SCIENCE OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS OR WHOLENESS: ‘HOLISTIC SCIENCE'

 

theme: Holistic science is involved with the creation of frameworks or 'structures' to explain the characteristic properties of natural systems thus producing the ecological worldview of 'systems theory'. Connnections are made and new properties emerge ('emergent properties') as a result of the interconnectedness of various parts of the system...these condition but not determine the properties of the constituent parts of the system. Consequently the concept of oneness or ‘wholeness’ is used to understand the workings of the system as a whole. The intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life or 'consciousness' of the scientist as subjective participant in the observation process is considered as a valid and significant aspect in the collection of objective physical sense data. "The specialist concentrates on detail and disregards the wider structure which gives it context. The 'new' scientist however, concentrates on structure on all levels of magnitude and complexity, and fits detail into its general framework. He discerns relationships and situations, not atomistic facts and events. By this method he can understand a lot more about a great many more things than the rigorous specialist, although his understanding is somewhat more general and approximate... This is knowledge of 'connected complexity'. We ourselves are a part of the connected complexity with which we are surrounded in nature... To have an adequate grasp of reality, we must look at things in terms of systems, with properties ('emergent properties') and structures ('frameworks resulting from the patterns of interconnections') of their own." (Laszlo, Ervin. The Systems View of the World: The Natural Philosophy of the New Developments in the Sciences. New York: George Brazilier p.10)   

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Traditional paradigm of orthodox reductionist science...

             classical or 'orthodox science' of empiricism...    past four hundred years... symbolic knowledge...

New paradigm of holistic science:  looking-glass science...  holistic science as Taoist science...

the scientist as a self-actualising person...

implications for education

references...

structuralism...

Arthur Koestler in  The Roots of Coincidence (London: Hutchinson 1972) coined the word 'holon' which means that everything is a part of something bigger and is itself made up of parts.

 Classical science and 'logical analysis' of empiricism: The notion from 'classical science' or 'orthodox' science of the formation of ideas or 'concepts' is based on the mental processes of logical analysis - inductive inference or 'induction' and 'deductive inference' or 'deduction'. Induction is the process of inferring some general rule from a given set of information. Deduction is the process of logical argument in which a given set of general rules or 'assumptions' lead to derivation of particular consequences or predictions which are then tested with reality in the form of 'scientific experiment's. If the experimental data disagrees with the predictions then the original assumptions are modified or replaced.

Classical science rejected the projection of purposes (whether of 'God' or man) in the study of nature... physical and natural sciences.

The traditional view of orthodox science makes distinctions between three types of knowledge which cannot be confused – 'empirical knowledge', 'rational knowledge', 'contemplative knowledge' - and their corresponding 'modes of knowing' – observation and contemplation as analysis with intuition and reason.

 Empirical knowledge is obtained by analysis of empirical observation; rational knowledge is obtained by logic

 Both empirical and rational knowledge can be transcended through contemplation and contemplative knowledge. Knowledge obtained through any one of these modes of knowing cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of the other two.

The domain of traditional science is knowledge gained from analysis of empirical observation i.e. 'analytic knowledge'. Analytic knowledge or 'symbolic knowledge' is dualistic and illusory because it separates subject and object.    But however illuminating and detailed the picture may be, they remain only pictures. The pictures stand to reality just as a picture of the moon or 'map' stands to the real moon or 'territory'. The 'territory' is a natural process in its actuality. The 'map' is any symbolic notation which represents some aspect of the territory. Obviously the map is not the same as the territory. The 'map-territory' relationship was lucidly described by Korzybski, father of modern semantics. As well as brilliant, symbolic knowledge of classical science was inherently self-annihilating. The Cartesian dualism of subject vs. object built a methodology ('scientific method') of such persistence that it would eventually crumble the very dualism upon which it was based. It was recognized that the 'symbolic mode of knowing' was inadequate for the true knowledge of reality as a result of 20th century advances in physics. With Einstein's help, the dualism of time and space, energy and matter was rejected in favour of the new quantum physics. The illusory division between subject and object, wave and particle, mind and body, mental and material was abandoned with quantum theory.

 The past four hundred years of scientific theory has been based solely on the empirical approach to the study of nature.

