Holistic Paradigm for Socially Responsible Education:

                                                        Teacher as 'Facilitator of Learning'                                                                                     

         For children growing up in the complex world of the 'global village' an effective philosophical framework or 'paradigm' for educational theory is one based on the knowledge of learning as a natural process. Insights on the physiological mechanisms of natural learning i.e. 'biology of learning' provide evidence which validates education as the practice of freedom for learning as creativity and productivity or 'work'. Freedom to work... 'freedom in education'... is foundational to education of the individual as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'.

 

Communication technology is making information readily available and as a result of the expansion of communications the roles of educational institutions become less concerned with providing content and  more concerned with facilitating learning.  Consequently the function of the teacher is to facilitate the learning process. The teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'Key to this new teaching paradigm is recognition of the learner's intrinsic motives for self-directed learning or 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsically motivated learning is the most socially useful learning... the learning of learning itself... the continuing openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change... i.e. the responsibility of 'freedom'. Education for freedom engages the cultivation of open-minded attitudes for acquiring knowledge i.e. 'creative intelligence'. Development of creative intelligence depends on encouragement and facilitation of self-directed learning. The facilitative teacher understands the psychological value of creativity and productiveness or 'work'. Work which is meaningful engages personal growth and development. Personal development involves a deep and lasting process which pervades the person's thought and behaviour throughout life i.e. 'lifelong learning'. There is a shift of emphasis from teacher control and teaching techniques to the process of learning and learner interest. 

          
The attention of educators is being drawn away from the traditional paradigm of the behavioural sciences and shifted towards the findings of brain research or 'neuroscience' . Over the past several decades the science of the brain or 'neurobiology' has merged with the science of the mind or 'psychology' to produce a new science concerned with the biological basis of the mental functions of learning or 'cognition' as a natural function of the human brain as brain/mind i .e. 'psychobiology'. Cognitive functions are analysed in terms of physiological mechanisms involving the the transmission of nerve impulses along nerve cells or 'neurons' and across their interconnections the synapses. In the new 'cognitive paradigm' new concepts of brain functioning are being applied to teaching techniques which are confluent with the brain's rules for learning or 'brain-based learning'... i.e. 'brain-compatible pedagogies'. The implications for teaching... traditional praradigm: teaching as instruction...  new cognitive paradigm: teaching as facilitation of learning.

                                                       In the paradigm of holistic education the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.

"The function of the teacher is to concentrate on creating a classroom climate to facilitate self-initiated learning, the freedom to learn and learning to be free. First the students must be allowed to be free and responsible then they must confront real life problems. The teacher who is genuine and sincere, with a confident view of man and a profound trust in the human organism, functions effectively in a student-centered setting for education. Able to accept his feelings as his own, he has no need to impose them on others. He can be angry, sensitive, sympathetic and a real person in his relationship with people. He values the feelings and opinions of his students whom he regards as imperfect human beings with many potentialities. Never denying a child's feelings, he has empathic awareness of the process of learning and education from the student's point of view. Equally important to these attitudes is the teacher's function as a provider of resources and raw materials which the student can use, as well as a guide to channels, human or otherwise, by which students can avail themselves of resources relevant to their own needs. The teacher offers himself as the main resource and the degree to which he is used is up to the student. In this student-centered educational setting, students discover what it means to be autonomous, spontaneous, creative, and self-disciplined in their efforts to reach their own goals. With hard work, frustration and perseverence they learn the satisfaction of responsible freedom. They gain in personal psychological maturity, learn mutual respect and the values of cooperation and friendship." (Carl Rogers, Person to Person: The Problem of Being Human Lafayette CA: Real People Press, 1967 page 57)

                                        The facilitative teacher teaches according to natural rules of brain functioning... 'teach to the brain'...

 

Traditional paradigm:

                                       teacher's role as instructor is based on concept of knowledge as content and therefore finite ... 

Holistic paradigm:

                                      concept of knowledge as 'process' of reasoning or 'reason' and therefore not finite ...  

                                                                                                                                                                                        

                                              teaching and learning for personal development...   depends on meaningful work...  

                                              teaching of knowledge as process is the facilitation of learning...

meaningful learning depends on creation of a learning environment which provides conditions required for optimal functioning of the brain...   brain-compatible teaching...

optimal learning as the concern of holistic education...   global approach to lesson planning...

teacher attitudes or 'attributes'...

                            personality congruence     unconditional positive regard    empathic understanding

formation of teachers as facilitators of learning i.e. 'teacher training'...

                                  

  conditions for growth promoting climate...

 

importance of teacher's personality...  

            

facilitative teacher...   facilitative teacher as guide to resources...     self-evaluation..

 

 teacher training...

 Traditional or 'behavioural' 'paradigm'... concept of knowledge as 'content' and teacher's role as 'instruction' of finite knowledge... The paradigm of traditional education is based on the assumption that 'knowledge' is finite and unchanging... a static perception of knowledge as content which can be replicated for possession and consumption.  In this sense knowledge is perceived as finite and presented as a quantitatively measurable 'ingredient' of education which the learner is expected to possess and be prepared to replicate at a later date in order to control their future. Learning is perceived as a process of repetition or or memorization... conditioned learning or 'conditioning' is 'rote learning'.

This static perception of knowledge has a malignant effect on the function of the teacher and teacher training. In the traditional paradigm of education as 'schooling' teachers are trained to perform highly exclusive and acquired skills of instruction and the control of learning through the use of authoritarian 'teaching techniques'. The job of transference and distribution or 'instruction' of knowledge as content is allocated to those who considered of higher status and supposedly wiser. Teaching as instruction does not necessarily provide for accuracy of evaluation and social adaptation or 'adaptability'. This is because there is little regard for the inner life in terms of human motives for personality growth and development i.e. 'human needs'. The basic mistrust of the 'human personality' or 'human nature' translates into the desire to reward, punish and control learning and learning experiences. Ignoring the inner life of personal growth is based on ignorance of the natural function of the brain as maker of meaning of experience... it therefore hampers development of rational thought or  'reason' as the basis for human knowledge as process of understanding.   

  Holistic or cognitive paradigm: enlightened perception of knowledge as 'process of reasoning' or 'reason' Knowledge through reason is elusive and ever-changing and cannot be possessed. Knowledge based on inquiry and reason is scientific knowledge or 'real knowledge'. Real knowledge is constantly changing and elusive. It is a 'catalyst' which stimulates learning and growth. The acquisition of knowledge through reason is a function of mature growth and development for 'self-fulfillment' or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is a function of acquisition of knowledge of one’s own nature, knowledge of one's 'human nature', one’s 'Self' or 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge involves recognition and respect for one's intrinsic needs for developmental growth - the basis for education for personal growth and development i.e. 'person-centred education' or ‘holistic education’. Holistic education is education for development of the human personality or 'personal development'.

"The teacher in the new role realizes that knowledge is all around us, overwhelming in its diversity and oppressive in its insistent challenge to our beliefs; that to live in this age is to be always learning - which also means clearing the mind of obsolete ideas... and to help people accomodate to that fact; that the task is to be a mediator in the encounter between the individual and the mass of information, factual, conjectural and mythological which daily threatens to engulf him, an encounter in which selection and use of knowledge becomes more important than its absorption.... The teacher's responsibility goes far beyond the transmission of knowledge... (to) teaching how knowledge can be sought, validated, assimilated and used as a basis for further learning, for forming and modifying goals and ideas, and for rational decision making. He(she) is not so much a source or a purveyor as a guide to sources, an organizer of opportunities and an instructor in the techniques of inquiry and thought. His (her) knowledge is not an ingredient in the student's education, to be consumed and used up, but a catalyst promoting the reactions of learning and growth as a result of the encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge." (Norman Goble. The Changing Role of the Teacher. Paris, France: UNESCO 1977 p. 56)  

 Personal development depends on meaningful learning or 'work' as the expression of adaptability to a life of responsible freedom: Personal development depends on the recognition and respect for the psychological value of human creativity and productivity or 'work'. Work which is authentic, creative and productive is 'meaningful'. Meaningful work is an aspect of human behaviour which expresses the individual's positive interaction with the environment i.e. 'successful adaptation' or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on personal growth and development ...responsibility of freedom...  contentment or 'happiness'.  Adaptability represents harmonious contact with the reality of life in the form of freedom to engage in meaningful work. Connectedness with the environment  through meaningful work is a characteristic of 'mental health'. Work activity of the healthy personality - 'normalised' or 'normal' - engages the attention to such a degree that the whole person is involved and the work becomes a free expression of their true nature... the nature of their 'human personality' i.e. 'human nature'. Human nature is defined by the 'human values'. This 'psychological value of work' makes it relevant or 'adaptive' to a life of responsible 'freedom'.The responsible exercise of freedom depends on cultivation of 'morality' or 'social intelligence'

