SCIENCE OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS OR WHOLENESS: ‘HOLISTIC SCIENCE'

 

theme: As a result of the interconnectedness between the various parts of a natural system new properties emerge ('emergent properties') which account for the  characteristics of the system as a whole. Consequently an understanding of the workings of a system depends on the concept of oneness or ‘wholeness’ and the holistic perspective of holistic science. In this context, a valid and significant aspect in the collection and analysis of objective physical sense data is the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life or 'consciousness' of the observer as subjective participant in the observation process. Th e aim of holistic science is to explain the characteristic properties of natural systems by engaging the ecological worldview of 'systems theory' in the creation of frameworks or 'structures' which give context to detailed observations of natural phenomena.  

 "The specialist concentrates on detail and disregards the wider structure which gives it context. The 'new' scientist however, concentrates on structure on all levels of magnitude and complexity, and fits detail into its general framework. He discerns relationships and situations, not atomistic facts and events. By this method he can understand a lot more about a great many more things than the rigorous specialist, although his understanding is somewhat more general and approximate... This is knowledge of 'connected complexity'. We ourselves are a part of the connected complexity with which we are surrounded in nature... To have an adequate grasp of reality, we must look at things in terms of systems, with properties ('emergent properties') and structures ('frameworks resulting from the patterns of interconnections') of their own." (Laszlo, Ervin. The Systems View of the World: The Natural Philosophy of the New Developments in the Sciences. New York: George Brazilier p.10)   

 

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Traditional paradigm of orthodox reductionist science...

             classical or 'orthodox science' of empiricism...    past four hundred years and empiricism... symbolic knowledge...

New paradigm of holistic science:  looking-glass science...  holistic science as Taoist science...

the scientist as a self-actualising person...

implications for education

references...

structuralism...

Reductionism...

Human nature is the innate 'nature' of the human organism and science is a systematized expression of the fact that the human organism is capable of transcending its own limitations of sense and of subjectivity. "The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is". (Overstreet H. The Mature Mind)

 Classical science and 'logical analysis' of empiricism or 'logical empiricism': The traditional view of classical orthodox science makes distinctions between three types of knowledge with their corresponding 'modes of knowing' - 'empirical knowledge', 'rational' knowledge and 'contemplative' knowledge. Empirical knowledge is obtained by analysing empirical observation. Rational knowledge is obtained by logical analysis or 'reasoning'. The notion of the formation of ideas or 'concepts' is based on the mental processes of logical analysis - inductive inference or 'induction' and 'deductive inference' or 'deduction'. Induction is the process of inferring some general rule from a given set of information. Deduction is the process of logical argument in which a given set of general rules or 'assumptions' lead to derivation of particular consequences or predictions which are then tested with reality in the form of 'scientific experiment's. If the experimental data disagrees with the predictions then the original assumptions are modified or replaced. Also known as analytic or 'symbolic' knowledge, rational knowledge separates subject and object and is therefore dualistic and illusory. It is the illusory separation of subject and object which represents both the brilliance and the blind-spot of traditional science.Symbolic knowledge is brilliant because it provides for the formulation of highly sophisticated and analytical pictures of the world.  But however illuminating and detailed the pictures may be, they remain only pictures. The pictures stand to reality just as a picture of the moon or 'map' stands to the real moon or 'territory'. The 'territory' is a natural process in its actuality. The 'map' is any symbolic notation which represents some aspect of the territory. Obviously the map is not the same as the territory. The 'map-territory' relationship was lucidly described by Alfred Korzybski,  father of modern semantics. Although brilliant, symbolic knowledge of classical science was inherently self-annihilating. Contemplative knowledge is obtained by combining observation and reason with spiritual insight of contemplation or 'intuition'.  Knowledge obtained through any one of the three modes of knowing cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of the other two.

 Significance of symbolic knowledge... The past four hundred years of scientific theory has been based solely on the empirical approach.

The Cartesian dualism of subject vs. object built a methodology ('scientific method') of such persistence that it would eventually crumble the very dualism upon which it was based.