 During the past four hundred years, scientific theory has been based solely on the empirical approach to the study of nature. The traditional view of orthodox science makes distinctions between three types of knowledge - 'empirical knowledge', 'rational knowledge', 'contemplative knowledge' - and their corresponding 'modes of knowing' - 'observation', 'reason as analysis' and 'contemplation'. Empirical knowledge obtained by observation cannot be confused with rational knowledge obtained by reason ...and vice-versa. Both empirical and rational knowledge can be transcended through contemplation and contemplative knowledge. Knowledge obtained through any one of these modes of knowing cannot be adequately defined solely in terms of the other two. Classical science is concerned with knowledge gained from analysis of empirical observation i.e. 'analytic knowledge'. Analytic knowledge or 'symbolic knowledge' is dualistic and illusory because it separates subject and object.  

 In the traditional paradigm of symbolic knowledge, obsession with measurement and quantification denies the validity of contemplation in gaining knowledge of reality. Experiences of feelings, motives, intentions, consciousness, spirit and values are ignored.

The illusory separation of subject and object represents both the brilliance and the blind-spot of traditional science and philosophy.

 Significance of symbolic knowledge Symbolic knowledge is brilliant because it provides for the formulation of highly sophisticated and analytical pictures of the world. But however illuminating and detailed the picture may be, they remain only pictures. The pictures stand to reality just as a picture of the moon or 'map' stands to the real moon or 'territory'. The 'territory' is a natural process in its actuality. The 'map' is any symbolic notation which represents some aspect of the territory.  Obviously the map is not the same as the territory. The 'map-territory' relationship described by Alfred Korzybski, father of word meaings i.e. 'semantics'. The Cartesian dualism of subject vs. object built a methodology ('scientific method') of such persistence that it would eventually crumble the very dualism upon which it was based.

Symbolic knowledge of classical science was inherently self-annihilating

Classical science does not acknowledge the validity of human motives for behaviour i.e. the 'human needs'...  human motivation’.  The impersonal methods of reductionist science are not adequate for the study of human behaviour... the human and social sciences... because human beings are motivated by their own purposes and these purposes can be unknown even to those who have them.

Inadequacy of symbolic knowledge as 'mode of knowing': the impersonal methods of orthodox science are inadequate for the study of human behaviour because they do not acknowledge the validity of human motives i.e. ‘motivation’.  Classical or 'orthodox' science rejected the projection of purposes (whether of 'God' or man) in the study of nature. The case is completely different for the human and social sciences because human beings are motivated by their own purposes and purposes can be unknown even to those who have them. The study of human behaviour depends on the recognition of motivation - the realm of the personal.

 

The study of human problems such as politics, education, psychology,  values, ethics, freedom, individuality, consciousness, religion and so on requires a science which is based on the holistic perspective  'holistic perception' i.e. holistic science. A more accurate perspective acknowledges the role of subjective experience in the origin, the process, the conclusions and the utilization of science - the perspective of holistic science.

The study of the human mind or 'psyche' (psychology) depends on knowledge of the  personality of the human organism as a social organism... the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is a function of the so-called 'higher' spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' as well as basic psychological needs for belongingness and self-esteem or 'ego-needs'.

 It was recognized that the 'symbolic mode of knowing' was inadequate for the true knowledge of reality (as natural systems) as a result of 20th century advances in physics. With Einstein's help, the dualism of time and space, energy and matter was rejected in favour of the new quantum physics. The illusory division between subject and object, wave and particle, mind and body, mental and material was abandoned with quantum theory.

While rigid scientific dualism was collapsing in physics, the young mathematician Kurt Godel published his treatise The Incompleteness Theorem in which he demonstrated that every deductive system of logic has at least one premise that cannot be proven or verified without contradicting itself. In his words, "It is impossible to establish the logical consistency of any complex deductive system except by assuming principles of reasoning whose own internal consistency is as open to question as that of the system itself."

 Godel showed that in terms  of both logic and physical fact, a purely 'objective' verification is not proof of 'reality'.

Since the verifier is part of the system, how is it possible to verify the entire system? If I have a fly in my eye, how can I see that I have a fly in my eye?