 The symbolic communication or 'teaching' of knowledge has to be constantly enriched in order to accomodate new observations, new perceptions and new realities. The teacher as communicator of knowledge has a social responsibility to teach in the context of knowledge as a process which involves  research, verification, validation and application. This results in the modification of old ideas, the creation of new ones, and the potential for the accomplishing change which is  beneficial. The effect of this enlightened perception of knowledge is to transform both the aim of teaching and the role of the teacher. In the new teaching paradigm, the techniques of teaching are of secondary importance to the process of learning. Teaching is defined in terms of the facilitation of a lasting process of meaningful learning which is deep and pervades the learner's life and behaviour. The teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.  As authoritative 'facilitator' the teacher acts as a catalyst to facilitate self-initiated and self-directed learning or 'real learning'. The facilitative teacher is involved with the preparation of learning environments conducive to motivation by the intrinsic motives for learning behaviour i.e. 'human needs'. These include 'basic psychological needs' for self-esteem - the 'ego needs' - and the 'higher psychological needs'  for spiritual growth - the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. Metaneeds are functional in natural growth and development of the total personality or 'personal development'.  Personal development depends on self-initiated and self-directed learning which engages creativity and productiveness or 'meaningful work'. Work which is meaningful engages the person's recognition and evaluation of their own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'. While encouraging initiative and self-directed learning, the facilitative teacher makes correct assessments of learners' progress. Learners are encouraged to think for themselves while engaging the optimal functioning of the  brain i.e. ‘optimalearning

"Teachers must become facilitators of learning ...for teachers to become facilitators, a new model for educational theory and practice is desperately needed. Because it is the brain which learns, it is the brain which we use as the basis of our model." (Doll, W.E.J. Complexity in the Classroom. Educational Leadership 47, 1: 65-70)

Meaningful learning depends on creation of a learning environment which provides conditions required for optimal functioning of the brain: 'optimalearning'  The facilitation of effective and meaningful learning (most significant learning is acquired through doing) depends on the encouragement of intrinsic motivation and self-evaluation. These in turn depend on the creation of conditions required for optimal functioning of the 'brain'. The brain is a 'pattern detector' which 'makes meaning' of experience or 'learns'. In its search for meaning in the environmental stimuli of experience, the brain detects  relationships or 'patterns of connections'. Effective (meaningful) learning is 'experiential learning'  Learning is a mental process involving the whole person - unconscious motivations or 'feelings' influence conscious thought or 'cognition'. Cognition which engages the optimal functioning of the brain is 'optimal learning' or ptimalearning'. Optimal learning engages the brain as a pattern detector with a natural capacity for making connections and finding relationships in its instinctive search for meaning or in experience... 'experiential learning'.,Optimalearning is global or 'holistic learning' or 'natural learning' i.e. 'brain-based learning'. Learning involves the propagation of electrochemical signals or 'nerve impulses' along nerve cells or 'neurons' and their transmission across the interconnections or 'synapses'. Synapses are modified ('synapse modification') so as to create new patterns of 'neural circuits'. The ability to mold neural tissue - 'neural plasticity' - constitutes the physical trace of learning or 'engram' as the retention of learning or 'memory'. See 'biology of learning'...

 The brain-based approach to teaching or 'brain-compatible' pedagogy   Learning is a mental process which involves the whole person – feelings as well as intellect or 'cognition'. Teaching the whole person is the function of the teacher as ‘facilitator of learning’. The facilitative teacher teaches to the brain's rules for integrating parts and wholes and for integrating new experience with learned experience. The teacher establishes with the learner a genuine rapport based on mutual trust, inspires confidence so that learners realize their own capabilities, stimulates learner interest, encourages active involvement in learning and provides optimal learning conditions and resources to create a growth-promoting climate. Pedagogy which is based on the biological 'principles of brain-based learning is described in terms of the global or 'holistic' functioning of the brain i.e. 'brain-compatible pedagogy'. Brain-compatible pedagogy treats the learner as a unique person, worthy of respect and having the right to evaluate their own experience in their own way with freedom to choose in any situation in which they seem capable of bearing the consequences of their choice.  Methods of brain-compatible pedagogy acknowledge the value of learning as a natural process. They teach to the natural function of the brain as a 'pattern detector'...  They teach to the  brain's natural capacities of comparing, patterning and categorising by providing learning experiences which require the learner to search for patterns, relationships, connections and to organise information and recognise interrelationships. They stimulate the brain's natural capacity for making connections between parts and wholes... integrating parts and wholes... subject matter is presented in a way which stimulates the holistic functioning of the brain.... brain-based holistic learning.They encourage the learner's natural capacity to make connections between their learning and life. They help the learner in their overall development - physical, mental, emotional and spiritual.

depends on 'education' (from the Latin 'educare' meaning to 'lead out' or 'bring forth') which facilitates the development of the individual's potential for meaningful work. The purpose of education is to cultivate open-mindedness or 'intelligence' - the ability to think for oneself on the basis of observation and inquiry or natural 'curiosity'. Curiosity is rooted in the instinct of 'self-preservation' and provides the driving force behind the individual's natural capacity for intrinsic motivation for learning. Intrinsically motivated learning is the basis for 'holistic education' which is concerned with how knowledge can be sought, validated, assimilated and used as a basis for further learning, for forming and modifying goals and ideas, for making the rational decisions which are required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions or 'adaptability'.

Human adaptability depends on the ability to control and evaluate perceptions and to extract appropriate information... depends on self-initiated learning... intrinsic motivation for meaningful work... the right degree of challenge... previously learned experience is integrated with new experience... the acquisition of knowledge is meaningful and significant if it is relevant to adaptation to changing environment.

.........

Education as preparation for life of responsible freedom ...'educational crisis'... At the heart of the educational crisis is the problem of declining motivation or the 'problem of motivation'. Motivation is enhanced when the teachers are mentors who regard their students as unique persons with the right to express their own feelings and their own opinions. The infinite number of daily choices and actions shapes the developing series of changes which leads to a meaningful and mature relationship. The ever changing teacher-learner relationship is based on mutual respect and a minimum of inhibitions imposed by external controls. This growth promoting environment allows for  development of expectations for independence and open relationship to others throughout life. Independence and openness depends on education which cultivating open-minded attitudes in the search for knowledge and understanding i.e. 'intelligence'. Intelligence involves the ability to think for oneself on the basis of observation and inquiry or natural 'curiosity'. Alertness of curiosity is the basis for the individual's intrinsic motives for self-directed learning or 'intrinsic motivation' which is rooted in the instinct of self-preservation  required for successful adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The cultivation of intelligence is a of the freedom to exercise curiosity in the search for meaning in experience - 'freedom to 'learn'.  Education as the freedom to learn is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'. Holistic education is a long and indirect process of preparation for a life of freedom with self-respect which implies respect for others and for the environment i.e. 'responsible education' and depends on the teacher's role as 'facilitator of learning'.

Responsibility of freedom depends on responsible teaching as the 'facilitation of learning': 'self-evaluation' Adaptability to the responsibility of freedom depends on the self-discipline and responsibility of intelligence required for decison-making which is effective because it engages self-initiated learning motivated by the human needs i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by long term goals... and calls for a consistent method of facilitative which allows the learner to participate responsibly in the learning process. Self-initiated learning involves the whole person - 'holistic learning' - and is the lasting and pervasive. Holistic learning is sustained by the learner's evaluation of their own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'; evaluation by others is of secondary importance. Self-evaluation is functional in developmental growth to 'maturity' i.e. 'mature growth' or 'self-actualisation'. The self-actualised individual is self-reliant and independent, creative, productive and 'adaptable'. Motivation for self-actualisation - 'growth through learning' - is instinctive. Growth to maturity is the natural outcome of education based on recognition and respect for the needs of human development - intellectual, emotional, psychological, spiritual and 'moral development'. Moral development leads to the responsibility of developed 'conscience' which is defined by 'morality'. Morality of human behaviour depends on engagement in meaningful work (or play) in the context of conditions of a growth-promoting climate or 'learning environment'. Learning environments for the promotion of growth through learning are provided by responsible teaching as 'facilitation of learning'. The facilitative teacher makes correct assessments of learners' progress and moderates the evaluation process so that it becomes a contributing factor to intrinsically motivated learning. The evaluation of progress becomes an integral part of the learning process. When the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for their own purposes then significant learning takes place. Learning which involves a change in self-organisation in the perception of the self or 'ego' is threatening and tends to be resisted. When external threat to the self is low, then the learning which would otherwise be threatening to the self is more easily perceived and assimilated and development takes place. Hence the importance of a learning environment in which experience can be perceived in differentiated fashion and learning can proceed.