As a result of 20th century advances in physics, it was recognized that the 'symbolic mode of knowing' was inadequate for the true knowledge of reality. With Einstein's help, the  time / space, energy / matter dualisms were rejected in favour of the new quantum physics. The illusory divisions between subject and object, wave and particle, mind and body, mental and material were abandoned with quantum theory.

"In quantum theory individual events do not always have a well defined cause. For example, the jump of an electron from one atomic orbit to another, or the disintegration of a subatomic particle, may occur spontaneously without any single event causing it. We can never predict when and how such a phenomenon is going to happen; we can only predict its probability. This does not mean that atomic events occur in completely arbitrary fashion; it means only that they are not brought about by local causes. The behaviour of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and since we do not know these connections precisely, we have to replace the narrow classical notion of cause and effect by the wider concept of statistical causality. The laws of atomic physics are statistical laws, according to which the probabilities for atomic events are determined by the dynamics of the whole system. Whereas in classical mechanics the properties and behaviour of the parts determine those of the whole, the situation is reversed in quantum mechanics; it is the whole that determines the behaviour of the parts." (Fritjof Capra. The Turning Point)

      There has been a critically important breakthrough in physics in the last few decades that has radically changed our understanding of the nature of Nature. It has been discovered is that the underlying assumption (principle of ‘locality’… being bound and limited by space and time) implicit in our scientific understanding of the physical world for centuries, is categorically wrong. In a brilliant series of experiments conducted in the 1970s and ‘80s, and which have been continually refined and made more rigorous throughout the ‘90s and on into the 21st century, it has been shown that the principle of locality does not apply at the most fundamental and essential levels of matter, energy, and information.

    In a non-local universe, at the most primary level, there is a way in which information is getting around so fast that it takes no time at all. The inherent non-locality of nature provides for instantaneous information distribution throughout all of space. Light is the very substance and foundation of being, but as we know, according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, time stops at the speed of light. For light, there is no time. Thus, light itself is essentially timeless by its very nature. Light is therefore a non-temporal standing wave pattern of energy/information. Being non-temporal or synchronic, the information encoded in light is available everywhere at the same time, and is thus non-local. Physics has proven that separation is an illusion at the most fundamental and essential level of the unified field

    Due to this intrinsic atemporality of the fabric of reality, information and informing influences can get around the universe in ways that are instantaneous, unmitigated and immediate. The universe is thus able to choreograph its movements by being informed and thus orchestrated and co-ordinated by information from the whole informing every part. All apparently separate entities such as people as individuals are actually indissolubly united in one singular invisible and indivisible being or field. We may appear to be separate beings and on the conventional order of reality it makes sense and is useful to treat each other as discrete, encapsulated and separate entities, but when it comes down to dealing with the fundamental nature of reality, none of us are truly separable from each other. The only unified singularity of existence that will not ultimately admit separations is Being itself and all that that implies.

    The psychological implications of embracing the reality of a non-local universe are enormous and vastly transformative of the entire field of psychology, and by extension, every other form of collective human activity. Certain functions of the human psyche must now be understood to operate as a non-local quantum field in which we all participate in an interconnected and interdependent mind-field. Thus, any problem arising in the sphere of the human family can ultimately be seen as having something to do with each and every one of us. We are co-participants in all that occurs in the entire human world. This knowledge brings with it great responsibility—universal responsibility, in fact. In taking this total responsibility for our lives and our inescapable impact upon the entire human world and beyond, literally upon all that lives for generations to come, we become aware that we have greater power than we have previously understood and become self-empowered to act as conscious agents of change, healing, and transformation.              

Arthur Koestler coined the word 'holon' which means that everything is a part of something bigger and is itself made up of parts.

