The curriculum would include opportunities for experiential enrichment through metamotivation to satisfy metaneeds.

It should be possible to 'teach' for growth to full humanness by the replacement of deficiency with growth motivation or 'metamotivation'. Education based on the human capacity for growth motivation would incorporate the instinctive human yearnings for goodness, truth and perfection. It would be possible to formulate educational programs on the basis of the instinctive needs of the human organism to function fully within a society. In order to foster the human capacity for metamotivation essential for social intelligence, it is essential that education be designed within the framework of a wholistic description of the human organism as a social organism.

 In the current educational systems, emphasis is placed almost entirely on the acquistion of data. There is little concern for the development of the reasoning mode of learning. Training of the observational and contemplative modes are almost completely lacking. And the affective dimension of learning is completely ignored.

For the human organism as a social organism, gratification of the metaneeds is an important aspect of development of the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being  - 'humanisation' - and their ability to adapt successfully to the complexities of social change - 'socialisation'. Effective socialisation depends on humanisation which depends on social intelligence. Social intelligence depends on education which involves the recognition, acknowledgement and respect for human needs - the instinctive metaneeds as well as the basic psychological needs i.e. 'holistic education'. Holistic education is education for growth and full humanness of self-actualisation. The function of the teacher is to foster growth through learning   through experiential richness and meaningful work by replacing motivation of deficiency or 'deficit motivation' with motivation of sufficiency or  'metamotivation'. The teacher's role is described as 'facilitator of learnin

References:

Abraham Maslow A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life see Roger Walsh and Frances Vaughan eds) Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology.

Jack Forem "Transcendental Meditation" Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc. l97

The nature and experience of self-actualisers and self-transcenders... 

The metaneeds constitute an aspect of human biology and as components of human nature, they lie on the same continuum with the physiological or 'animal needs' and the so-called 'lower' psychological needs... rather than being in separated, dichotomised, or mutually exclusive realms... they are species-wide or 'supracultural' but they must be actualised by culture to exist.

The metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. They are essential for the individual's full functioning as a socially intelligent being who depends on the ability to perceive accurately a complex social environment. Accurate perception of the social environment depends on the instinctive capacity for transcendance of the limited cognition of ego-centered perception. The capacity to transcend ego-centered perception... 'ego-transcendance'... is essential for successful adaptation to a complex social environment. ..'social intelligence'.  The biologically based metaneeds are psychological components connected with consciousness  

 Metaneeds are made up of psychological components connected with the individual's level of psychological development and their perception of the social environment. Motivation by the metaneeds or metamotivation is associated with healthy psychological development.  

For their actualisation, the metaneeds require a growth promoting cultural environment. The 'metaneeds' must be actualized by culture ...Metamotivation by the metaneeds can be can be lost in a culture which does not acknowledge the metaneeds as a part of human nature. The mature individual whose basic psychological needs are gratified, who has self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, is otherwise known as a 'self-actualizing' individual. Motivation of self-actualizing individuals is motivation by the metaneeds or 'metamotivation'. The self-actualized individual is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. The prerequisite for a sense of belongingness in a social context ...basic psychological needs for personality development... the needs for self-respect and self-esteem. Known as 'deficiency needs' ... are more urgent than the growth needs. Motivation by the deficiency needs or 'deficiency motivation' is more urgent than motivation by the growth needs or 'growth motivation'. The basic psychological needs for self-respect and self-esteem provide the conditions for psychological growth. With a basic sense of worthiness and a sense of purpose, the individual becomes self-disciplined and self-directed towards growth to maturity or 'self-actualization'. The metaneeds are the spiritual needs for truth, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, and ego-transcendance needs which a essential for coherence within the social group.

Each of the metaneeds represents a different facet of the human potential for transcendence of ego-centered perception of dichotomies. Each can be defined in terms of the others. 

"The metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average-i.e. I cannot detect a generalized hierarchy of prepotency. But in any given individual, they may be and often are hierarchically arranged according to idiosyncratic talents and constitutional differences." (Maslow)

 The human organism is a biological organism with a social brain. Each individual is instinctively motivated to relate to other individuals in order to acquire the things which it needs for survival. Each is instinctively motivated to 'socialize' and to 'assimilate' for work and for defense. The instinctive motivations to socialize and to assimilate are intrinsic to human nature and thus have a biological basis.