 "Not in the service of any political or social creed should the teacher work, but in the service of the complete human being, able to exercise in freedom a self-disciplined will and judgement, unperverted by prejudice and undistorted by fear." Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961.3)

human beings have a natural potentiality for learning, significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purposes; learning which involves a change in self-organization - in the perception of oneself is threatening and tends to be resisted; those learnings which are threatening to the self are more easily perceived and assimilated when external threats are at a minimum; when threat to the self is low, experience can be perceived in differentiated fashion and learning can proceed; much significant learning is acquired through doing; learning is facilitated when the student participates responsibly in the learning process; self-initiated learning which involves the whole person of the learner-feelings as well as intellect - is the most lasting and pervasive; independence, creativity and self-reliance are all facilitated when self-criticism and self-evaluation are basic and evaluation by others is of secondary importance; the most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of the process of learning, a continuing openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change; "H

Aim is to detect pattterns which provide meaningful context for the learning of content: the global approach to 'lesson planning' In the growth promoting climate of facilitative teaching, emphasis is placed on the importance of intrinsic motivation as the key to effective learning. The facilitative teacher selects a variety of teaching and learning materials, encourages the exploration of interests and prepares lessons which stimulate and maintain learner interest. Learning experiences or 'lessons' are designed with a view to enthusing the learner to the inmost core thus enhancing intrinsic motivation. Lessons are made intellectually challenging and meaningful. The teacher encourages the exploration of learner interests by selecting a variety of teaching and learning materials. They stimulate and maintain learner interest by organising learning opportunities which integrate lessons with real life experience. Each lesson is treated as a whole and at the same time as part of a unit. 'Lesson plans' are formulated with a view to cultivating open-mindedness i.e. 'intelligence'. Effective lesson plans are formulated  on the basis of the significance of 'mental space' in learning... intrinsic function of the brain to make sense of... to derive meaning... to 'learn' from personal experience - a natural function associated with the  'spatial memory system'.  Lessons are based on the construction of mental representations of interactive relationships or 'mental maps'. This 'map approach' to lesson planning aims to stimulate 'map learning'.  Emphasis is placed on the underlying themes that unify i.e. 'thematic teaching'. The 'unifying themes' indicate the relationships between various facets of the subject question connecting the parts to each other and at the same time  connecting the parts to the whole. Each piece of new material - a part - is introduced within the context of previously learned material - the whole. The aim of the map approach is to provide content in meaningful context.
 

The facilitative teacher teaches with one goal - the learner's growth and development to mature self-actualisation’.

Facilitative teacher as 'mediator':

The function of the teacher as 'mediator' is to promote people's confident adaptability by enhancing their security and making them aware of their own powers and their own worth. The ideal teacher would "strengthen the confidence of the student in his own capabilities, and make sure in doing so that the student was learning to assess these capabilities realistically and to exercise them with due regard for the collective interest and the rights of others. He would interpret the student's perceptions in terms of past hi story, future probability and the large perspectives of the global morality." ( David Purpel, 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Masschusetts, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc. p. 57)

 Learning made relevant through communication and collaboration: 'cooperative learning' The facilitative teacher shares with the learner the responsibility of decision-making functions in the learning process. They encourage learners to accept responsibility of their freedom to make personal choices for their own learning direction. Learners are encouraged to take charge of their own learning... to be actively involved with their own learning... to contribute effectively to their own mastery and their own understanding through the use of the brain's natural capacity for communication and collaboration i.e. 'dialogue'. The so-called method of 'cooperative learning' provides learners with opportunities to use their own command of language... to communicate their knowledge and understanding... to express themselves in discussions, projects and presentations. In this way their learning becomes relevant to real life contexts whether in the classroom, the school setting or the local community. Considerate of the effect on motivation of previous learning experiences, the facilitative teacher provides the right degree of challenge for effective motivation and shares the reponsibility of decision making functions in the learning process - encouraging the learner's freedom and self-discipline to make choices for his own learning direction and to bear the reponsibility for the consequences of those choices.

 The result of exposure to a growth-promoting climate of responsible freedom is enthusiasm for learning.

"A teacher or a culture....permits, fosters, helps and encourages to actualisation what already exists in the embryo. The culture is sun, food and water. The child is the seed". (Maslow Psychology of Being )

     "The growth of a tree is dependent on its hidden inner aspect. The growth and success of a person's life depends on his inner development, the state of consciousness. If life is the tree, the various aspects of life - family, occupation, health, friendship, education - are the branches. The quality of a person's outer life- actions, achievements, relations with the world - depends on the inner life - the mind - in the same way as the branches of a tree depend on the roots. For healthy branches, nourishment (water, minerals) is provided at the root. "...in all operations of nature, development is from within. A tree, that is nourished by the rain of heaven and the moisture of the earth, assimilates its nutriment, not through its outer bark, but through the pores of its innmost parts. On this account the gardener waters, not the branches, but the roots." (J.A. Comenius The Great Didactic, cited in Classics in Education Wade Baskin ed., New York: Philosophical Library, l966)

 

Confident adaptability depends on security of a stable self-image, a reasoned and realistic awareness of one's powers and  individual worth tempered with an equal respect for the worth of others.

For intellectual and spiritual growth, one must be prepared to change one's ideas in the face of new evidence.

 

  A more learner-centred communicative approach emphasizes initiative and  encourages the learner's natural capacities for self-initiated learning.

"To be effective, teaching methods must imply a profound trust in the human organism to develop his own potentiality" (Carl Rogers).

 Holistic education depends on a growth-promoting climate which is determined by the attitudinal qualities or 'attributes' of the facilitative teacher.

    

 Teacher as facilitator places emphasis on learner initiative The emphasis on learner initiative results in a more enlightened approach to the question of how best to train new teachers. A person who 'teaches' is in fact only one of the many people who are in a position to influence other people to 'learn'. The well trained teacher must be able to express a personal understanding of their subject and how it relates to other areas. In addition to their knowledge and skill, teachers must have the personal and social qualities which provide them with a shrewd practical awareness. They must be critically and sensitively involved. The sensitive teacher is responsible for understanding each learner in terms of their own social context. Learners' perceptions must be understood in order to respond appropriately to their interests and needs at various stages of their personal development. The teacher's  highest priority is the learner's highest development... 'self-actualisation'.

The successful teacher is able to live in the realm of the highest human values i.e. spiritual values or 'metavalues'.... 'metaneeds'. .

 

 

The facilitative teacher teaches with one goal - the learner's growth and development for self-actualization.

"The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. 106)

 

Conditions for a growth-promoting climate The attributes include a positive self-concept or 'personality congruence', fundamental trusting of the person or 'unconditional positive regard' and an understanding of what it is like to be in the other person's position i.e. non-possessive caring or 'empathic understanding'. These teacher attributes are perceived by the learner on both conscious and subconscious levels of perception. They are important in the learning process because they activate the holistic functioning of the natural organ for learning or 'brain'. 'Brain-based learning' or 'real learning' takes place in an atmosphere of mutual respect, realistic perceptions, and freedom. Everyone is both learner and teacher. Not only does the teacher teach the students but students teach each other and they teach the teacher. Teaching becomes a community project in which learners are allowed to enjoy learning for its own sake in a context of creation. They discover what it means to be autonomous, spontaneous and creative as they gain in personal psychological maturity through their own hard work, frustration and perseverance in their efforts to reach their own goals. They learn the satisfaction of responsible freedom for their own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around them. They learn the values of mutual respect, cooperation and friendship in that they contribute to safety and security and are important for reducing the threat which inhibits learning. In this learning context the teacher cares without being possessive, prizes the learner's feelings and thoughts and in this way gives rein to motivation which leads to behaviour which is productive and responsive to change ...'adaptive' i.e 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on development of 'intelligence' as a function of education of the human organism as a social organism.