New paradigm of holistic science: While rigid scientific dualism was collapsing in physics, the young mathematician Kurt Godel published his treatise The Incompleteness Theorem in which he demonstrated that every deductive system of logic has at least one premise that cannot be proven without contradicting itself. In his words, "It is impossible to establish the logical consistency of any complex deductive system except by assuming principles of reasoning whose own internal consistency is as open to question as that of the system itself". Godel showed that in terms  of both logic and physical fact, a purely 'objective' verification is not proof of 'reality'. Since the verifier is part of the system, how is it possible to verify the entire system? If I have a fly in my eye, how can I see that I have a fly in my eye?

Dualistic knowledge divides the universe into subject vs. object, into one state which sees - the 'knower' vs. another which is seen - the 'known'. What remains the 'unknown' is the knower's innermost consciousness which ultimately escapes its own understanding. Just as the hand cannot grasp itself, the eye cannot see itself, and a knife cannot cut itself, so the knower cannot know itself. This is the 'something left out'... the incompleteness of logical empiricism...  the 'error of dualism'. The error of dualism lies at the root of analytic reasoning but is impossible to uproot by analytic reasoning. It can only be detected and removed with a rigorous methodology which is so persistent that it can pursue dualism to its limits. Everything in the universe which appears to exist independently is actually a part of a whole 'organic pattern'. In this context, the knower is a part of nature studying nature. Consequently a more appropriate mode of knowing is the 'intimate mode of knowing' which does not separate the knower and the known, the subject and the object. In the intimate mode of knowing, subject and object are intimately united. The intimacy is lost as soon as the symbolism is re-established. According to this view, perception of reality is a function of consciousness and the individual's sense of identity is intimately related to the level of consciousness from which they operate. Different modes of knowing correspond to different 'levels' or 'states of consciousness' - 'mind level', 'existential level', 'ego level', 'shadow level'. The person operating on the 'ego level' of consciousness contemplates with a symbolic and dualistic mode of knowing. In dualistic fashion they become an object to themselves and form a symbolic picture of themselves. This is dualistic self-knowledge. Contemplation within the framework of dualistic self-knowledge produces feelings of alienation from the environment. The person operating on the 'mind level' of consciousness contemplates with a global or 'holistic' mode of knowing. In holistic fashion they live in harmony with themselves. This is holistic self-knowledge. Contemplation within the framework of holistic self-knowledge produces feelings of oneness with the environment. A shift in mode of knowing results in a shift in basic identity which is significant for one's  self-image and one's role in life. Shifting from the dualistic mode of contemplation to the holistic mode involves a shift in sense of identity from dualistic self-knowledge to holistic self-knowledge and thus a shift from a dualistic to a holistic perception of the environment. By the same token the level of consciousness at which the scientist operates determines their mode of contemplation, their mode of perceiving  and their mode of knowing

According to the new paradigm of holistic science, the universe is a mirror or 'looking-glass'... 'things go the other way'... mirror-image. Reference is made to Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking-Glass. Looking-glass scientists of looking-glass science design experiments in a new theoretical framework in which the scientists themselves are being observed.

"The behaviour of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and since we do not know these connections precisely, we have to replace the narrow classical notion of cause and effect by the wider concept of statistical causality. The laws of atomic physics are statistical laws, according to which the probabilities for atomic events are determined by the dynamics of the whole system. Whereas in classical mechanics the properties and behaviour of the parts determine those of the whole, the situation is reversed in quantum mechanics; it is the whole that determines the behaviour of the parts." (Fritjof Capra. The Turning Point 86)