 

THE VALUE LIFE IS AN ASPECT OF HUMAN BIOLOGY GRATIFICATION OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AS BIOLOGICALLY FUNCTIONAL IN ITS PRESERVATION OF THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF HUMAN BEINGS: SPIRITUAL VALUES AS SPIRITUAL EQUIPMENT...OF SURVIVAL VALUE TO THE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN ORGANISM AND TO THE HUMAN SPECIES... METANEEDS ARE THE INSTINCIVE AND INTRINSIC NEEDS OR 'VALUES' OF THE SPIRITUAL LIFE OF THE HUMAN ORGANISM ...HUMAN NEED FOR CERTAINTY...METAVALUES OF TRUTH, LOVE ETC... NEED FOR EGO TRANSCENDANCE..METANEEDS ARE THE ETHICAL VALUES...MORAL VALUES... OF THE SELF-ACTUALIZED HUMAN ORGANISM ...

 

transpersonal model of motivation .. a system of needs ranging from basic survival through security, to sense of belonging to a group, self-esteem, and self-actualization... with growth and gratification of needs, motives shift from strong to subtle... from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. The needs at the end of the scale of sufficiency are the needs for self-transcendance ...called 'metaneeds' or Being-needs... also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values' .... The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of B-values- the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality . the needs for...related to... the spiritual values of self-transcendance: love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness..The 'B-Values' are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality... Metaneeds are the instinctive and intrinsic values of the spiritual life of the human organism... the spiritual intellectual needs of the spiritual 'value-life'...the spiritual, ethical and moral values. .... instinctive yearnings ... for the spiritual values of love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice, simplicity, lawfulness, self-transcendance, dichotomy transcendance etc.... the 'metaneeds' of the value-life... The metaneeds are also known as 'Being-values'or 'B-values.'..metaneeds are equally potent among themselves, on the average... may be hierarchically arranged according to constitutional differences..... any intrinsic metaneed can be defined by other metaneeds...The metaneeds are the values which define the integrated personality of the human organism... values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality. the metaneeds represent different facets of a unified and composite whole...

each metaneed can be fully defined in terms of the others. ...the spiritual or value-life of the human organism is natural and fact based...legitimately qualified for scientific analysis. ...the 'metaneeds' of the value-life, spiritual, ethical and moral values, are also instinctive and have a biological basis...'metamotivation'... motivation for the gratification of the 'metaneeds' of 'humanness' is biologically based and instinctive....motivation by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism... . The basic psychological needs ...biologically based psychological needs ...are instinctive....need for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. They must be gratified for a person to become more mature, more 'human' and 'self-actualized.' Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-discipline, self-respect and a sense of worthiness, self-directedness and sense of purpose. They are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life...the so-called 'higher needs' for love, truth, beauty, self-transcendance and so on are intrinsic to every human organism and therefore have a biological basis. As 'higher needs', the transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs... are just as biologically based as are the more obviously physiological needs such as hunger and thirst... ... The 'metaneeds' along with the basic psychological needs are all biologically based. They are all components of our biological life... 

 

 Creativeness, spontaneity, self-hood, authenticity, caring for others, being able to love, yearning for truth, are embryonic potentialities belonging to his species-membership as much as his arms and legs and brain and eyes... living in a family and in a culture are absolutely necessary to actualize what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed. For gratification of the B-needs, the individual relies on his own inner resources. Making his personal decisions on the basis of B-needs, he naturally makes his choices within the framework of the equivalent value system, that of the 'Being-values'. Motivated by the Being needs for growth, he can be described as 'growth motivated'. He becomes independent other people for the gratification of his growth needs. Characteristically autonomous and self-sufficient, he experiences 'true' freedom and enjoys the pleasure of insight and production. He has the capacity for 'self-actualization': to make decisions in his 'true' self interest; to perceive other people in terms of their intrinsic qualities; to have a non-judgmental, non-interfering attitude towards others; to perceive reality holistically. His comprehensive understanding of other human beings forms the basis for his meaningful interpersonal relations. A self-transcender is a self-actualizer who lives in the realm of B- values. Metamotivation and the gratification of the metaneeds for the 'B-Values' or value-life are the source of the highest pleasure, 'metapleasure' which can also be called 'metahedonism'.