 

The function of the teacher is to concentrate on creating a classroom climate which facilitates self-initiated learning or the 'freedom to learn'. As the freedom to learn, self-initiated learning depends not only on appropriate material conditions but also on appropriate teacher attitudes or 'attributes'.

  Effective facilitative teaching methods depend on the teacher's personality...  personal attitudinal qualities and positive attitudes of character or attributes. The teachers personaliy is of paramount importance. The function of the teacher is to concentrate on creating a classroom climate which facilitates self-initiated learning or the 'freedom to learn'.... depends not only on appropriate material conditions but also on appropriate teacher 'attributes'. Teacher attributes include characteristics of personal maturity or 'social intelligence' based on qualities of personal integrity or congruence between the internal and the external person or positive self-concept or 'personality congruence' which projects a genuine concern... a fundamental trusting of the person, non-possessive caring or 'unconditional positive regard' towards others, is able to understand the nature of learners' perspectives, to respond to their feeling states and accomodate learners needs with  an understanding of what it is like to be in their position i.e. 'empathic understanding'. The qualities of personality congruence preserve the social interconnectedness upon which real learning depends that is the use of accurate or 'functional' language to express genuine feelings and authentic thought... authentic dialogue. The congruent personality projects a genuine concern or 'unconditional positive regard' towards others, is able to understand the nature of learners' perspectives, to respond to their feeling states and accommodate their needs with empathic understanding. With these attributes, the teacher of integrity is like a magnet with the powerful effect of stimulating students to learn...  projects a genuine concern for students...  has the powerful effect of commanding respect and admiration while building confidence, generating trust and affection while stimulating self-initiated learning... uses mature judgement in the application of teaching techniques –pedagogical methods, lessons, curricula, textbooks, materials and so on.

The facilitative teacher, in addition to being well qualified in his/her subject matter, should be a mature person with integrity and trust in the learner as having  the potential for knowledge and insight which comes from an education providing conditions of responsible freedom and therefore fostering complete human development.

To be effective "teaching methods must imply a profound trust in the human organism to develop his own potentiality" (Carl Rogers).

"The facilitator's prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of his essential confidence and trust of the human organism". (Rogers)

Personality congruence The most important teacher attribute is a 'positive self-concept' - to be real about oneself...  'genuineness'... authenticity of the harmonious functioning of an individual's awareness and expression i.e. 'personality congruence'. The congruent personality is a vital person who is secure about themselves and their relationship with others... they are self-disclosing and able to express awareness of their own feelings - enthusiasm, anger, frustration, sympathy.

 conscious of their own feelings, accept them as their own and so on.. able to express awareness of their own feelings ... boredom, sensitivity, sweetness and light... do not need to disguise them and then impose them on others in the form of opinions and judgments They disclose their feelings and convictions... and are able to share them openly with others. They are authentic about themselves in their relationships with others. The congruent personality has a basic trust, 'prizing' the learner, his feelings, his opinions, his person; is caring without being possessive... recognizes their own need for self-empowerment. They trust their own constructive potential to increase their sense of personal power to control their own lives As a self-empowered person they are able to facilitate the self-empowerment of others. Secure about themselves and their relationship with others They have an unconditional positive regard towards others, accepting and prizing their humanity and responding to their intelligence, their opinions and their ideas.

 

 With attitudes of humility, patience, determination, sympathy, and non-possessive caring, empathy or 'empathic understanding' they are able to pay attention and assist others in gaining understanding of their own world and their behaviour in it. They listen sensitively to the feelings of others, reducing the power which others have had in inculcating guilt and fear. They trust the potential of others to think and to learn for themselves, to evaluate themselves in their own context, to understand themselves, to make constructive choices, to act responsibly and to control their own lives. The authenticity of the congruent personality enhances the authenticity of others.

 

Unconditional positive regard The congruent person has strong convictions about the essential trustworthiness of the human organism ... profound. trust in the nature of the human organism i.e. 'human nature'. They express their trust and confidence in others and operate on the basis of a 'person-centred' approach to life and learning.

An effective teacher establishes good rapport with the students in a person-centred setting... is genuine, sincere, sensitive and sympathetic, authentic, humble, patient and determined... shows the same interest in all students responding equally to their learning needs; treats them fairly and makes it clear what is expected of them; ensures the maximum learning conditions by nspiring confidence and encouraging active participation; judges them with accuracy, then makes correct assessments of their progress... motivating them by communicating enthusiasm.

an 'unconditional positive regard' towards others accepting and prizing their humanity.and responding to their intelligence, their opinions and their ideas.  

 

They convey a genuine interest in the motives of each student... in the enhancement of intrinsic motivation for learning; establishes with the learner a genuine rapport based on mutual trust and inspires confidence so that learners realize their own capabilities; stimulates learner interest and encourages their active involvement in the learning process, responding to the person's intelligence, opinions and ideas. 

derived from a They regard each individual as essentially trustworthy and therefore capable of evaluating their own situation and making constructive efforts to develop their own potentiality. They respect the other person as a behaving and reactive organism with the potential for purposeful development. They regard the educational process as a means for the instinctive development of personality and individuality...  including emotional, psychological and spiritual as well as intellectual maturation which results in development of 'moral consciousness' or 'conscience'. Developed conscience is the source of self-determination, self-respect and self-discipline.

 

Empathic understanding  The congruent person is an empathetic person who has a non-possessive caring for the other person's inner world and inner life i.e. empathy or 'empathic understanding'. They are sensitive to the feelings of others and respond to their ideas and opinions, assist them in understanding their own world and their behaviour in it. They reduce the power which others have had in inculcating guilt and fear and they help others to increase their sense of personal power to control their own lives. As empathetic educator in the context of learning situations, they are aware of the learning process from the learner's point of view. They convey a genuine interest in the learner's intrinsic motives or intrinsic motivation  for learning. They value each learner in terms of their own potentialities. They acknowledge the learner's feelings of fear for new problems as well as their feelings of satisfaction with each new achievement. The educator's basic trust in the capacity of the learner to develop their own potentiality enhances the desire to learn and the desire to work. With their attitudes of humility, patience, determination, sympathy, and non-possessive caring they are able to pay attention and assist others in gaining understanding of their own world and their behaviour in it. With their attitude of 'empathy' or 'empathic understanding' they can pay attention and assist others in gaining understanding of their own world and their behaviour in it. listen sensitively to the feelings of another person and reduce the power which others have had in inculcating guilt and fear. They trust the potential of others to think and to learn for themselves, to evaluate themselves in their own context, to understand themselves, to make constructive choices, to act responsibly and to control their own lives. With these attributes they are able to facilitate the self-empowerment of others... to be facilitators of learning.

 

The teacher as facilitator teaches with one goal - the learner's growth and development to self-actualisation. As a self-actualised individual, the facilitative teacher is a competent provider of resources... guide to resources  As a facilitator the effective teacher is technically adept and knows how to select materials in relevant contexts and of interest to the students; knows how to adapt and supplement course materials and lessons with the right degree of challenge for effective motivation. The teacher is a resource and a guide to sources and knows how to provide resources and raw materials... a guide to channels and human resources which are relevant to learners' needs and knows how to organize opportunities and to instruct in the techniques of inquiry and rational thought. The teacher is a catalyst for promoting the reactions of growth through learning and teaches  how knowledge can be sought in order to form and modify goals and ideas. The teacher represents the  encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge. The degree to which the teacher is used is up to the student. 

 

Facilitator as 'resource person' is  an effective guide to sources of knowledge.The value of knowledge - like the value of money - is measured by what it is used for... by the beneficial changes for which it is used to bring about. The teacher's knowledge is not an ingredient to be consumed and used up but acts as a catalyst which promotes or 'facilitates' learning and growth. In this sense the teacher is not so much a source or a purveyor of knowledge as a guide to sources of knowledge, an instructor of the techniques of inquiry and thought, an organiser of learning opportunities.... effective 'learning environment'.

