Irrational Conscience Derived from Fear of Authority:

       authoritarian ethics                                    'Authoritarian Conscience'

 

 

theme: The authoritarian conscience does not represent the individual's intrinsically rational conscience which is  the source of natural human values ot 'virtues' and reflective ethical judgement or 'natural ethics'... the basis for the rational valuing process which has evolved through natural selection because it is of survival value to the human organism as a social organism. The rational conscience constitutes the intrinsic core of natural human values Contrary to the rational conscience, authoritarian conscience is a characteristic of the unreflective ethical judgement of the immature adult and the undeveloped ethical judgement of the growing child. The authoritarian conscience represents the irrational internalisation of authority and the authoritarian ethics of 'moralism'. The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection. Authoritarian conscience is the voice of the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority which is then internalised. "The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an internalized authority such as the parental authority, or state authority. The authoritarian 'conscience' is a fear for the authority rather than a representation of the individual's real conscience, the source of natural value judgements... For the individual with authoritarian conscience, the "interaction of internalisation (of external authority) and projection results in an unshakable conviction in the ideal character of the authority, a conviction which is immune to all contradictory empirical evidence." (Fromm Man For Himself 146) .

"The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an internalized authority such as the parental authority, or state authority. The authoritarian 'conscience' is a fear for the authority rather than a representation of the individual's real conscience, the source of natural value judgements." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself. 143)

For the individual with authoritarian conscience, the "interaction of internalisation (of external authority) and projection results in an unshakable conviction in the ideal character of the authority, a conviction which is immune to all contradictory empirical evidence." (Fromm Man For Himself 146) .

Derivation of authoritarian conscience The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection. Authoritarian conscience is the voice of unreflective ethical judgement resulting from the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority which is then internalised. The internalised authority is the authoritarian conscience.

Authoritarian conscience is equivalent to the 'superego' in the of Freud's  psychology.

Construction of authoritarian conscience  Construction of the authoritarian conscience involves the interaction of two processes: first, the perfection of character is projected onto an external authority - parental, religious or state authority; second, the projected image of perfection or 'ideal' is internalised in the individual's consciousness. Internalisation of the projected image leads to the individual's unshakable conviction in the external authority as the personification of the perfect character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The individual loses the capacity for rationality and reason and this leads to rigid thinking. The power of fear for the authority replaces the power of ethical reasoning and as a result the conscience which is constructed becomes increasingly authoritarian and irrational.

Authoritarian conscience is equivalent to the 'superego' of Freud's  psychology. 

The irrationality of authoritarian conscience is inadequate for effective adaptation to changes in the social environment i.e 'adaptability'.

Human adaptability depends on construction of rational conscience Human adaptability depends on normal moral, intellectual, emotional and psychological development of rational moral consiousness i.e. 'rational conscience'. Conscience is awareness of human morals - the 'moral faculty' - an emergent property of the human brain. The human brain is a social brain. The conscience is a naturally flexible valuing system which allows for the protection of personal integrity during the process of adaptation to changing social conditions. The word 'conscience' is derived from Latin 'conscientia’ for moral awareness - from ‘con’ meaning 'with' and ‘scire’ meaning 'to know'.Conscience is awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'.  Knowledge of human nature is 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge is necessary for rational evaluation of the social environment. The conscience is the core of guiding values prescribed by the various religious and philosophical authorities and sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history i.e. 'human values'. Human values are values of the highest consciousness state - goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy,'truth' and so on i.e. 'virtues'.  The virtues have evolved through natural selection as a result of their survival value to the human organism as a social organism. The virtues constitute the human 'spiritual equipment' with which the organism depends for adaptability to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of 'intuition' or 'creative intelligence'.

Creative intelligence is intelligence of the highest consciousness state and the most effective for social adaptation.

Development of rational conscience depends on actualisation of human potential The values found within the intrinsic conscience of the human organism are raised to the conscious level of brain functioning ('consciousness') during development of conscience i.e. 'moral development'. Moral development involved in the construction of rational conscience depends on realisation of human potentialities for growth, for happiness, for love and for reason and results in the manifestation of characteristically human traits - the natural human values of 'morality'. But the innate potentialities are like seeds. They become manifest in later life only if provided with the right enviromental for spiritual growth and development i.e. self-realisation or 'self-actualisation'. Self-actualisation is a function of growth in the context of freedom from external authoritarianism which breeds fear i.e. spiritual freedom or 'inner freedom'. Inner freedom depends on the security of productive 'unconditional love'.

The authoritarian conscience is characteristic of adult immaturity.