 

components of the biological basis of human nature ... the 'spiritual' values - necessary for psychological growth... are also instinctive and have a biological basis. Like the instinctive physiological needs and the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds are components of the biological life of the human organism. They are all components of our biological life.They are biological components of human nature... Rather than belonging to a domain external to human nature, spiritual values and the value-life components of the biological life of the human organism. They are biological components of human nature. As biological components of human nature, the metaneeds are natural...they are just as biologically based as are the physiological needs and the basic psychological needs...Metaneeds are psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. As psychological needs the metaneeds consist of mental components. The psychological development of the human organism involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' ones. The degree of an individual's mental health is determined by the balance of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment. ...as the human organism becomes 'self-actualized' ...the guiding principles for morality... for living...and for education are revealed as biologically rooted principles of morality within the consciousness of the human organism ... necessary for survival in a changing social environment ... transcendant, religious, esthetic, spiritual, philosophical facets of life - rather than being in separated, dichotomized, or mutually exclusive realms are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs....it is therefore species-wide, supracultural even though it must be actualized by culture in order to exist...

 

 

 true pleasure is serenity of mind and absence of fear... derives from the ability to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction ... obtained by prudence and foresight... At the transcendental level of consciousness, metamotivation leads to a perception of reality which transcends dichotomies. In the conscious state of self-transcendance...at the transcendental level of consciousness... so-called 'dichotomies' are dissolved in a wholistic perspective of ultimate reality...Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective. At the level of 'metamotivation' there is there is no longer a dichotomy between selfishness and unselfishness... no dichotomy between 'personal freedom' and 'social responsibility'.

The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is reponsible to himself and responsible to 'society' ...

 ..metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. At this level of consciousness, the individual's perception of reality transcends the unnecessary dichotomies. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... In other words, at the highest levels of personality and cultural development, the individual lives in the transcendental realm of consciousness... a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'... words which are used to describe the ultimate reality are the same as those used to describe B-Values. The B-Values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts'... facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion - words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The understanding of ultimate reality is the function of the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to ... external authorities... the 'supernatural,' the individual's 'communion with what transcends him' becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.'

 

The greatest joy and happiness can be experienced in the contemplation of the 'B-Values' at the higher levels of consciousness. But like the eternal values of religions, they can be adored, revered, celebrated and sacrificed.

 

At the 'higher' levels of consciousness, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings: justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love ... The dichotomy 'selfishness vs. unselfishness' disappears.

Survival of the individual and the species depends on interconnectedness. The prepotent more urgent basic psychological needs - 'deficiency needs' - are prerequisite to the metaneeds - the 'growth motivations'... 'subjective biology'... includes the basic physiological and psychological needs which are obviously instinctive in nature... and the biologically based 'metaneeds' although they are less urgent and weaker than the basic psychological needs. .

metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. At this level of consciousness, the individual's perception of reality transcends the unnecessary dichotomies. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... 

At the highest levels of personality and cultural development, the individual lives in the transcendental realm of consciousness... a reality is perceived which is independent of distorted human perceptions. This is the 'ultimate reality' which is described in terms of the 'B-Values'... words which are used to describe the ultimate reality are the same as those used to describe B-Values. The B-Values are defined as truth, goodness, justice, beauty etc. The reality is described as true, good, just, beautiful etc. Thus in the context of 'ultimate reality' the 'B-Values' become identical with 'B-facts'... facts and values fuse and the words used to describe them are called 'fusion - words'. Contemplating the nature of the universe becomes equated with contemplating the ultimate values, the B-values. The understanding of ultimate reality is the function of the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to ... external authorities... the 'supernatural,' the individual's 'communion with what transcends him' becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible for the him to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.'

     The mature personality is self-disciplined and self-directed in mature growth or 'self-actualization'. As the individual becomes 'self-actualized', the guiding principles for morality... for ethical living... and for education are revealed as biologically rooted principles within the consciousness of the human organism ... necessary for survival in a changing social environment . The mature or 'self-actualizing' individual has a well developed and balanced personality and is fully 'humanized'. The fully humanized personality is motivated by the instinctive needs of the value-life - the so-called 'higher needs' - the metaneeds - which are related to the spiritual realm of human existence... spiritual values ...the moral or 'ethical' values.