 

These teacher attributes are perceived by the learner on both conscious and subconscious levels of perception... as peripheral stimuli which impact the subconscious level of the brain or 'mind' and therefore are essential in the creation of a growth-promoting learning environment. They are important in the learning process because they activate the holistic functioning of the natural organ for learning or 'brain'. Conditions for brain-based optimal learning depend on the teacher's function as facilitator to act as a catalyst for learning. 'Brain-based learning' or 'real learning' takes place in an atmosphere of mutual respect, realistic perceptions, and freedom. Everyone is both learner and teacher. Not only does the teacher teach the students but students teach each other and they teach the teacher. Teaching becomes a community project in which learners are allowed to enjoy learning for its own sake in a context of creation. They discover what it means to be autonomous, spontaneous and creative as they gain in personal psychological maturity through their own hard work, frustration and perseverance in their efforts to reach their own goals. They learn the satisfaction of responsible freedom for their own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around them. They learn the values of mutual respect, cooperation and friendship in that they contribute to safety and security and are important for reducing the threat which inhibits learning. In this learning context the teacher cares without being possessive, prizes the learner's feelings and thoughts and in this way gives rein to motivation which leads to behaviour which is productive and responsive to change ...'adaptive' i.e 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on development of 'intelligence' as a function of education of the human organism as a social organism.

A teacher with these attributes has the powerful effect of commanding respect and admiration while building confidence, generating trust and affection while and stimulating self-initiated learning, using mature judgement in the application of teaching techniques - pedagogical methods, lessons, curricula, textbooks, materials and so on.   

 The cultivation of teacher attributes is an important aspect of effective teacher training. The training of teachers as facilitators includes the development of their personal growth i.e. ‘personal development’. Education for personal development is 'holistic education'

Training for teachers as facilitators... importance of personal development  Effectiveness of learning depends not only on the theoretical concept of knowledge but also on the teacher's personal qualities  and positive attitudes or 'attributes'. Teacher attitudes can enhance or inhibit learning depending on whether they are positive or negative. The facilitative teacher fosters a supportive emotional climate as well as a challenging intellectual environment. The training of teachers must provide conditions for personal development as well as training for effective facilitative teaching methods or 'teaching techniques'. In addition to their knowledge and skill, teachers' personalities and social qualities are exceptionally important.  The facilitative teacher (or parent) is an independent and mature personality with the special characteristics of self-actualisation i.e. humane attitudes of respect for humanity. Training or teacher formation must involve personal development as a function of liberation from all subtle conditioning in their own education which could have deformed their natural 'humanitarian impulse'  and prevented normal personality development.   An important aspect of effective teacher training is the cultivation teacher 'attributes' such as characteristics... qualities... of personal maturity and social intelligence... which preserve the social interconnectedness through the use of accurate or 'functional language' of authentic dialogue to express genuine feelings and authentic thought... upon which real learning depends.

An effective teacher establishes good rapport with the students in a person-centred setting... is genuine, sincere, sensitive and sympathetic, authentic, humble, patient and determined... shows the same interest in all students responding equally to their learning needs; treats them fairly and makes it clear what is expected of them; ensures the maximum learning conditions by nspiring confidence and encouraging active participation; judges them with accuracy, then makes correct assessments of their progress... motivating them by communicating enthusiasm. With their confident view and profound trust the effective teacher functions as a facilitator of learning.

 

Positive teacher attitudes result in effective teaching and real learning whatever the teaching methods and whatever the learner's age or learning level.Character attitudes or 'attributes' of the facilitative teacher facilitate learning because they are processed subconsciously by the brain.  

 

 The responsibility of the educator is to facilitate the kind of learning which will empower the individual to live productively in a social context and then to free them as an intelligent being, able to utilise their talents in resolving life's problems.

 

 With their confident view and profound trust the effective teacher functions as a facilitator of learning.

 

The facilitative teacher is realistic about learner capabilities and potentialities   The facilitative teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge. They naturally command respect and admiration without imposing themselves or their knowledge and by expressing a personal understanding of their subject and its relationship to other areas of life experience. In the role of facilitator of learning the facilitative teacher focuses on the creation  of a climate which facilitates learning... is aware of the importance of the learner's recognition of their own achievement... takes into account the effect on motivation of previous learning experiences and builds on the foundations which have already been established... engages the students in active involvement, stimulates their natural interest and enhances their intrinsic motivation by pitching assigned tasks at the right level and setting standards which are realistic in terms of the students' capabilities and potentialities.... provides the necessary environmental conditions in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting

                                                  "Unfor tunately in this era of malice and greed, teaching requires a moral courage that is tragically unfashionable and widely ridiculed." (Gatto p.77)

 

 Holistic education depends on a growth-promoting climate which is determined by the attitudinal qualities or 'attributes' of the facilitative teacher.

 .

 

 Learners are confronted with meaningful and relevant real life problems and then allowed the freedom and responsibility to engage in self-initiated learning.

 

Art of teaching is inspiring children's interest with open-ended opportunities which allow for continuity of investigation and allow them to formulate their own questions. If their interests are captured at an early age, children learn to make accurate value judgements. They develop a caring and protective attitude toward their surroundings. They develop sensitivity to the forms and patterns of nature. The excitement and inspiration lasts a lifetime if captured early enough. ---- 

If it does not fit with the already existing prosters, then the information is challenged or abandoned unless there is access to further information through a process of questioning or research. Productive learning involves meaningful discussion and feedback between teacher and students; 

 Carl Rogers Freedom To Learn  Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merrill Publishing Co.,1969

 'Significant or 'experiential' learning: the whole person in both his feeling and cognitive aspects is in the learning event. (5) Learning of personal involvement is self-initiated, is pervasive, is evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence. "When is one free from tests or other types of institutional press?..... only when one submits oneself to them and rises above them." (41) "Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge, is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education in the modern world."(104) The facilitation oflearning is the aim of education." (105) "The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner."(106)

 

The responsibility of the educator is to facilitate the kind of learning which will empower the individual to live productively in a social context and then to free them as an intelligent being, able to utilise their talents in resolving life's problems.

 

 Learners are confronted with meaningful and relevant real life problems and then allowed the freedom and responsibility to engage in self-initiated learning.

The natural starting point of education is the awakening and broadening of learner interest. This depends on the establishment of a learning environment which is characterised by the teacher's positive attitudes or 'attributes'.

  Art of teaching is inspiring children's interest with open-ended opportunities which allow for continuity of investigation and allow them to formulate their own questions. If their interests are captured at an early age, children learn to make accurate value judgements. They develop a caring and protective attitude toward their surroundings. They develop sensitivity to the forms and patterns of nature. The excitement and inspiration lasts a lifetime if captured early enough. 

 

In addition to their knowledge and skill, teachers' personalities and social qualities are exceptionally important. In a Personal development involves liberation from all subtle conditioning in their own education which could have deformed their natural 'humanitarian impulse' thus enabling them to have the attributes of the facilitative teacher - 'personality congruence', 'unconditional positive regard' and  'empathic understanding'.

 

The training of teachers must include the development of their personal growth i.e. ‘personal development’. Education for personal development is 'holistic education'

 

 If it does not fit with the already existing prosters, then the information is challenged or abandoned unless there is access to further information through a process of questioning or research. Productive learning involves meaningful discussion and feedback between teacher and students;

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 The teacher of mature social judgement understands how each learner functions in a complex social context which is different from the others. The understanding of learner differences allows for flexibility which reduces the stress level on the learners as well as the teacher. The flexible teacher is able to alter and modify teaching techniques to accomodate the differences in learner interests and needs. Alterations and modifications are appropriately made to suit the age and stage of development of learners at different levels. The style of teaching accomodates the brain's instinctive drive to relate to others and encourages the social interaction which is crucial to effective learning. This is how the teacher can stimulate interest and motivation and build learner confidence which is the basis for effective learning.

 "...the thing we should cultivate in our teachers is more the spirit than the mechanical skill of the scientist... the direction of the preparation should be towards the spirit rather than towards the mechanisms." (Maria Montessori Montessori Method 8-9)

Teacher education for personality growth and development Positive teacher attributes are initially developed during the early formative years of life (moral education and 'sociocognitive stages'). They can be acquired later through a psychological and spiritual healing process of the  Eastern psychologies or 'consciousness disciplines' i.e.'transpersonal psychotherapy'.  Effective training involves the liberation from any subtle conditioning a influences of home or school education which might have thwarted or deformed their own personality development.In addition to the process of 'deconditioning' it includes reflection on the personal deeper meanings or 'motivations', the discovery of personal limitations and the desire to move beyond them.