Inadequacy of symbolic knowledge as 'mode of knowing': the impersonal methods of orthodox science are inadequate for the study of human behaviour because they do not acknowledge the validity of human motives i.e. ‘motivation’. the job of the scientist is to see reality for what it is... Classical science with its obsession with measurement and quantification ignores experiences of feelings, motives, intentions and values and of does not acknowledge the validity... . of consciousness and contemplation in gaining knowledge of reality. It denies the validity of human motives... human motivation’. Human beings are motivated by their own purposes and these purposes can be unknown even to those who have them. For this reason the impersonal methods of reductionist science are not adequate for the study of human behaviour... the human and social sciences. Consequently the study of human problems in politics, education, psychology, religion which involve issues of values or 'ethics', individual freedom or 'individuality', social responsibility and so on requires a science which is based on the holistic perspective... 'holistic perception'. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be resolved when considered in the framework of the emerging worldview of holistic scienceHowever the elimination of opposites, dualisms and dichotomies requires the formulation of new metaphors, new concepts and new words. For example, when considering the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'...  the human mind or 'psyche'...  psychology ... one word which represents a useful concept for the elimination of dichotomy is 'embedded-ness'. This is because the human being must not be considered in isolation but as a social organism which is embedded in a social environment which is itself embedded in nature. As a biological social organism, the human organism depends for survival on an instinctive interest in understanding the realities of the natural and the social environment. Comprehension of the realities of the world depends on a perception of reality which is naturally holistic. The object of perception is perceived in its uniqueness and at the same time in its relation to the totality of which it is a part. Instinctively dependent on an intense interest in reality, that is 'curiosity', the human organism is affected and stimulated emotionally as well as intellectually. In the instinctive attempt to comprehend the world... in a naturally holistic perception of reality the emotional power of understanding or 'love’ combines with the intellectual power of reflection and cognition or 'reason'. Love and reason are inseparable as the natural powers through which the organism evaluates its environment. Understanding of the social environment... effective adaptation to changing social conditions... 'adaptability'... depends on holistic perception which is a function of expanded consciousness ... consciousness of the so-called 'higher' social values... moral values...  'metavalues'... values beyond the basic psychological needs for security, self-esteem and belongingness or 'ego-needs'.

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Abraham Maslow was a critic of both orthodox science and orthodox religion. He claimed that science cripples itself because it invalidates values and emotions. Scientists are taught that 'values' are subjective evaluations and that 'emotions' cannot be trusted...  that they distort the world of objective fact and so they should not be taken into account in descriptions of 'reality'. He claimed that the orthodoxy of the scientific institution has created a desacralized science, devoid of feelings of humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe. Denying the reality of these feelings, scientists have cut themselves off from the most real aspects of the 'reality' of the world. He called orthodox science a 'crippled half-science' and orthodox religion a 'crippled half-religion' and proposed 'a religionizing of all that is secular'.

So called 'subjective biology' (coined by Maslow) is looking within for the real self. This nvolves the effort to become conscious of one's own biological individuality, one's constitutional developmental needs, capacities and reactions - whether cognitive, psychological, temperamental, emotional, anatomical or physiological. It involves the experiencing of one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species, one's biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances.

The self-actualising scientist is a self-actualizing  human being who does not seek the rewards of research grants and professional chairs. As a self-actualizing person, the psychologically healthy scientist is a good scientist because he worships nature and seeks the truth of nature. He approaches his work with love, devotion, self-abnegation and self-forgetfulness derived from transcendence of the ego or 'self-transcendence'. His absolute morality and honesty can certainly  give rise to an attitude which can be described as 'religious'...  the occasional thrill, shudder of awe, of humility and of smallness before the great mysteries... 'peak-experience', all these can be descibed as sacred moments.

Science is about 'truth'. "Science is in the service of a value and so are all scientists." (See Bronowski, J.1. The Common Sense of Science. London: Heinemann, 1951. 2. Science and Human Values. New York: Harper and Row, 1956. 3. "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959.)

Systems theory... the systems approach or 'structuralism' implies a holistic perception of reality. In the holistic paradigm, science is expanded to include those areas of knowledge that are actually the province of contemplation. The scientific process constitutes one movement which involves both the physical and metaphysical, both facts and ideas, both experiment and experimenter, both matter and consciousness. Holistic science allows for a more accurate evaluation of the reality because it acknowledges the role of subjective experience in the origin, the process and the conclusions of the investigative process. 