    Beyond self-actualization lies the need for modes of experiencing and being that transcend the usual limits of human experience and identity .. that go beyond or transcend the 'ego'. The need for ego-transcendance is the drive towards the transpersonal realms of human existence beyond the self i.e. the need for 'self-transcendance'. The realm of self-trandscendance is the realm of the wholistic perspective of reality - 'ultimate reality' - a perception devoid of the contaminating effects of human fears, wishes, calculations and so on. The metaneed for self-transcendance is the need to live in the realm of ultimate reality according to the values which define the wholistic perception of ultimate reality - the Being-values or 'metavalues' of unconditional love, truth, beauty, goodness, perfection, justice,simplicity, lawfulness and so on. Each of the metavalues represents a different facet of the human potential for transcendence of dichotomies. Each can be defined in terms of the others.

     The metaneeds constitute an aspect of human biology and as components of human nature, they lie on the same continuum with the physiological and psychological needs. Like the instinctive physiological needs and the basic psychological needs, the metaneeds...the spiritual values and the value-life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs. They are components of the biological life of the human organism... of the biological basis of human nature. As biological components of human nature the metaneeds are natural psychological needs related to the consciousness of the human organism. The metaneeds are psychological needs made up of psychological components connected with the individual's level of psychological development and their perception of the social environment. Motivation by the metaneeds or metamotivation is associated with healthy psychological development.

    Accurate perception of the social environment depends on the instinctive capacity for transcendance of the limited cognition of ego-centered perception. The capacity for 'ego-transcendance' is essential for successful adaptation to a complex social environment. At the highest levels of consciousness - the 'transcendental realm - awareness of the human spiritual values is essential for coherence and cooperation within the social group. Cooperation within and between human societies depends on motivation by the human values of truth, goodness, justice and lawfulness. The individual must be responsible to be inwardly free.

..metamotivation becomes the same for both the highest pleasure and the highest obligation to truth, justice, beauty etc. In the transcendental level of consciousness...mutual exclusivesness is replaced with complementarity making it possible to live by the values of truth, goodness, justice, beauty and so on.

   In the realm of self-transcendance, dichotomies disappear. In the conscious state of self-transcendance... so-called 'dichotomies' (in fact 'pseudo-dichotomies') are dissolved. They are eliminated in the wholistic perspective of ultimate reality. Dichotomy transcendance is a natural characteristic of human consciousness at the level of self-transcendance and therefore a normal aspect of the wholistic perspective. At the transcendental level of consciousness... the 'highest' levels of personality and cultural development... metamotivation leads to the individual's perception of reality which transcends the mutual exclusiveness implied in the unnecessary 'dichotomies' such as good/evil, selfish/unselfish, freedom/responsibility. There is no dichotomy between 'personal freedom' and 'social responsibility'. Freedom for the individual is complementary with responsibility to society. The free and responsible individual is automatically responsible to 'society' while being responsible to him/herself. 

   The metaneed for self-transcendance does not belong to a domain external to human nature. On the contrary it is intrinsic to human nature and forms the basis of religious and philosophical life. The transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any other biological needs or psychological needs... the need for perception of reality in the realm of self-transcendance... 'ultimate reality' is the aim of philosophers, scientists, artists, spiritual leaders and so. Instinctively all human beings have the same objective. The understanding of 'ultimate reality' is achieved in the mystic or 'peak' experience of self-transcendance... and involving one's total acceptance of one's spiritual nature rooted in the biological instinct of self-preservation as a social being. This is part of the human evolutionary process. The spiritual life of growth motivation is an instinctive 'biological' experience which involves the total acceptance of one's human nature and its role in human evolution

Connection with the realm of self-transcendance is a biological experience which enables the individual to live in the realm of the Being values without having to resort to a so-called 'supernatural' Being. In the realm of self-transcendance, the individual lives by values which preserve the interconnectedness of human beings, namely justice, truth, beauty, freedom, generosity, love, compassion and so on.

 The total acceptance of the biological nature of self-transcendance is fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality'.