There is one main condition which provides for the supply of stable and balanced individuals who are able to carry out the responsibilities of teaching... that is governmental policies and cultural support for education which is meaningful because it fosters personal growth and development.

Education for personality and character development produces the positive human attributes upon which effective teaching depends.

  Teachers need to undergo the appropriate inner preparation before they can guide children in their development. "Grownups and children must join their forces. In order to become great, the grownup must become humble and learn from the child." (Absorbent Mind 293)

The threat of having to meet specified outcomes The effectiveness of teachers depends on their competence as 'facilitators of learning'. The function of the facilitative teacher is to orchestrate complex 'real life' learning environments which are emotionally supportive and intellectually challenging. Emphasis on facts and outcomes may constitute a threat and thus prevent real understanding and real learning. Friendship and companionship contribute to the learner's sense of safety and security. An ongoing friendliness between teacher and learner enhances learning. The emphasis on facts and outcomes may prevent real understanding and the transfer of learning.

The ideal learning environment is one in which there is mutual respect, realistic perceptions and 'free use of creative energies' or 'freedom'.

Teaching in the context of freedom  In a social context of freedom, everyone is both learner and teacher. Learners teach each other, they teach the teacher and teachers and parents work together to enhance both teaching and learning. Learners discern the inner states of the teacher's personality. Teacher characteristics which facilitate learning are processed subconsciously by the brain as peripheral stimuli. The brain's subconscious processing is an important factor in the design of the learning environment and learner activities i.e. 'lesson plans'. An important goal in the design of learner activities or 'lesson plans' is design of the learning environment. Effective planning focuses on the creation of learning experiences in the 'here and now'. This eliminates the threat of having to accomplish set goals or 'outcomes of learning' to be evaluated and rewarded by system of 'grades'. The expected outcomes are goals that guide the lesson. The direction of further learning is determined by the learning itself or 'learner feedback'.and 'self-evaluation'. In this non-threatening climate learning becomes an expansion of knowledge for both learner and teacher.

 In the non-threatening climate of facilitated teaching, learning becomes an expansion of knowledge for both learner and teacher rather than the accomplishment of goals to be evaluated and rewarded (extrinsic motivation).

 "The secret of good teaching is to regard the child's intelligence as a fertile field in which seeds may be grown, to grow under the heat of flaming imagination. Our aim is not to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorise, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his inmost core....we seek to help the child in his growth, mental and emotional as well as physical." (Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential.Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. p. 15)

Meaningful lessons are planned in terms of learning experiences which engage the learner's intrinsic motivation and stimulate self-initiated learning.

 PEDAGOGY... PRINCIPLES OF PEDAGOGY see Caine Principles... 'principles'

 "Is there some sense in which principles of pedagogy can be derived from our knowledge of man as a species - from knowledge of his characteristic growth and dependence, of the properties of his nervous system, of his modes of dealing with culture?" (Jerome Bruner, 1971, Relevance of Education 118)

 Pedagogy: the art, practice or profession of teaching; esp. systematized learning or instruction concerning principles and methods of teachin

 Successful teacher training promotes the cultivation of teacher attributes which facilitate the activation of the natural functions of the brain - comparing, patterning and categorizing i.e. optimal learning or 'optimalearning'. Optimal learning or 'global learning' involves the global functioning of the 'brain' as organ of learning.  The brain processes information on both conscious and unconscious levels of information processing. The subconscious processing of positive teacher attributes can have an enhancing effect on the brain's natural capacity for making connections and bringing about effective learning.

       

 A teacher's personal qualities can enhance or inhibit learning depending on whether they are positive or negative. Successful teaching depends on the ability of the teacher to foster a supportive emotional climate as well as a challenging intellectual environment. Consequently the training of teachers must include the development of their personal growth as well as  training for teaching techniques.  

    Teacher training is not only a matter of training teachers to perform highly exclusive acquired skills or 'teaching techniques'. Effective teaching techniques depend on concepts of theoretical knowledge. When knowledge is perceived in terms of its potential for replication then it is an unchanging and quantitatively measurable 'ingredient' of education - to be possessed and consumed. This static perception of knowledge is the basis for expectations of the learner to memorize or 'learn by rote'. Rote does not necessarily provide for accuracy of evaluation and social adaptation in real life. For this reason teaching for the replication of static knowledge can have a deforming influence on the role of the teacher and teacher training. Real knowledge - knowledge based on inquiry and reason or 'scientific' knowledge - cannot be possessed. Knowledge is changing and elusive and therefore infinite. Knowledge of the teacher should serve as a catalyst which stimulates learning and growth. The symbolic communication of knowledge has to constantly enriched in order to accommodate new observations and new perceptions or 'paradigms'.  As a result, the teacher has a greater social responsibility. The teacher's function is to teach how knowledge can be sought and validated, how it can be applied to the modification of old ideas and the creation of new ones, how it can be used to accomplish beneficial change. This enlightened perception of knowledge has a transforming influence on the role of the teacher and teacher training.   

     In the new teaching paradigm, there is a shift of emphasis from teacher control and teaching techniques to learner interest and the learning process. The techniques of teaching are only second in importance to the learners themselves. A more learner-centred communicative approach emphasizes initiative and encourages the learner's natural capacities for self-initiated learning. The emphasis on learner initiative results in a more enlightened approach to the question of how best to train new teachers. A person who 'teaches' is in fact only one of the many people who are in a position to influence other people to 'learn'. The well trained teacher must be able to express a personal understanding of their subject and how it relates to other areas. In addition to their knowledge and skill, teachers must have the personal and social qualities which provide them with a shrewd practical awareness. They must be critically and sensitively involved. The sensitive teacher is responsible for understanding each learner in terms of their own social context. Learners'perceptionsmust be understood in order to respond appropriately to their interests and needs at various stages of their personal development. The learner's highest development should be their highest priority. The teacher's success depends on their ability to live in the realm of the highest human values or 'metaneeds'.    

Positive attributes are initially developed during the early formative years of life  They can be acquired later through a psychological and spiritual healing process of the consciousness disciplines      

    Learners discern the inner states of the teacher's personality. Teacher characteristics which facilitate the process of learning are processed subconsciously by the brain as peripheral or 'outcomes of learning' to be evaluated and rewarded (extrinsic motivation). The expected outcomes are goals that guide the lesson. The direction of further learning is determined by the learning itself or 'learner feedback'. In this non-threatening climate learning becomes an expansion of knowledge for both learner and teacher. Meaningful lessons are planned in terms of learning experiences which engage self-initiated learning and stimulate intrinsic motivation.     

 In the non-threatening climate of facilitative teaching, learning becomes an expansion of knowledge for both learner and teacher rather than the accomplishment of goals to be evaluated and rewarded . 

 The design of the learning environment is an important goal in the planning of learner activities or lesson plans.

 Teacher characteristics which facilitate learning arnd processed subconsciously by the brain

   Successful teacher training promotes the cultivation of teacher attributes which facilitate the activation of the natural functions of the brain - comparing, patterning and categorizing i.e. 'optimal learning'. Optimal learning involves the global functioning of the brain or 'global learning'. Global learning occurs on both conscious and subconscious levels of information processing. The subconscious processing of teacher positive attributes has an enhancing effect on the brain's natural capacity to make connections and bring about effective learning.  

 

    The teacher's responsibility: "teaching how knowledge can be sought, validated, assimilated and used as a basis for further learning, for forming and modifying goals and ideas, and for rational decision making. He is not so much a source or a purveyor as a guide to sources, an organizer of opportunities and an instructor in the techniques of inquiry and thought. His knowledge is not an ingredient in the student's education, to be consumed and used up, but a catalyst promoting the reactions of learning and growth as a result of the encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge." (58)

    Torsten Husen (ref 4) "MORE EMPHASIS WILL BE PUT ON LEARNING, NOT ON TEACHING..."

 

   "The old model of the teacher (based on the assumption that the teacher knows more than the student and must transfer knowledge to the student), and the whole complex set of attitudes and expectations that relates to that model, are extremely persistent."         