 "The behaviour of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and since we do not know these connections precisely, we have to replace the narrow classical notion of cause and effect by the wider concept of statistical causality. The laws of atomic physics are statistical laws, according to which the probabilities for atomic events are determined by the dynamics of the whole system. Whereas in classical mechanics the properties and behaviour of the parts determine those of the whole, the situation is reversed in quantum mechanics; it is the whole that determines the behaviour of the parts." (Fritjof Capra. The Turning Point page 86)

"The superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (H. Rosen The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980)  

"The new wholistic science includes more 'participatory methodology' based on the subjective experiences of the observer in experimental situations. Based on the assumption of oneness and wholeness, it validates the inner subjective experience as well as objective physical sense data. It is not possible to have a truly meaningful education for the 'humanization' of society without the scientific recognition of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. The worldview of wholistic science does recognize the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life. It is therefore possible to have a truly meaningful wholistic education if it is based on the wholistic paradigm and the scientific recognition of the human inner life. A wholistic education is possible within the context of the worldview of a wholistic science. With the scientific recognition of the inner life, the wholistic worldview permits a global view of the human being as a 'totality of body, soul and spirit.' Scientific discoveries of the interrelations of body, soul and spirit are reflected in a new educational paradigm. The new pedagogical methodology recognizes that the child's learning experiences and learning difficulties are global in nature. The global view of the child and the learning process "can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." (Gerald Karnow, "Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life," Holistic Education Review vol. 5 no. 1 (Fall 1992): p. 64)

Holistic science as Taoist science...  involves receptive contemplation - nonactive, noninterfering witnessing and savoring of the experience and the 'realness' of nature. Tao is the ultimate essence of reality or 'ultimate reality'.... a process of continual flow and change... The polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang' are the extreme poles of a single whole cycle; they are not two separate categories.  Putting them...  Perceiving ... Placing things in separate categories when in fact they are opposite... extreme... poles of a whole cycle of change...is called 'category error'.    The result of category error is perception of opposites... perception of dichotomy... dichotomous perception... ..limited perception ...  Holistic perception of 'reality' is more accurate than dichotomous perception. Evaluation based on innacurate dichotomous perception leads to conflict... Perception of dichotomous reality... if the individual does not 'see' the category error and thinks and behaves according to the innaccurate distorted dichotomous perception, the result is behaviour which is destructive and therfore non-adaptive for both the individual and the species.  

Dichotomous perception of reality results from the abstraction of reality... divorce of reality from theory... The opposite is integration of theory with reality 'praxis' first define reality as ultimate reality not reality perceived with distorted dichotomous perception reality is a result of perception...if the perception is distorted then the perceiver's 'reality ' is distorted... the perceiver is psychotic.... not perceiving the distortion of his own distorted perception.  

Dichotomized abstract knowledge is false and potentially dangerous...  abstractions and the systems that are opposed to or dichotomized from experiental knowledge instead of being built upon it and integrated with it. ...abstract knowledge dichotomized from experiential knowledge  but abstract knowledge built upon and hierarchically integrated with experiential knowledge is a necessity for human life.

"The Chinese philosophers saw reality, whose ultimate essence they called Tao, as a process of continual flow and change. In their view all phenomena we observe participate in this cosmic process and are thus intrinsically dynamic. The principal characteristic of the Tao is the cyclical nature of its ceaseless motion; all developments in nature - those in the physical world as well as those in the psychological and social realms - show cyclical patterns. The Chinese gave this idea of cyclical patterns a definite structure by introducing the polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang', the two poles that set the limits for the cycles of change: 'The yang, having reached its climax retreats in favor of the yin; the yin having reached its climax retreats in favor of the yang.' In the Chinese view, all manifestations of the Tao are generated by the dynamic interplay of these two archetypal poles, which are associated with many images of opposites taken from nature and from social life. It is important, and very difficult for us Westerners, to understand that these opposites do not belong to different categories but are extreme poles of a single whole. Nothing is only yin or only yang. All natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous oscillation between the two poles, all transitions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. The natural order is one of dynamic balance between yin and yang." (Fritjof Capra The Turning Point 35)

Implications for education Education for holistic science is education for mind level consciousness and holistic perception of reality. Education for holistic science is education for responsibility... responsible use of freedom as free will... for personality development ...for spiritual development and maturity of conscience.