Healthy psychological development of the human organism results in development of social intelligence ...involves the cultivation of positive 'healthy' mental components and the discouragement of negative 'unhealthy' mental components. The degree of an individual's mental health or 'maturity' is based on the degree of balance between 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' psychological ...mental components. Mental health determines the individual's level of awareness and perception of realities of the changing social environment..

Connected with the 'higher' levels of human consciousness or 'awareness', the metaneeds are of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. Full functioning as a socially intelligent organism depends on the ability to perceive accurately a complex social environment.

Motivation by the metaneeds - metamotivation - of full human awareness or 'humanness' is essential for human social life and the survival of human societies. As survival oriented needs, the metaneeds are connected with the ethical and moral values which have evolved through a process of natural selection. The metamotivation arising from the biological metaneeds for the value-life, 'B-values', 'Being-values', spiritual values, determines the individual's perception of ultimate reality at the highest levels of consciouness... Motivation which arises from the 'metaneeds' for the value-life is 'metamotivation'. Metamotivation is the basis for the individual's objective perception of the social reality. The objective perception of an 'ultimate' reality is described in terms of the ultimate values such as truth, goodness, justice, beauty, and so on... by the same words used to describe the ultimate values. Ultimate reality is described in terms of values-as-facts and facts-as-values. At the highest level of consciousness, social reality is perceived independently of distorted perceptions which result from the contaminating effects of human fears and human wishes.

Once the basic psychological needs are met the individual becomes autonomous and is motivated by the needs 'higher psychological needs' - the growth needs or 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are values of being - 'being-values' or 'B-values' or 'metavalues'. The metavalues  are values which guarantee survival of the human organism as a social organism - the social 'values for living'  or 'human values'. Human values are the same as the 'spiritual values' prescribed by the various religions - the instinctive human yearnings for lovingkindness or 'compassion', charity, truth, goodness,reason, perfection, justice, beauty, simplicity, lawfulness, ego- or 'self-transcendance. Self-transcendance is the capacity to transcend ego-centered dichotomous perception of social reality... the perception of  social reality in terms of the 'fused unity' of the polar extremes of dichotomies i.e. 'Being-cognition of 'holistic perception'. Holistic perception of social reality is non-judgmental and non-interfering. Others are perceived in terms of their own intrinsic qualities. The comprehensive understanding of others allows for meaningful interpersonal relations and a capacity for making decisions which are socially adaptive or 'intelligent'. Intelligence is the capacity to experience the world through understanding in all its dimensions - intellectually through the rationality of 'reason' and emotionally through the wisdom of care or 'compassion'. Reason and compassion together constitute human solidarity as universal brotherhood or 'love' - the instinctive motivation for peace and community as the basis for human civilisation. Civilisation depends on 'spiritual growth' to 'spiritual maturity' or 'spiritual independence'... the realm of self- or 'ego-transcendance' i.e. 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation  depends on provision of conditions for growth as fulfillment of 'human potential' - a concept which is meaningful in connection with the specific conditions required for development or 'growth through learning' as 'meaningful work' i.e. 'growth-promoting climate' or 'learning environment'. Inherent potentialities are like seeds which grow with the provision of the right learning environment  i.e. 'freedom'. Freedom for growth leads to the realisation of the human potential for adaptive behaviour or 'goodness' through the rationality of 'wisdom' and the serenity of 'compassion'. Wisdom and compassion or 'human solidarity' as 'love' is the basis for human adaptation to changes in social conditions i.e. 'social adaptation' or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the gratification of needs for spiritual growth - equally potent growth needs or 'Being needs',  'B-needs', 'B-values' 'spiritual needs' i.e. 'metaneeds'. 

Working for one's personal growth is a law of nature "Like any other living organism, the human individuum needs favorable conditions for his growth 'from acorn to oak tree'; he needs an atmosphere of warmth to give him both a feeling of inner security and the inner freedom enabling him to have his own feelings and thoughts and to express himself. He needs the good will of others, not only to help him in his many needs but to guide and encourage him to become a mature and fulfilled individual. He also needs healthy friction with the wishes and wills of others. If he can thus grow with others, in love and in friction, he will also grow in accordance with his real self... that central inner force, common to all human beings and yet unique to each, which is the deep source of growth" (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 18)  