Dualistic knowledge divides the universe into subject vs. object, into one state which sees - the 'knower' vs. another which is seen - the 'known'. What remains the 'unknown' is the knower's innermost consciousness which ultimately escapes its own understanding. Just as the hand cannot grasp itself, the eye cannot see itself, and a knife cannot cut itself, so the knower cannot know itself. Something is left out and this accounts for the 'incompleteness'. The incompleteness of logical empiricism is the error of dualism. At the root of analytic reasoning but impossible to uproot by analytic reasoning, the error of dualism can only be detected and removed with a rigorous methodology which is so persistent that it can pursue dualism to its limits.

    Everything in the universe which appears to exist independently is actually a part of a whole 'organic pattern'. The knower is a part of nature studying nature. Consequently a more appropriate mode of knowing is the 'intimate mode of knowing' which does not separate the knower and the known, the subject and the object. In the intimate mode of knowing, subject and object are intimately united. The intimacy is lost as soon as the symbolism is re-established.

New paradigm of holistic science and systems theory... the systems approach or 'structuralism'

In the holistic paradigm, science is expanded to include those areas of knowledge that are actually the province of contemplation. The scientific process constitutes one movement which involves both the physical and metaphysical, both facts and ideas, both experiment and experimenter, both matter and consciousness. According to this view the individual's perception of reality is a function of consciousness    The level of consciousness upon which the scientist operates determines their mode of knowing and their mode of contemplation. Different modes of knowing correspond to different 'levels' or 'states of consciousness' - 'mind level', 'existential level', 'ego level', 'shadow level'. The person's sense of identity is intimately related to the level of consciousness from which they operate. A shift in their mode of knowing results in a shift in their basic identity which is significant for their role and self-image.

"The new wholistic science includes more 'participatory methodology' based on the subjective experiences of the observer in experimental situations. Based on the assumption of oneness and wholeness, it validates the inner subjective experience as well as objective physical sense data. It is not possible to have a truly meaningful education for the 'humanization' of society without the scientific recognition of the intrinsic nature and value of what it is to be human. The worldview of wholistic science does recognize the intrinsic nature and value of the human inner life. It is therefore possible to have a truly meaningful wholistic education if it is based on the wholistic paradigm and the scientific recognition of the human inner life. A wholistic education is possible within the context of the worldview of a wholistic science. With the scientific recognition of the inner life, the wholistic worldview permits a global view of the human being as a 'totality of body, soul and spirit.' Scientific discoveries of the interrelations of body, soul and spirit are reflected in a new educational paradigm. The new pedagogical methodology recognizes that the child's learning experiences and learning difficulties are global in nature. The global view of the child and the learning process "can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." (Gerald Karnow, "Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life," Holistic Education Review vol. 5 no. 1 (Fall 1992): p. 64)

Holistic science (HOLISTIC PERCEPTION OF REALITY ) as Taoist science...  involves receptive contemplation - nonactive, noninterfering witnessing and savoring of the experience and the 'realness' of nature.

Tao is the ultimate essence of reality or 'ultimate reality'.... a process of continual flow and change

The polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang' are the extreme poles of a single whole cycle; they are not two separate categories.  Putting them into separate categories is called 'category error'...

 THE RESULT OF CATEGORY ERROR IS PERCEPTION OF OPPOSITES...PERCEPTION OF DICHOTOMY...DICHOToMOUS PERCEPTION...LIMITED COGNITION OR PERCEPTION...NOT WHOLISTIC ACCURATE PERCEPTION OF REALITY BUT INNACURATE LIMITED DICHOToMOUS

DICHOTOMOUS PERCEPTION OF "REALITY" IS RESULT OF CATEGORY ERROR. ...PERCEIVING OPPOSITE CHARACTERS AS SEPARATE CATEGORIES WHEN IN FACT THEY ARE THE "EXTREME POLES OF A SINGLE WHOLE CYCLE" PLACING THINGS IN SEPARATE CATEGORIES WHEN THEY ARE IN FACT OPPOSITE POLES OF A WHOLE CYCLE OF CHANGE IS CALLED MAKING "CATEGORY ERROR".

PERCEPTION OF REALITY ...IF THE INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT "SEE" THE CATEGORY ERROR AND THINKS AND BEHAVES ACCORDING TO THE INNACURATE DISTORTED DICHOTOMOUS PERCEPTION.. THE RESULT IS BEHAVIOUR WHICH IS NON_ADAPTIVE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL AND FOR THE SPECIES.