Development of authoritarian conscience  In the absence of the right conditions for psychological growth, development is thwarted leading to neurotic development and construction of irrational conscience i.e. 'neurosis'. The neurotic development of authoritarian conscience is characteristic of the immature adult fixated on the 'premoral level' of ethical judgement in child development (classification of Kohlberg). In the first of the six moral stages or 'sociocognitive stages', moral value is defined in terms of obedience to authority and the avoidance of punishment (age 3). In the absence of the right conditions for continued moral development (security of unconditional love) and under conditions of intense emotional pressure (abuse, punishment, neglect etc.) the construction of conscience is determined by the friendly or unfriendly reactions of significant adults on whom the child depends for faith in their potential for growth. The fear of disapproval and the need for approval becomes the most powerful and almost exclusive source of motivation for ethical judgement and behaviour. The individual learns to differentiate between 'right' and 'wrong', 'good' and 'bad' even before learning to understand the difference by way of a process of reasoning or 'rationality'. Discouragement of rationality leads to mistrust in their own persistence for spiritual growth. The inherent potentialites are stifled and they fail to develop into manifest characteristics. The individual develops to adulthood with the deficiencies of 'immaturity'.

The immature adult continues to evaluate the environment in terms of threat to their security and self-esteem. Their sense of identity remains dependent on the approval of others.

Implications for education The irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for authoritarian codes of ethics i.e. irrational morality or 'moralism'. Moralism is a system of authoritarian ethics based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority and the internalisation of the idealised authority. The authoritarian ethics of moralism does not represent the natural and rational ethics of the intrinsically rational human conscience. Development of rational conscience depends on a learning environment which favours its construction through concentration on creative productiveness or 'work'. Work has psychological value in the construction of conscience if it is functional in personal growth and development while involving the development of human potentiality for creative intelligence. The aim of education is to provide the right conditions for growth and development of rational conscience, to provide for 'human needs' which include spiritual needs or 'metaneeds' .

Needs based education is education of the whole person or 'holistic education'.

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links: Morality is a matter of the development of the conscience as the moral consciousness of social intelligence. reason... Developed conscience is the basis for human rationality or 'reason'. virtues... The function of the conscience is the preservation of the integrity of the core of human spiritual values or 'virtues'. education... Construction of the human conscience is dependent on the environmental conditions of an education which fosters natural human development.

                                        The evolution of the rational conscience is based on its survival value to the human organism as a social organism which depends for survival on its successful adaptation to the complexities of a changing social environment. Adaptation to changing social conditions depends on the proper functioning of a rational and flexible valuing system i.e. rational conscience. The naturally developed conscience is a rational and flexible biologically based cognitive system which provides the protection for the integrated personality in changing social conditions.  In contrast to the rationality and flexibility  of the developed conscience, the authoritarian conscience is irrational and rigid and does not provide for adaptability of the organism to changing social conditions.    

 Human conscience is not the same as authoritarian conscience. The authoritarian conscience is irrational because it is not developed through the power of reason. Unlike the rational conscience, the authoritarian conscience is not representative of the intrinsic human conscience. The authoritarian conscience is derived from the internalization of an external authority - parental, religious or state authority. As the voice of the internalized authority, the authoritarian conscience represents the individual's fear for the external authority. It does not represent the individual's real and rational intrinsic conscience which is the source of natural value judgements but represents instead the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority.

  The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection. In the construction of the authoritarian conscience, the ideal of perfection is projected onto an external authority and at the same time the projected image of perfection is internalized in the consciousness. When the image of perfection is projected upon an external authority, interaction of internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces an authoritarian conscience. The simultaneous internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces the authoritarian conscience. As a result of the interaction of the two processes i.e. projection of perfection onto an external authority and internalization of the projected image, the individual is unshakably convinced in the ideal character of the authority i.e. a strong conviction that the authority is endowed with the ideal character.

     The formation of an authoritarian conscience results in an unshakable conviction in the endowment of that authority with the ideal character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The individual becomes immune to rationality and reason. Thus the authoritarian conscience is basically irrational. Furthermore, the irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for an authoritarian codes of ethics. A system of authoritarian ethics involves a code of morality which is based on external authority...  represents an irrational morality or 'moralism'. Moralism involves irrational ethics which are not derived from the intrinsically rational human conscience but are based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority.     The various aspects of authoritarian ethics are apparent in the early development of ethical judgement in the child.

The authoritarian conscience is a characteristic of the unreflective ethical judgement of the immature adult and the undeveloped ethical judgement of the growing child.