Gratification of metaneeds - spiritual growth is a function of development of 'moral consciousness'... construction of 'conscience'  Metaneeds are met through creativity and productiveness of work which is meaningful because it engages personality growth and development  for 'happiness' (wisdom/compassion) as freedom from fear and sorrow or 'total freedom'. Total freedom of happiness depends on the actualisation of human potential - self-actualisation - and is characterised by a spontaneous life of moral freedom i.e. 'morality'. Morality is a function of the construction of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'.  The conscience is the seat of the individual's intrinsic spirituality - the 'human spirit' or 'soul'. The human conscience - an emergent property of the human social brain - is the expression of its instinctive valuing process which is based on the subconscious perception of its social nature. The conscience is the source of guiding values for creative or 'adaptive' behaviour and the guardian of integrity required for psychological and spiritual development or 'spiritual growth' - a function of the fulfillment of human potential i.e. 'natural ethics'. Natural ethics of developed conscience results from growth (or 'education') in the context of freedom from the rigidity of dogmatic teaching i.e. 'spiritual freedom' or 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom as the basis for construction of conscience depends on gratification of the 'growth needs' or 'metaneeds'. The intrinsic aim of normal human growth is the proper development of the human conscience. Construction of rational conscience depends on freedom to act according to its guidance in creative and productive activities i.e. 'self-discipline'. Self-discipline arises from motivation by the growth needs or 'growth motivation' i.e. 'metamotivation'. The establishment of conditions for metamotivaton is the basis for education as facilitation of human personality development required for civilised society.

 In "A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life," Abraham Maslow lays out a number of hypotheses about the nature and experience of selfactualizers and self-transcenders. He first describes the hierarchy of needs and suggests that higher needs ( metaneeds, B for being- Values) for truth, beauty, transcendence, etc. are just as biologically based as are the lower, more obviously physiological ones such as thirst and sex. Further, he proposes that the failure to satisfy metaneeds may result in corresponding forms of pathology (metapathology) analagous to  those resulting from unsatisfied lower needs. Thus he concludes that transcendant, religious, esthetic, and philosophical facets of life are as real and intrinsic to human nature as any biological needs". (Walsh 121)
 

Growth motivation and 'self-actualisation' of the individual is the basis for civilised society or 'civilisation' The future happiness of humankind depends on the universal understanding of the instinctive needs of the human organism as a social organism i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is a function of human development which engages the gratification of human needs. The result of human development is rational conscience of 'productive character orientation'... self-fulfilment of 'spiritual independence' or 'spiritual maturity' i.e. 'self-realisation' or  'self-actualisation'. The 'self-actualising' individual relies on the inner resources of a developed conscience,  experiences true pleasure in the rejection of immediate gratification for the sake of permanent and tranquil satisfaction or 'serenitiy', enjoys the pleasure of insight and makes personal decisions and choices in the transpersonal dimension of the fullest degree of humanness i.e. 'ego-transcendance' or 'self-transcendance'. Self-transcendance is the dimension of personality development defined by social values or 'human values'. Education for self-actualisation is based on the recognition and respect for human needs as the condition required for normal growth and development. The lack of faith in human needs and human potential is the basis for educational theory which prescribes teaching methods  for manipulation and control... education as training or 'schooling'. Education for self-actualisation and the development of human potentialities provides the right conditions for human growth i.e. recognition and respect for the human needs - basic psychological needs and the spiritual needs.

Lack of recognition of needs for growth results in decline in motivation... 'problem of motivation'.

"Growth like any ongoing function requires adequate objects in the environment to meet the needs and appetites of the growing child." (Goodman Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organized System New York: Random House, 1961.12)    

Human needs are human values ... "It is these needs, 'instinctoid' in nature', that we can also think of as built-in values not only in the sense that the organism wants and seeks them but also in the sense that they are both good and necessary for the organism. It is these values which are found, uncovered - recovered, perhaps we should say, in the course of psychotherapy or self-discovery. We may then regard these techniques of therapy and self-discovery as being also cognitive tools or scientific methods (in the sense that they are the best methods we have available today.. these particlar kind of data.) It is in this sense at least that I would maintain that science in the broadest sense can and does discover what human values are, what the human being needs in order to live a good and happy life, what he needs in order to avoid illness what is good for him and what is bad for him. ...What the healthy human being chooses, prefers, and values out of own deepest inner nature, is also most often good for him..." Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 114-118)

References:

Maslow, Abraham. Motivation and Personality New York: Harper and Brothers, l954

Maslow A.H. ed. 'New Knowledge in Human Values' Harper, 1959

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notes:  The most basic human need is the need for security and approval from significant adults. Security needs are prepotent to the growth needs of curiosity, exploration and experience or 'knowledge'. Growth through knowledge is inhibited by fear and depends on freedom from anxiety. A child will give up growth to retain security. spiritual freedom which protects the individual from dependency on mindless competition and accumulation, drug and alcohol abuse, gratuitous violence and so on. Brain-compatible pedagogies... They teach for learning which is meaningful in contextual frameworks. They provide for the individual's needs as well as for cultural differences and commonalities. Wholistic perception is the basis for congruence of thought and action. Wholistic education provides protection against abusive manipulation of the mind. Research of the neuroscientists and psychobiologists, together with the knowledge and intuition of educators and psychologists, points to the need for a more deliberate involvement of the whole brain in the process of learning.

Psychotherapy as scientific tool for discovery of human needs or 'values': "The data I turn to first are the accumulated experiences of dynamic psychotherapy, starting with Freud and contnuing up to the present day in most therapies that have to do with discovering the identity or Real Self...'uncovering therapies' they purport to uncover (more than to construct) the deepest self which has been covered over by bad habits, misconceptions, neuroticizing etc. All these therapies agree in finding that this most real self partly consists of needs, wishes, impulses and instinctlike desires. These may be called needs because they must be fulfilled or psychopathology results. ...Neurosis seems to be a deficiency disease... It is these needs, 'instinctoid' in nature', that we can also think of as built-in values, values not only in the sense that the organism wants and seeks them but also in the sense that they are both good and necessary for the organism. It is these values which are found, uncovered - recovered, perhaps we should say, in the course of psychotherapy or self-discovery. We may then regard these techniques of therapy and self-discovery as being also cognitive tools or scientific methods (in the sense that they are the best methods we have available today to uncover these particlar kind of data.) It is in this sense at least that I would maintain that science in the broadest sense can and does discover what human values are, what the human being needs in order to live a good and happy life, what he needs in order to avoid illness what is good for him and what is bad for him. ...What the healthy human being chooses, prefers, and values out of own deepest inner nature, is also most often good for him. " (Maslow 124-125) .

Importance of respect for human needs: basic human needs 1. need for self-preservation The individual's basic physical needs are derived from the biological instinct for self-preservation. 2. need for an ideal  "Man's need to admire, to have some ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection, image of perfection is projected upon the external authorities." For the authoritarian conscience, the "interaction of internalization (of external authority) and projection results in an unshakable conviction in the ideal character of the authority, a conviction which is immune to all contradictory empirical evidence." (Fromm Man For Himself 146) 3. need for love  necessary for the proper development of conscience, 'guardian of integrity' necessary for self-preservation. Need for being alone with oneself: In order to understand the communications of one's conscience, one must approve of oneself and not have to depend on others for approval. A person must have expectations of himself. Instinctively one feels responsible for oneself. See Kafka's Trial for an illustration of the interrelation of authoritarian and humanistic concsience (167-172 Fromm Man For Himself) and development of conscience in a cultural context. 4. need for pleasure in the sense of peace  true pleasure is serenity of mind and absence of fear, ability to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction (Fromm Man For Himself 174) What is pleasure? "Pleasure consists in serenity of mind and the absence of fear, and is obtained only by the man who has prudence and foresight and thus is ready to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permeament and tranquil satisfaction." (Fromm Man For Himself 174)

What is pleasure? "Pleasure consists in serenity of mind and the absence of fear, and is obtained only by the man who has prudence and foresight and thus is ready to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permeament and tranquil satisfaction." (Fromm Man For Himself 174) See Herbert Spencer (influenced Decroly) on pleasure: "Pains are the correletaives of actions injurious to the organism, while pleasures are correletives of actions conducive to its welfare." "Individuals or species are from day to day kept alive by the pursuit of the agreable and the avoidance of the disagreeable" (79, 82 The Principles of Ethics, New York , Appleton Co. 1902 vol.1) Spencer on pleasure: He points up the parallel between the biological function of pleasure and the social evolution of man and proposes that "remoulding of human nature into fitness for the requirements of social life must eventualy make all needful activities pleasurable, while it makes displeasurable activities at variance with these requirements." (Principles of Ethics 153)