"The Chinese philosophers saw reality, whose ultimate essence they called Tao, as a process of continual flow and change. In their view all phenomena we observe participate in this cosmic process and are thus intrinsically dynamic. The principal characteristic of the Tao is the cyclical nature of its ceaseless motion; all developments in nature - those in the physical world as well as those in the psychological and social realms - show cyclical patterns. The Chinese gave this idea of cyclical patterns a definite structure by introducing the polar opposites 'yin' and 'yang', the two poles that set the limits for the cycles of change: 'The yang, having reached its climax retreats in favor of the yin; the yin having reached its climax retreats in favor of the yang.' In the Chinese view, all manifestations of the Tao are generated by the dynamic interplay of these two archetypal poles, which are associated with many images of opposites taken from nature and from social life. It is important, and very difficult for us Westerners, to understand that these opposites do not belong to different categories but are extreme poles of a single whole. Nothing is only yin or only yang. All natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous oscillation between the two poles, all transitions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. The natural order is one of dynamic balance between yin and yang." (Fritjof Capra The Turning Point 35)

 

"It is the dichotomized, solely abstract knowledge that is so dangerous, the abstractions and the systems that are opposed to or dichotomized from experiental knowledge instead of being built upon it and integrated with it. ...abstract knowledge dichotomized from experiential knowledge is false and dangerous; but abstract knowledge built upon and hierarchically integrated with experiential knowledge is a necessity for human life."

Dichotomous perception of reality results from the abstraction of reality  DIVORCE OF REALITY FROM THEORY  The opposite is integration of theory with reality 'praxis' first define reality as ultimate reality not reality perceived with distorted dichotomous perception reality is a result of perception...if the perception is distorted then the perceiver's 'reality ' is distorted.. PSYCHOSIS the perceiver is psychotic.... not perceiving the distortion of his own distorted perception 

 According to the new paradigm of holistic science, the universe is a mirror or looking-glass - 'things go the other way'. Reference is made to Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking-Glass. Looking-glass scientists of looking-glass science design experiments in a new theoretical framework in which the scientists themselves are being observed.

 The scientific process is one movement involving both the physical and metaphysical, both facts and ideas, both experiment and experimenter, both matter and consciousness. Both are natural powers through which the organism understands its environment. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be resolved when considered in the framework of this emerging worldview. 

"In quantum theory individual events do not always have a well defined cause. For example, the jump of an electron from one atomic orbit to another, or the disintegration of a subatomic particle, may occur spontaneously without any single event causing it. We can never predict when and how such a phenomenon is going to happen; we can only predict its probability. This does not mean that atomic events occur in completely arbitrary fashion; it means only that they are not brought about by local causes. The behaviour of any part is determined by its non-local connections to the whole, and since we do not know these connections precisely, we have to replace the narrow classical notion of cause and effect by the wider concept of statistical causality. The laws of atomic physics are statistical laws, according to which the probabilities for atomic events are determined by the dynamics of the whole system. Whereas in classical mechanics the properties and behaviour of the parts determine those of the whole, the situation is reversed in quantum mechanics; it is the whole that determines the behaviour of the parts." (Fritjof Capra. The Turning Point 86

The person operating on the 'ego level' of consciousness contemplates with a symbolic and dualistic mode of knowing. In dualistic fashion they become an object to themselves and form a symbolic picture of themselves. This is 'dualistic self-knowledge.' Contemplation within the framework of dualistic self-knowledge produces feelings of alienation from the environment

The person operating on the 'mind level of  consciousness contemplates with a global or 'holistic' mode of knowing. In holistic fashion they live in harmony with themselves. This is holistic self-knowledge. Contemplation within the framework of holistic self-knowledge produces feelings of oneness with the environment.

 Shifting from the dualistic mode of contemplation to the holistic mode involves a shift in sense of identity from dualistic self-knowledge to holistic self-knowledge and thus a shift from a dualistic to a holistic perception of the environment.  

  As a biological social organism, the human organism depends for survival on an instinctive interest in understanding the realities of the natural and the social environment. Comprehension of the realities of the world depends on a perception of reality which is naturally holistic. The object of perception is perceived in its uniqueness and at the same time in its relation to the totality of which it is a part. Instinctively dependent on an intense interest in reality... 'curiosity', the human organism is affected and stimulated emotionally as well as intellectually. In the instinctive attempt to comprehend the world, both intellectual and emotional powers are combined in a naturally holistic perception of reality. The emotional power of understanding or 'love' combines with the intellectual power of reflection and cognition or 'reason'. Love and reason are inseparable.