....the thing we should cultivate in our teachers is more the spirit than the mechanical skill of the scientist...the direction of the preparation should be towards the spirit rather than towards the mechanisms.

Educational goals are set within the framework of a prevailing worldview or paradigm. Critical to educational policy is the following question: "which worldview is shaping the goals of education?" Information is presented and reflected upon within the context of an accepted worldview. In the past, the worldview of empirical science has been shaping the goals of education. This worldview is now being challenged by the worldview of wholistic science. The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science". ( Willis Harman, The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. September 1992: 15-25)

"I believe that the single most powerful contribution that the holistic education movement is making to the field of educational theory is the power of the metaphor of holism, i.e. of being aware of the parts, the sum of the parts, and that which is more than the sum of the parts. Further work is obviously needed to develop a more comprehensive theoretical framework that gives sufficient attention to all the important dimensions of human experience and education." (David Purpel. 'Holistic Education in a Prophetic Voice' in Miller et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times. p. 83)

  Brain research provides the evidence for a rational basis of brain-based learning and wholistic education. "Recent findings in brain research suggest that it is possible to understand the functioning of the brain once there is sufficient explanation for the specific functions of individual nerve cells and their connections. The resulting patterns of nerve impulses, neural circuits and networks form the basis of the brain's functions. The knowledge gained from findings in brain research forms the basis for theories of brain-based learning and can be applied to educational philosophies and pedagogies. The findings confirm the antagonism between 'traditional' teaching methods and the natural learning function of the brain". (Conner, James "Cutting Edge: Mind & Molecules" Journal of Developmental Education vol 16, number 3, Spring 1993: 34)

“Our perception and images of the world affect our experience of the world.“ (David Purpel 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Bergin and Garvey Publishers Inc., Boston, MA p.133)

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  References:

Briggs, J.P. and David Peat, F.D. Looking Glass Universe: The Emerging Science of Wholeness. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Capra, Fritjof The Turning Point

Edelglass, Stephen "Holistic Science: Detachment and Participation" Holistic Education Review September 2, 1992:32-35

Harman,Willis  The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. Sept. 1992: 15-25

Koestler, Arthur.  The Roots of Coincidence; London: Hutchinson 1972

Popper K. and John Eccles. The Self and Its Brain. New York, London: Springer International, 1979

Walsh, Roger and Frances Vaughan (eds) Beyond Ego:Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980

Zukav, Gary. "The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics." New York: William Morrow, l979

  Science of Interconnectedness or Wholeness: ‘Holistic Science’

theme: Holistic science is based on the assumption of inter-connectedness i.e. oneness or ‘wholeness’. It recognizes the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life and validates the scientist’s consciousness as well as objective physical sense data.

   The impersonal methods of orthodox science are inadequate for the study of human behaviour because they do not acknowledge the validity of human motives i.e. ‘motivation’. Classical or 'orthodox' science rejected the projection of purposes (whether of 'God' or man) in the study of nature. The case is completely different for the human and social sciences because human beings are motivated by their own purposes and purposes can be unknown even to those who have them. The study of human behaviour depends on the recognition of motivation - the realm of the personal. The study of human problems such as politics, education, psychology, values, ethics, freedom, individuality, consciousness, religion and so on requires a science which is based on the holistic perspective of holistic science.

    During the past four hundred years, scientific theory has been based solely on the empirical approach to the study of nature. The traditional view of orthodox science makes distinctions between three types of knowledge – 'empirical knowledge', 'rational knowledge', 'contemplative knowledge' - and their corresponding 'modes of knowing' – observation and contemplation as analysis of intuition and reason. Empirical knowledge obtained by observation cannot be confused with rational knowledge obtained by logic  ...and vice-versa. Both empirical and rational knowledge can be transcended through contemplation and contemplative knowledge. Knowledge obtained through any one of these modes of knowing cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of the other two. The domain of traditional science is knowledge gained from analysis of empirical observation i.e. 'analytic knowledge'. Analytic knowledge or 'symbolic knowledge' is dualistic and illusory because it separates subject and object.