                            "One of the most serious obstacles  to the kind of change that we are advocating is the persistent idea that status is gained or preserved by knowing more than somebody else." When this concept is institutionalized in a school system, children are subjected to the worst features of adult society- authoritarianism and "resistance to anything perceived as a threat to authority or status."  "If the function of teacher is seen as the transmission of successive quanta of knowledge" and the knowledge itself is used as a criterion for status, then the teacher of an upper school grade has more status than a teacher of a lower grade, and the absurd equation results: "the younger the child, the lower the status of the teacher (since everyone 'knows' that younger children have had less time to ingest knowledge than the older ones, and so need less knowledgeable teachers.)" ref l. In order to prevent his own loss of status, the 'monopolist' teacher in such an institution, might devise ways to prevent the acknowledgement of a deserving student's competence, by striving to possess more knowledge and by making competence testing more difficult. "The present teaching of 'teaching techniques' too often consists of strategies for maintenance of the teacher's status, in which a passive, non-developing role is assigned to the student." In this way the 'monopolist' teacher unwittingly becomes a protector of the status of the institution, antagonizing the student who refuses to cooperate in defense of his own status and self respect. A power struggle is set up between teachers and administration on the one hand and students on the other. Evaluation of a student "must take account of the need of each individual for self-respect, for realistic self-confidence, for recognition of genuine achievement, and for the development of a positive self-image. At the same time, the notion of honest self-evaluation must be introduced as early as possible, so that the responsibility for assessment of performance can be progressively and successfully transferrred from the teacher to the student."(67) Children need to be properly guided in the process of learning to evaluate themselves. Consequently  teachers must be familiar with the psychological skills and specialized techniques required to guide the students in making accurate self-evaluations.

 

    Real knowledge is not "static, unchanging and quantitatively measureable." On the contrary, it is "dynamic and in constant flux." Treated as a status symbol and perceived quantitatively, knowledge becomes meaningless. Like money, the worth of knowledge is measured according to what it is used for and the beneficial changes which it is used to bring about. Emphasis on the teacher's possession of knowledge obscures the important fact that "the only purpose of teaching is to bring about successful learning."(66) In order to be able to respond to the needs of the student, "the teacher has to have a deep understanding of the nature of perceptions and of the learning process at various ages and stages of personal development (not just theoretical knowledge, but a shrewd practical awareness), comprehension of the idiom of speech and thought of the student, and a considerable degree of empathic understanding of the student's outlook and state of feeling." EDUCATIONISTS HAVE FAILED IN MANY ATTEMPTS AT SCHOOL REFORM BECAUSE THEY DID NOT CLEARLY PERCEIVE THE STUDENTS' NEEDS. PLANS HAVE BEEN MADE ON THE BASIS OF EITHER IMMATURE RADICALISM OR ROMANTIC IDEALISM ABOUT CHILDREN. CONSEQUENTLY EDUCATIONISTS SHOULD FIRST BE LIBERATED FROM ANY SUBTLE CONDITIONING IN THEIR OWN EDUCATION WHICH MIGHT HAVE DEFORMED THEIR NATURAL HUMANITARIAN IMPULSE. THEN PLANS SHOULD BE MADE ON THE BASIS OF SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN IN THEIR CAPACITY OF LEARNING TO PURSUE KNOWLEDGE IN ORDER TO ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT AND THUS TO GAIN STATUS IN THEIR EVALUATION OF THEMSELVES

 

Evaluation of a student "must take account of the need of each individual for self-respect, for realistic self-confidence, for recognition of genuine achievement, and for the development of a positive self-image. At the same time, the notion of honest self-evaluation must be introduced as early as possible, so that the responsibility for assessment of performance can be progressively and successfully transferrred from the teacher to the student."(67) Children need to be properly guided in the process of learning to evaluate themselves. Consequently  teachers must be familiar with the psychological skills and specialized techniques required to guide the students in making accurate self-evaluations.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT:

"When the teacher was seen in the role of purveyor of a predetermined quantity of well-established knowledge, the scope of the term 'curriculum' was narrow. It implied little more than the breakdown of the subject matter into a sequence of units, each one manageable within an allotted period of time, presenting concepts and facts in a logical order. " (68) Studies of Piaget and Bruner led to consideration of the mechanisms of intellectual growth as a part of curriculum planning. "now we have to take our concern further. When the school is seen as the major part of the environment in which the child becomes an adult, and when it is accepted that the environment should be supportive of healthy all-round growth, the meaning of 'curriculum' must be extended to encompass all that the child excperiences." (69) "In these circumstances, the terms 'curriculum' and 'extra-curricular' become blurred: THE EXPERIENCES OF THE CHILD IN WHAT USED TO BE CALLED 'EXTRA-CURRICULAR' ACTIVITIES, AND INDEED IN HIS DOMESTIC LIFE,  BECOME RELEVANT FACTORS IN THE PLANNING OF TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES."  Consequently the teacher's responsibility extends to the creation "of a series of environments favourable to the growth of the student towards desired ends, shaped to the characteristics of the student, and taking account of the effects of that part of the student's life which lies outside the school."

Husen, T. Functions of the schools of the future. In: Present trends and future developments in education: a European perspective. The Peter Sandford Memorial Lectures.Toronto. The Ontario Institute for studies in education, l973 (occasional papers no. 8)

Wittenberg,A. The Prime Imperatives. Toronto, Clarke, Irwin l968

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                                                       HolisticParadigm for Teaching: 'Teacher's Role as Facilitator of Learning'

theme: Key to the new teaching paradigm is recognition of the learner's intrinsic motives for learning or 'intrinsic motivation'. The teacher's function is to encourage and facilitate intrinsic motivation of self-directed learning. The teacher becomes a 'facilitator of learning'. As a facilitator the teacher is aware of the fact that meaningful learning is based on recognition and evaluation of one's own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'.

"The function of the teacher is to concentrate on creating a classroom climate to facilitate self-initiated learning, the freedom to learn and learning to be free. First the students must be allowed to be free and responsible then they must confront real life problems. The teacher who is genuine and sincere, with a confident view of man and a profound trust in the human organism, functions effectively in a student-centered setting for education. Able to accept his feelings as his own, he has no need to impose them on others. He can be angry, sensitive, sympathetic and a real person in his relationship with people. He values the feelings and opinions of his students whom he regards as imperfect human beings with many potentialities. Never denying a child's feelings, he has empathic awareness of the process of learning and education from the student's point of view. Equally important to these attitudes is the teacher's function as a provider of resources and raw materials which the student can use, as well as a guide to channels, human or otherwise, by which students can avail themselves of resources relevant to their own needs. The teacher offers himself as the main resource and the degree to which he is used is up to the student. In this student-centered educational setting, students discover what it means to be autonomous, spontaneous, creative, and self-disciplined in their efforts to reach their own goals. With hard work, frustration and perseverence they learn the satisfaction of responsible freedom. They gain in personal psychological maturity, learn mutual respect and the values of cooperation and friendship." (Carl Rogers, Person to Person, Lafayette CA: Real People Press, page 57)

      In the paradigm of holistic education, teaching is perceived in terms of facilitating a lasting process of meaningful learning which is deep and pervades the learner's life and behaviour. The facilitative teacher acts as a catalyst to help or 'facilitate' self-initiated and self-directed learning. The facilitative teacher recognizes the psychological value of creativity and productiveness or 'work'.. Work which is meaningful is based on recognition and evaluation of one's own achievement i.e. 'self-evaluation'. The teacher makes correct assessments of learners' progress and encourages self-initiated learning. learners are encouraged to think for themselves while engaging the optimal functioning of the brain. The brain is a pattern detector with a natural capacity for making connections and finding relationships in its search for meaning or 'learning'. Learning is a mental process which involves the whole person - feelings as well as intellect or 'cognition'. The facilitative teacher teaches to the brain's rules for integrating parts and wholes ...integrating new experience and learned experience. The teacher establishes with the learner a genuine rapport based on mutual trust, inspires confidence so that learners realize their own capabilities, stimulates learner interest, encourages active involvement in learning and provides optimal learning conditions and resources to create a growth-promoting climate. In the growth promoting climate of facilitative teaching, emphasis is placed on the importance of intrinsic motivation as the key to effective learning. The facilitative teacher selects a variety of teaching and learning materials, encourages the exploration of interests and prepares lessons which stimulate and maintain learner interest. Considerate of the effect on motivation of previous learning experiences, the facilitative teacher provides the right degree of challenge for effective motivation and shares the reponsibility of decision making functions in the learning process - encouraging the learner's freedom and self-discipline to make choices for his own learning direction and to bear the reponsibility for the consequences of those choices.