Every child has the innate potentialities for growth, for happiness, for love and for reason. Every child has the innate potentiality for the development of their own intrinsic human conscience which is the source of the natural human values. But the inherent potentialities are really like seeds. Only if they are provided with the proper conditions for development do they grow and manifest themselves in later life. The development of a healthy rational conscience requires the right environmental conditions of unconditional productive love of significant adults. The child depends completely on the care and love of the significant adult. The development of their personal integrity - spiritual growth and development of a rational conscience for preservation of personality integration is dependant on unconditional parental love and faith. If the growing child is not provided with the proper onditions for the development of their inherent potentialities, then instead of developing into manifest characteristics, they an be stifled and fail to grow. Under intense emotional pressure, the child can form value judgements on the basis of the friendly or unfriendly reactions of the significant people in his life. Under these conditions, the child acquires a sense of distinguishing between good and bad even before he learns the difference through a process reasoning. The most powerful and the almost exclusive motivation for ethical judgement becomes the fear of disapproval and the need for approval of the significant adults on whom the child depends for the security of love and faith in their potential for growth. Growing up in such a social environment, the individual learns to mistrust their own persistence for their own spiritual growth. Their sense of identity is threatened and they become dependent on others for approval. Other people's approval becomes the basis for their feeling of self-identity.    

                                                                                                                       

The evolution of the rational conscience is based on its survival value to the human organism as a social organism which depends for survival on its capacity for effective and successful adaptability to the complexities of a changing social environment. Adaptation to changing social conditions depends on the proper functioning of a rational and flexible valuing system or ‘rational conscience’. The rational conscience is a biologically based cognitive system which flexible is and so provides the protection for the integrated personality in changing social conditions. In contrast to the rationality and flexibility of the naturally developed conscious is authoritarian conscience which does not provide for adaptability of the organism to changing social conditions because of its irrationality and rigidity.                                                                                            

A system of authoritarian ethics involves a code of morality which is based on external authority. As representing an irrrational morality or 'moralism', irrational ethics are not derived from the intrinsically rational human conscience but are based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority. The various aspects of authoritarian ethics are apparent in the early development of ethical judgement in the child. Every child has the innate potentialities for growth, for happiness, for love and for reason. Every child has the innate potentiality for the development of their own intrinsic human conscience which is the source of the natural human values. But the inherent potentialities are really like seeds. Only if they are provided with the proper conditions for development do they grow and manifest themselves in later life. The development of a healthy rational conscience requires the right enviromental conditions of unconditional productive love of significant adults. The child depends completely on the care and love of the significant adult. The development of their personal integrity - spiritual growth and development of a rational conscience for preservation of personality integration is dependant on unconditional parental love and faith. If the growing child is not provided with the proper conditions for the development of their inherent potentialities, then instead of developing into manifest characteristics, they can be stifled and fail to grow. Under intense emotional pressure, the child can form value judgements on the basis of the friendly or unfriendly reactions of the significant people in his life. Under these conditions, the child acquires a sense of distinguishing between good and bad even before he learns the difference through a process reasoning. The most powerful and the almost exclusive motivation for ethical judgement becomes the fear of disapproval and the need for approval of the significant adults on whom the child depends the security of love and faith in their potential for growth. Growing up in such a social envronment, the individual learns to mistrust their own persistence for their own spiritual growth. Their sense of identity is threatened and they become dependent on others for approval. Other people's approval becomes the basis for their feeling of self-identity.

Authoritarian conscience is not representative of the human conscience  Unlike the rational conscience, the authoritarian conscience is not a representation of the intrinsic human conscience. which is the source of natural human values. It does not represent the individual's real and rational intrinsic conscience which is developed through a process of reasoning.

The authoritarian conscience is irrational because it is not developed through the power of reason.  The authoritarian conscience i It does not represent the individual's real and rational intrinsic conscience which is the source of natural value judgementss... is derived from the internalization of an external authority - parental, religious or state authority. represents Insteadthe irrational projection of perfection onto that external authority. As the voice of the internalized authority,  projected onto an external authority, the authoritarian conscience represents the individual's fear for the external authority.

The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection.   In the construction of the authoritarian conscience, the ideal of perfection is projected onto an external authority and at the same time the projected image of perfection is internalized in the consciousness. When the image of perfection is projected upon an external authority, interaction of internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces an authoritarian conscience. The simultaneous internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces the authoritarian conscience. As a result of the interaction of the two processes i.e. projection of perfection onto an external authority and internalization of the projected image, the individual is unshakably convinced in the ideal character of the authority i.e. a strong conviction that the authority is endowed with the ideal character. The formation of an authoritarian conscience results in an unshakable conviction in the endowment of that authority with the ideal character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The individual becomes immune to rationality and reason. Thus the authoritarian conscience is basically irrational. Furthermore, the irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for authoritarian codes of ethics. Morality of the authoritarian conscience is not the same as morality which is based on inner freedom.

  Authoritarian conscience is the source of irrational value judgements and produces authoritarian 'ethics'. The human conscience derived from reason is the source of natural value judgements. The human conscience is not the same as authoritarian conscience. Authoritarian conscience is derived from the internalization of an external authority such as parental authority, state authority or the autonomous authority of the 'market'. The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an internalized authority and represents fear for the authority rather than the intrinsic conscience.