    In the traditional paradigm of symbolic knowledge, obsession with measurement and quantification denies the validity of contemplation in gaining knowledge of reality. Experiences of feelings, motives, intentions, consciousness, spirit and values are ignored. The illusory separation of subject and object represents both the brilliance and the blind-spot of traditional science and philosophy. Symbolic knowledge is brilliant because it provides for the formulation of highly sophisticated and analytical pictures of the world. But however illuminating and detailed the picture may be, they remain only pictures. The pictures stand to reality just as a picture of the moon or 'map' stands to the real moon or 'territory'. The 'territory' is a natural process in its actuality. The 'map' is any symbolic notation which represents some aspect of the territory. Obviously the map is not the same as the territory. The 'map-territory' relationship was lucidly described by Korzybski, father of modern semantics. As well as brilliant, symbolic knowledge of classical science was inherently self-annihilating. The Cartesian dualism of subject vs. object built a methodology ('scientific method') of such persistence that it would eventually crumble the very dualism upon which it was based. It was recognized that the 'symbolic mode of knowing' was inadequate for the true knowledge of reality as a result of 20th century advances in physics. With Einstein's help, the dualism of time and space, energy and matter was rejected in favour of the new quantum physics. The illusory division between subject and object, wave and particle, mind and body, mental and material was abandoned with quantum theory.

     While rigid scientific dualism was collapsing in physics, the young mathematician Kurt Godel published his treatise the 'Incompleteness Theorem' in which he demonstrated that every deductive system of logic has at leads to one premise that cannot be proven or verified without contradicting itself. In his words, "it is impossible to establish the logical consistency of any complex deductive system except by assuming principles of reasoning whose own internal consistency is as open to question as that of the system itself". Godel showed that in terms of both logic and physical fact, a purely 'objective' verification is not proof of 'reality'. Since the verifier is part of the system, how is it possible to verify the entire system? If I have a fly in my eye, how can I see that I have a fly in my eye? Dualistic knowledge divides the universe into subject vs. object, into one state which sees – the  'knower' vs. another which is seen - the 'known'. What remains the 'unknown' is the knower's innermost consciousness of the knower ultimately escapes its own understanding. Just as the hand cannot grasp itself, the eye cannot see itself, and a knife cannot cut itself, so the knower cannot know itself. Something is left out and this accounts for the 'incompleteness'. The incompleteness of logical empiricism is the error of dualism. At the root of analytic reasoning but impossible to uproot by analytic reasoning, the error of dualism can only be detected and removed with a rigorous methodology which is so persistent that it can pursue dualism to its limits.

    Everything in the universe which appears to exist independently is actually a part of a whole 'organic pattern'. The knower is a part of nature studying nature. Consequently a more appropriate mode of knowing is the 'intimate mode of knowing' which does not separate the knower and the known, the subject and the object. In the intimate mode of knowing, subject and object are intimately united. The intimacy is lost as soon as the symbolism is re-established. A more accurate perspective acknowledges the role of subjective experience in the origin, the process, the conclusions and the utilization of science - the perspective of holistic science. According to the new paradigm of holistic science, the universe is a mirror or 'looking-glass'... 'things go the other way'... reference to the opposede' orientation of the mirror-image.  Reference is made to Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking-Glass. Looking-glass scientists of looking-glass science design experiments in a new theoretical framework in which the scientists themselves are being observed. The scientific process is one movement involving both the physical and metaphysical, both facts and ideas, both experiment and experimenter, both matter and consciousness.