Effective facilitative teaching methods depend on the teacher's personality and character attributes. Of paramount importance are the personal attitudes which derive from the teacher's quality of authenticity and genuineness or 'personality congruence'. The congruent personality has strong convictions about the essential trustworthiness of the human organism. They express their trust and confidence and operate on the basis of a 'person centered' approach to life and learning. The congruent person has a positive self-concept. and recognize their own need for self-empowerment. They trust their own constructive potential to increase their own sense of personal power for controlling their lives. The self-empowered person is able to facilitate the self-empowerment of others. Secure about themselves and their relationship with others they are self-disclosing and able to express awareness of their own feelings - enthusiasm, anger, frustration, sympathy. They have an unconditional positive regard towards others, accepting and prizing their humanity and responding to their intelligence, their opinions and their ideas. Their attitudes of humility, patience, determination, sympathy, and nonpossessive caring, empathy or 'empathic understanding' enable them to pay attention and assist others in gaining understanding of their own world and their behaviour in it. They listen sensitively to the feelings of others, reducing the power which others have had in inculcating guilt and fear. They trust the potential of others to think and to learn for themselves, to evaluate themselves in their own context, to understand themselves, to make constructive choices, to act responsibly and to control their own lives. The facilitative teacher teaches with one goal - the learner's growth and development for self-actualization.

          

                          Facilitation of Learning: Teacher Attitudes or 'Attributes'

 

 

theme: The teacher of integrity projects a genuine concern for learners and generates trust and affection. With these attributes the teacher is like a magnet with the powerful effect of stimulating students and inviting them to learn. The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the facilitator and the learner." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn. 106)

 

     In the traditional teaching paradigm, the aim of education is envisioned in terms of transferring and distributing finite and unchanging instruction or knowledge perceived as an ingredient which the teacher possesses and which the  student must possess in order to be able to control their own future. The teacher functions as the source and transmitter of this finite knowledge and there is no regard for the learner’s inner life nor for their needs which must be fulfilled for personality growth... personal growth and development. The disregard for human needs is based on the view that human nature cannot be trusted but must be guided, instructed, rewarded, punished and controlled by those whose status is higher and who are therefore supposed to be wiser.

 

      Ignoring the inner life hampers the brain’s development of rational thought or 'reason' which is the basis for human knowledge acquired through reason which is ever-changing. The elusive quality of changing-ness makes it impossible to possess knowledge which in fact is a function of mature development or 'self-actualisation'. The process of self-actualisation involves knowledge of one’s true nature, one’s real self. So-called ‘self-knowledge’ is based on the recognition and respect for one’s developmental needs for growth or human needs’. Human needs must be recognised and respected in order for proper development to take place. It is the respect for human needs which is foundational to education which involves the provision of conditions required for complete human growth and development. conditions of the necessary growth-promoting climate includes positive teacher attitudes or 'attributes'. Effective teacher attributes include positive self-concept or 'personality congruence', fundamental trust of the other or 'unconditional positive regard' and understanding of the other's situation...  non-possessive caring or ‘empathic understanding'. The perception of teacher attributes is both conscious and subconscious. They are important to learning because they activate the natural functions of the brain which are instrumental in the process of psychological growth and development.

  

   Personality congruence is a function of the matching of awareness and expression which results in a positive self-concept and authenticity. The congruent person is a vital person who is aware of their own feelings -anger, frustration, sympathy, enthusiasm so on- and discloses them openly . They are able to share them without imposing them on others as projections disguised as opinions and judgments. Authentic about themselves and authentic in their relationships with others, they help them to be the same.

 

   Personality congruence is based on unconditional positive regard of others which is in turn derived from a profound trust in the nature of the human personality or ’human nature’. Human nature is essentially trustworthy and each individual is capable of evaluating their own situation and making constructive efforts to develop their own potentiality. The child is a behaving and reactive organism which is instinctively able to develop into a purposeful adult. The educational process is a means for the natural development of personality and individuality i.e. self-realisation or ‘self-actualisation’. Self-actualisation includes both emotional and intellectual maturation of the adult personality with the characteristics of self-determination, self-respect and self-discipline. The responsibility of the educator is to facilitate the kind of learning which will empower the individual to live productively in a social context and then to free them as an intelligent being, able to utilise their talents in resolving life's problems. The child is allowed to enjoy learning for its own sake in a context of creation from his own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around him. Awakening and broadening their interest is the natural starting point of their education. In the context of the learning situation, the teacher cares without being possessive, prizes the learner's feelings and thoughts thus giving rein to habits which are productive and adaptive, thereby cultivating their creative intelligence.   

 

    Empathic understanding is non-possessive caring –empathy- for the other person's inner world and inner life. The empathetic person is sensitive to the feelings of others, responds to their ideas and opinions, and assists them in understanding their own world and their behaviour in it. They reduce the power which others have had in inculcating guilt and fear and help others to increase their sense of personal power to control their own lives. In any learning situation, the educator is aware of the learning process from the learner’s point of view and acknowledges their thoughts and feelings. The empathetic teacher conveys a genuine interest in enhancing the learner’s intrinsic motives for learning i.e. ‘intrinsic motivation’…  values each learner in terms of their own potentialities, accepts their feelings of both fear for new problems and of satisfaction with new achievements. The learner learns the satisfaction of responsible freedom through their own hard work, frustration and perseverance. In their efforts to reach their own goals, they gain in personal psychological maturity. They discover what it means to be autonomous, spontaneous, creative, and self-disciplined. They learn the values of mutual respect, cooperation, companionship and friendship which contribute to safety and security and which reduce the threat which inhibits real learning. In this atmosphere of mutual respect perceptions become realistic enhancing the freedom to learn... freedom. Everyone is both learner and teacher. While the teacher teaches the learners, they teach each other and they also teach the teacher. Teaching becomes a community project and real learning takes place.

   

Effective teaching and real learning take place when the attitudes are positive at all times, whatever the methods and at whatever age or learning level. When parents and teachers have a basic trust in the individual’s capacity to develop their own potentiality then they are able to facilitate the learner’s  capacity for self-direction and self-motivation in their desire for productive activity or ‘work’. With their confident view and profound trust the effective teacher functions as a facilitator of learning.

    

The facilitation of learning is a function of the teacher's personality. A facilitative teacher establishes good rapport with learners in a person-centred setting... is genuine, sincere, sensitive, sympathetic, authentic, humble, patient and determined... shows the same interest in all learners and responds equally to their learning needs… treats them fairly and makes it clear what is expected of them… ensures the maximum learning conditions by inspiring confidence and encouraging active participation… judges them with accuracy, then makes correct assessments of their progress... motivates them by communicating enthusiasm.

 

    The facilitative teacher is a mature person with integrity as well as knowledge who focuses on the creation of a climate which facilitates learning. Without imposing himself or his knowledge, The teacher naturally commands respect and admiration by expressing a personal understanding of the subject and its relationship to other subjects and life experiences. The facilitative teacher in the role of facilitator of learning is aware of the importance of the student's recognition of his own achievement... takes into account the effect on motivation of previous learning experiences and builds on the foundations which have already been established... engages the students in active involvement, stimulating their natural interest and enhancing their intrinsic motivation. Assigned tasks are pitched at the right level and set at standards which are realistic in terms of the students' capabilities and potentialities. The function of the teacher is to concentrate on creating a classroom climate to facilitate self-initiated learning, the freedom to learn. Provide the necessary environmental conditions in a so-called 'progressive' educational setting in which students are confronted with meaningful and relevant real life problems and then allowed the freedom and responsibility to engage in self-initiated learning. The effective teacher is technically adept and knows how to select materials in relevant contexts and of interest to the students; knows how to adapt and supplement course materials and lessons with the right degree of challenge for effective motivation. The teacher is a resource and a guide to sources and knows how to provide resources and raw materials... a guide to channels and human resources which are relevant to students’ needs and knows how to organize opportunities and to instruct in the techniques of inquiry and rational thought… a catalyst which promotes the reactions of growth through learning… teaches how knowledge can be sought in order to form and modify goals and ideas. The teacher as resource and guide represents the encounter between human capabilities and increasing knowledge. The degree to which the teacher is used is up to the student.  

  

Implications for the Training of Teachers  In addition to their knowledge and skill, teachers' personalities and social qualities are exceptionally important. The training of teachers must include the development of their personal growth i.e. ‘personal development’. Personal development involves liberation from all subtle conditioning in their own education which could have deformed their natural humanitarian impulse thus enabling them to have the attributes of the facilitative teacher - personality congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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