Also, "the pleasure attending the use of means to achieve an end, itself becomes an end." (Fromm Man For Himself 159) "Happiness is the indication that man has found the answer to the problem of human existence: the productive realization of his potentialities and thus simultaneously, being one with the world and preserving the integrity of his self; (Fromm Man For Himself 189) "Happiness is man's greatest achievement; it is the response of his total personality to a productive orientation toward himself and the world outside." 5. need for rational faith in oneself .. 'self-esteem'  Without faith in the persistence of our self, our feeling of identity is threatened and we become dependent on other people whose approval then becomes the basis for our feeling of identity with ourselves. Only the person who can be faithful to himself can be faithful to others. We must have faith in the potentialities of others, of ourselves, of mankind. There are potentialities which can fail to develop. The child has innate potentialities to love, be happy, use his reason and other talents. The inherent potentialities are like seeds. They grow and manifest themselves only if they are given the proper conditions for development. They can be stifled if they are not given the proper conditions for their development. Education is characterized by faith in human potential. Manipulation results from the lack of faith in human potential. There is no prouder statement man can make than to say 'I shall act according to my conscience.'" (Fromm Man For Himself 140) "In spite of the great difference between the Roman paterfamilias, whose family was his property, and the modern father, the feeling that children are brought into the world to satisfy the parents and compensate them for the disappointments of their own lives is still widespread." (Fromm Man For Himself 153) 6. need for safety ...the most basic and prepotent need: Safety needs are prepotent to the growth needs and curiosity. A child will give up growth to retain approval from significant adults. Fear and anxiety inhibit curiosity and growth. Freedom from anxiety and fear is the pre-requisite to curiosity, exploration and growth through knowledge. (Maslow) See "the Science of Value' Robert Hartman in "As the essential Being of the world is perceived by the person, so also does he concurrently come closer to his own Being, to his own perfection, of being more perfectly himself." (95)

   "The healthy person's sense of identity would be expected to extend beyond the usual ego self-sense. On one hand we would expect health to be associated with recognizing, owning and integratingthe shadow, that component of the psyche comprising attributes judged to be negative and inconsistent with one's self-image. On the other hand we might expect the very healthy to live in the presence of the numinous (filled with a sense of the presence of divinity), the 'sacred unconscious,' the transpersonal self, or pure awareness, and to realize that they are that too." (120)

"Motivation would also be a significant dimension of health. The most widely accepted transpersonal model of motivation owes a great deal to Abraham Maslow. He recognized a hierarchical organization of needs in which motives sequentially, i.e. as one level of needs was satisfied, the next level became apparent. The hierarchy ranged from basic survival through security, to sense of belonging to a group, self-esteem, and self-actualization, i.e. all that one is capable of being. In ascending this hierarchy, motives shift from strong to subtle, and from expressions of deficiency to expressions of sufficiency. The needs at the higher end of this scale of sufficiency Maslow "How then are we to determine the characteristics of called 'metaneeds orB (being) needs.'" (120) "In his later years, Maslow maintained that beyond self-actualization lay the need for self-transcendance. In this Maslow saw a drive towards modes of experiencing and being that transcended the usual limits of human experience and identity i.e. the drive toward the transpersonal realms. Similar hierarchical models with transcendent components are also found in a number of non-Western psychologies such as Sufism and Hinduism." (l20) "Several traditions make the suggestions that attachment (addiction) to having one's needs gratified is the source of suffering and that highly developed individuals are likely to be motivated by a desire to contribute to and serve others. Health might thus be associated with fewer attachments and a higher ratio of service-oriented versus egocentric behaviour. Although they do not necessarily fit neatly into any particular formal model, various other qualities have been widely assumed to be characteristic of optimal mental health. These include the recognition that one is responsible for, and the source of, one's experience and one's sense of well-being; greater sensitivity towards others as manifested by enhanced love, compassion, empathy, and generosity; an appreciation of the awesomeness and mystery of life shown by attitudes of reverence, gratitude, wonder and ecological sensitivity; and a wholehearted participation in life, opening fully to the joys as well as to the sorrows of the human condition. " (Walsh pp 120-121)