      In the holistic paradigm, science is expanded to include those areas of knowledge that are actually the province of contemplation. According to this view the individual's perception of reality is a function of consciousness. The level of consciousness upon which the scientist operates determines their mode of knowing and their mode of contemplation. Different modes of knowing correspond to different 'levels' or states of consciousness' - mind level, existential level, ego level, shadow level. The person's sense of identity is intimately related to the level of consciousness from which they operate. A shift in their mode of knowing results in a shift in their basic identity which is significant for their role and self-image. The person operating on the 'ego 'level of consciousness contemplates with a symbolic and dualistic mode of knowing. In dualistic fashion they become an object to themselves and form a symbolic picture of themselves. This is dualistic self-knowledge. Contemplation within the framework of dualistic self-knowledge produces feelings of alienation from the environment. The person operating on the 'mind level of consciousness contemplates with a global or 'holistic' mode of knowing. In holistic fashion they live in harmony with themselves. This is holistic self-knowledge. Contemplation within the framework of holistic self-knowledge produces feelings of oneness with the environment. Shifting from the dualistic mode of contemplation to the holistic mode involves a shift in sense of identity from dualistic self-knowledge to holistic self-knowledge and thus a shift from a dualistic to a holistic perception of the environment.  

       As a biological social organism, the human organism depends for survival on an instinctive interest in understanding the realities of the natural and the social environment. Comprehension of the realities of the world depends on a perception of reality which is naturally holistic. The object of perception is perceived in its uniqueness and at the same time in its relation to the totality of which it is a part. Instinctively dependent on an intense interest in reality, the human organism is affected and stimulated emotionally as well as intellectually. In the instinctive attempt to comprehend the world, both intellectual and emotional powers are combined in a naturally holistic perception. The emotional power of understanding or 'love' combines with the intellectual power of reflection and cognition or 'reason'. Love and reason are inseparable. Both are natural powers through which the organism understands its environment. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be resolved when considered in the framework of this emerging worldview.  New metaphors, new concepts, new words are required for the elimination of dichotomies. One word which represents a useful concept for the elimination of dichotomy is 'embedded-ness.' Human beings cannot be considered in isolation. They are embedded in a social environment and in nature. Perceived in terms of the metaphor of 'embedded-ness' opposites and dualisms disappear. In a naturally holistic perception of reality, the emotional power of understanding or 'love’ combines with the intellectual power of reflection and cognition or 'reason'. “Our perception and images of the world affect our experience of the world.“ (David Purpel 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Bergin and Garvey Publishers Inc., Boston, MA p.133)

Implications for Education: Education based on the principles of holistic science is education for cultivation of the holistic perception of reality as a function of mind level consciousness. Holistic education involves the responsible use of freedom for inquiry which engages personality development as complete psychological development or ‘spiritual development’ involving maturity of moral consciousness or mind level consciousness of  rational conscience.

  "Now, if you'll only attend, Kitty, and not talk so much, I'll tell you all my ideas about looking-glass House. First, there's the room you can see through the glass - that's just the same as our drawing-room only the things go the other way. I can see all of it when I get upon a chair - all but the bit just behind the fireplace. Oh, I do so wish I could see that bit! "...Let's pretend the glass has got all soft like gauze, so that we can get through..." She was up on the chimney-piece while she said this, though she hardly knew how she got there. And certainly the glass was beginning to melt away, just like a bright silvery mist. In another moment Alice was through the glass, and jumped lightly down into the looking glass room ......"I'm sure I don't know," the Lion growled out as he lay down again. "There was too much dust to see anything. What a time the Monster is cutting up that cake!" the great dish on her knees, and was sawing away diligently with the knife. "It's very provoking !" she said, in reply to the Lion (she was getting quite used to being called "the Monster"). "I've cut several slices already, but they always  join on again!" "You don't know how to manage looking-glass cakes," the Unicorn remarked. "Hand it round first and cut it afterwards."This sounded nonsense, but Alice very obediently got up, and carried the dish round, and the cake divided itself into three pieces as she did so. "Now cut it up," said the Lion, as she returned to her place with the empty dish...