Holistic perception required for effective adaptation to changing social environment ...'adaptability'   Both are natural powers through which the organism understands its environment. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be  resolved when considered in the framework of this emerging worldview. 

New metaphors, new concepts, new words are required for the elimination of dichotomies. One word which represents a useful concept for the elimination of dichotomy is 'embeddedness.' Human beings cannot be considered  in isolation. They are embedded in a social environment and in nature. Perceived in terms of the metaphor of 'embeddedness' opposites and dualisms disappear.

 

Implications for education Education for holistic science is education for mind level consciousness and holistic perception of reality. Education for holistic science is education for responsibility... responsible use of freedom as free will... for personality development ...for spiritual development and maturity of conscience.

Educational goals are set within the framework of a prevailing worldview or paradigm. Critical to educational policy is the following question: "which worldview is shaping the goals of education?" Information is presented and reflected upon within the context of an accepted worldview. In the past, the worldview of empirical science has been shaping the goals of education. This worldview is now being challenged by the worldview of wholistic science. The goals of education are being shaped by the new wholistic science". ( Willis Harman, The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. September 1992: 15-25)

"I believe that the single most powerful contribution that the holistic education movement is making to the field of educational theory is the power of the metaphor of holism, i.e. of being aware of the parts, the sum of the parts, and that which is more than the sum of the parts. Further work is obviously needed to develop a more comprehensive theoretical framework that gives sufficient attention to all the important dimensions of human experience and education." (David Purpel. 'Holistic Education in a Prophetic Voice' in Miller et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times. p. 83)

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  Brain research provides the evidence for a rational basis of brain-based learning and wholistic education. "Recent findings in brain research suggest that it is possible to understand the functioning of the brain once there is sufficient explanation for the specific functions of individual nerve cells and their connections. The resulting patterns of nerve impulses, neural circuits and networks form the basis of the brain's functions. The knowledge gained from findings in brain research forms the basis for theories of brain-based learning and can be applied to educational philosophies and pedagogies. The findings confirm the antagonism between 'traditional' teaching methods and the natural learning function of the brain". (Conner, James "Cutting Edge: Mind & Molecules" Journal of Developmental Education vol 16, number 3, Spring 1993: 34)

“Our perception and images of the world affect our experience of the world.“ (David Purpel 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Bergin and Garvey Publishers Inc., Boston, MA p.133)

 references:

Briggs, J.P. and David Peat, F.D. Looking Glass Universe: The Emerging Science of Wholeness. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Capra, Fritjof The Turning Point

Edelglass, Stephen "Holistic Science: Detachment and Participation" Holistic Education Review September 2, 1992:32-35

Harman,Willis  The Shifting Worldview: Toward a More Holistic Science," Holistic Education Review. Sept. 1992: 15-25

Popper K. and John Eccles. The Self and Its Brain. New York, London: Springer International, 1979

Zukav, Gary. "The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics." New York: William Morrow, l979

 
Walsh, Roger and Frances Vaughan (eds) Beyond Ego:Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980

   'paradigm' ...'the entire constellation , values, techniques, and so on shared by the members of a given community.' In this sense - as a set of shared constructs - a paradigm in science is on the same order as other community-shared worldviews - e.g. Buddhism. The means by which paradigms are perpetuated and transmitted are akin to the process of socialization into any other group-specific reality. Professional training is a secondary socialisation whereby the fledgling scientist acquires a role-specific paradigm." (Kuhn p 30)

 The individuals of a community share a given set of constructs, values, and techniques which together are referred to as a 'paradigm' (Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Univ of Chicago Press, l970)

As a physicist turned historian, Thomas Kuhn analyses the picture of objective and progressive science in his book published in l962 and entitled "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". As opposed to the philosopher's question which might be "what 'should' scientists do?"  Kuhn focuses on the question "what is it that scientists really do when they make theories and perform experiments?" His historical analysis teaches us that, in the past and present, the question is concerned with the formulation of scientific theories and assumptions within the context of changing perspectives of reality. He teaches us that science is a looking glass activity in a looking-glass universe. The new scientific theorists, called looking-glass scientists of looking-glass science,tell us that the universe is a mirror or 'looking-glass'; "the things go the other way". Specific reference is made to the following paragraphs from Lewis Carroll's book "Through the Looking-Glass:     

  "Now, if you'll only attend, Kitty, and not talk so much, I'll tell you all my ideas about looking-glass House. First, there's the room you can see through the glass - that's just the same as our drawing-room only the things go the other way. I can see all of it when I get upon a chair - all but the bit just behind the fireplace. Oh, I do so wish I could see that bit! "...Let's pretend the glass has got all soft like gauze, so that we can get through..." She was up on the chimney-piece while she said this, though she hardly knew how she got there. And certainly the glass was beginning to melt away, just like a bright silvery mist. In another moment Alice was through the glass, and jumped lightly down into the looking glass room ......"I'm sure I don't know," the Lion growled out as he lay down again. "There was too much dust to see anything. What a time the Monster is cutting up that cake!" the great dish on her knees, and was sawing away diligently with the knife. "It's very provoking !" she said, in reply to the Lion (she was getting quite used to being called "the Monster"). "I've cut several slices already, but they always  join on again!" "You don't know how to manage looking-glass cakes," the Unicorn remarked. "Hand it round first and cut it afterwards."This sounded nonsense, but Alice very obediently got up, and carried the dish round, and the cake divided itself into three pieces as she did so. "Now cut it up," said the Lion, as she returned to her place with the empty dish... 

   Kuhn's analysis of scientific activity explains the process of science. For most working scientists, major theories are models or 'paradigms'. Supplying general outlines and direction for scientific activity, a paradigm can be likened to a map. Examples of paradigms include theories such as quantum mechanics, theory of relativity, elementary particle nature of matter, the theory of evolution, and models such as the planetary model of the atom, the double helix model of DNA, and the flowing current model of electricity. The paradigms determine the theoretical structure or framework within which experiments are designed. Like spectacles, the paradigms determine the working scientists' perceptions. In this way, experimental data and observations are analysed within the context of the prevailing paradigm. Data which do not fit the paradigm engender  a 'paradigm crisis'. (An example of a paradigm crisis is the inability of classical Newtonian mechanics to explain the dual nature of light; the behaviur of photons as waves and particles.) New theories arise to explain The 'anomalous' observations  cannot be explained by the theoretical structure within which the experiment has been designed. New theories arise to explain the data and soon a new paradigm replaces the old one. This is known as 'paradigm shift'. As a result of a paradigm  shift, the theoretical framework changes. The 'spectacles' of one paradigm are replaced by those of another paradigm. As a result of the change, the working scientists' perceptions change. Experiments are designed in the new theoretical framework. (For example particle accelerators are designed in the context of the subatomic matter paradigm). The data are interpreted in terms of its support for or detraction from the new paradigm. The outcome leads either to the continued validty of the prevailing paradigm or to another paradigm shift. A new generation of working scientists accepts the new structural framework as 'true'. New sets of experiments are designed in the context of the new paradigm and the new point of view. In this way the process continues and science 'progresses'.     Kuhn explored the periods of 'paradigm, crises' when new theories arise to explain observations considered anomalous within the prevailing paradigm. Some scientists will try to fit the anomalous data into the old paradigm and others will propose new theories to explain the anomalous data in a new paradigm. Kuhn explained that such controversial situations should not exist according to Popper's falsification testing of theories. What happens in fact is that scientists working...


 

SCIENTIFIC METHOD The most recent of the great insights that have invited man to maturity came with the development of science. The scientific method is not commonly regarded as an insight into human nature; but this, in its essence, is what it is. Science is a systematized expression of the fact that the human organism is capable of transcending its own limitations of sense and of subjectivity. 'subjective biology': looking within for the real self... involves the effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional developmental needs capacities and reactions - cognitive, psychological, temperamental, emotional, anatomical, physiological ...one's biological individuality. It involves the experiencing of one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species, one's biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances. human nature - the innate 'nature' of the human organism. Maslow was a critic of 'official' science and proposed "a religionizing of all that is secular." He called orthodox science a "crippled half-science" and orthodox religion a "crippled half-religion." Giving short shrift to values and emotions, science cripples itself. Taught that 'values' are subjective evaluations and 'emotions' cannot be trusted, scientists are led to believe that both distort the world of objective fact. They should not be taken into account in descriptions of 'reality.' The orthodoxy of the scientific institution has created a desacralized science, devoid of values and feelings of "humility, reverence, mystery, wonder, and awe." Denying the reality of these feelings, scientists have cut themselves off from the most real aspects of the 'reality' of the world.

 His self-forgetfulness can certainly be called a transcendence of the ego... 'self-transcendance'. His absolute morality and honesty and total truth can certainly be called a 'religious' attitude, and his occasional thrill or peak-experience, the occasional shudder of awe, of humility and smallness before the great mysteries he deals with-all these can be called sacred. The self-actualizing scientist does not seek the rewards of research grants and professional chairs. As a self-actualizing person, the psychologically healthy scientist seeks the truth of nature and is a good scientist without trying to be one."

The self-actualising scientist

 The job of the scientist is to see reality for what it is. As a self-actualizing person, the psychologically healthy scientist seeks the truth of nature and is a good scientist without trying to be one. The scientist is not the clever manipulator of instruments, he is the worshipper of nature...the thing we should cultivate in our teachers is more the spirit than the mechanical skill of the scientist...the direction of the preparation should be towards the spirit rather than towards the mechanisms. The 'psychologically healthy scientist' - a self-actualizing human being - approaches his work with love, devotion, and self-abnegation, as if he were entering a holy of holies.

Science is about 'truth'. "Science is in the service of a value and so are all scientists." (See Bronowski, J.1. The Common Sense of Science. London: Heinemann, 1951. 2. Science and Human Values. New York: Harper and Row, 1956. 3. "The Values of Science" in New Knowledge in Human Values, ed. A.H. Maslow, New York: Harper & Row, 1959.)

      There has been a critically important breakthrough in physics in the last few decades that has radically changed our understanding of the nature of Nature.It has been discovered is that the underlying assumption (principle of ‘locality’… being bound and limited by space and time) implicit in our scientific understanding of the physical world for centuries, is categorically wrong. In a brilliant series of experiments conducted in the 1970s and ‘80s, and which have been continually refined and made more rigorous throughout the ‘90s and on into the 21st century, it has been shown that the principle of locality does not apply at the most fundamental and essential levels of matter, energy, and information.

    In a non-local universe, at the most primary level, there is a way in which information is getting around so fast that it takes no time at all. The inherent non-locality of nature provides for instantaneous information distribution throughout all of space. Light is the very substance and foundation of being, but as we know, according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, time stops at the speed of light. For light, there is no time. Thus, light itself is essentially timeless by its very nature. Light is therefore a non-temporal standing wave pattern of energy/information. Being non-temporal or synchronic, the information encoded in light is available everywhere at the same time, and is thus non-local. Physics has proven that separation is an illusion at the most fundamental and essential level of the unified field

    Due to this intrinsic atemporality of the fabric of reality, information and informing influences can get around the universe in ways that are instantaneous, unmitigated and immediate. The universe is thus able to choreograph its movements by being informed and thus orchestrated and co-ordinated by information from the whole informing every part. All apparently separate entities such as people as individuals are actually indissolubly united in one singular invisible and indivisible being or field. We may appear to be separate beings and on the conventional order of reality it makes sense and is useful to treat each other as discrete, encapsulated and separate entities, but when it comes down to dealing with the fundamental nature of reality, none of us are truly separable from each other. The only unified singularity of existence that will not ultimately admit separations is Being itself and all that that implies.

    The psychological implications of embracing the reality of a non-local universe are enormous and vastly transformative of the entire field of psychology, and by extension, every other form of collective human activity. Certain functions of the human psyche must now be understood to operate as a non-local quantum field in which we all participate in an interconnected and interdependent mind-field. Thus, any problem arising in the sphere of the human family can ultimately be seen as having something to do with each and every one of us. We are co-participants in all that occurs in the entire human world. This knowledge brings with it great responsibility—universal responsibility, in fact. In taking this total responsibility for our lives and our inescapable impact upon the entire human world and beyond, literally upon all that lives for generations to come, we become aware that we have greater power than we have previously understood and become self-empowered to act as conscious agents of change, healing, and transformation.

    

STRUCTURALISM "The superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (H. Rosen The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, 2.)