                                  Capitalism and Authority of the Market: Authoritarian Ethics 

theme:  Ethics in cultural context: Authoritarian ethics are codes of morality based on external authority and capitalism's anonymous authority of the 'market'. Focusing on the demands for adjustment to capitalism, the individual loses sight of his own intrinsic values which make him human.  The various aspects of authoritarian ethics are apparent in unreflective ethical judgement. "...intrinsic human values are not valued in a society which measures the individual in terms of material success. Focusing on the demands for adjustment to capitalism, the individual loses sight of his own intrinsic values which make him human. 'Adjustment' to the capitalistic 'society' is the cause for neuroses which result from the unsuitability of humanness in a materialistic society." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself)

 A discussion of 'ethics' and authoritarian ethics depends on the meaning of the word 'value' which varies with context. In the capitalist culture of American society, the word 'value' is used to designate choice of action. A value is a 'value choice'. An individual makes a value choice on the basis of a symbolized concept which he has been taught to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The outcome of the value choice is considered or 'conceived' to be symbolically desirable. Value choices which are made on the basis of symbolized concepts and in anticipation of desirable outcomes are 'conceived values'. Conceived values are taught values such as social and cultural values. They are instinctively incorporated or 'introjected' into the organismic valuing process during development. The introjective instinct is a particularly human instinct. As a social and cultural species, the human species depends for survival on the ability of the young to acquire large amounts of knowledge from significant adults. The introjective instinct is the instinct for incorporating into the developmental process the knowledge and values of the society and the culture. The growing child depends completely on the care and love of the adult and the fear of disapproval and the need for approval are powerful motivating factors for ethical judgement. Under intense emotional pressure, ethical judgement is determined by the friendly or unfriendly reactions of its psychological parents.  In a process of 'introjection' the child makes a part of himself or 'introjects' what appear to be the wishes, demands, hates, scorns, and standards significant adults. If the adults are weak, infantile and irrational, their values are introjected as though they were rational. Their internalization has a malignant effect on the child's developing conscience and personality modifying the natural reasoning process which involves the operative values. The introjection of valued parental and cultural concepts - conceived values - and their internalization gradually modifies the child's intrinsic organismic valuing process which is fluid and changing. The modified valuing process tends to be fixed and rigid. As a result, the child learns to form arbitrary distinctions between 'good' and 'bad' before making rational judgements through the natural process of reflection and reason. Further development produces the irrational authoritarian conscience associated with social character.

The study of a specific character orientation which is common to most members of the culture indicates which powerful emotional forces explain the formation of social character. The personality of the average individual is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure of the society in which he lives. Introjection of conceived values explains some of the causes of the formation of character and character orientation and explains the correlation between character orientation and social structure. The correlation points up the powerful emotional forces which are instrumental in molding the social character and explains the functioning of the society.  The American social charater is based on the scientific worldview which had its roots in orthodox Protestantism... justified by a combination of concepts and assumptions derived from Protestantism, scientific reductionism, behaviourism, moralism and the traditional ideals of 'democracy'. These basic concepts and assumptions have formed the basis for educational policy in the American educational system preventing the personal and psycholgical growth of the individual. Political ideals interfere with the true aim of education which is complete personality growth and moral development for humaniisation.  Individuals who live in a culture which does not foster growth depend on codes of behavour ... codes of ethics... 'authoritarian ethics'. As a result of the demands of the capitalistic economic system, ethical norms are formulated on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant. Codes of ethics as codes of behaviour... codes of morality based on external authority... the auhority of the 'market'... Codes of ethics are separated from human morality based on developed conscience... universal human ethics. A 'code of ethics' for a specific situation can easily degenerate into a code which serves the interests of those within that situation. 'Medical ethics' becomes a code of ethics which serves the interests of those in the medical 'profession.' 'Business ethics' becomes a code of ethics serving the interests of those in 'business.'

 American civilization is not a human civilization. It is a business civilization dependent on 'business ethics'. American culture is not concerned with personal growth and the development of the human conscience, the source of morality and rational ethics. The capitalist culture devalues the natural integrity of the human organism. American cultural values of the capitalist culture place severe limitations on human experience and the human potential for autonomy and responsibility ... for living to the fullest and maintaining the desire for learning for adaptability to a continually changing social conditions. Individuals in the American culture are easily influenced by political rhetoric which encourages the pursuit of material success as 'happiness'. In their efforts to retain the love and acceptance of others in the society, they become easy prey to the demands of capitalism and subscribe to the irrational values of consumerism - the positively valued 'virtues' of money-making, obedience to authority, accumulation of knowedge, cleverness in cheating, love of neigbour(?), and negatively valued 'vices' of leisure activity, and emotional self-expression. The culture promotes mental dishonesty as 'common sense'. The thought and behaviour patterns of deception and hypocrisy are considered to be absolute evils because they are residual animal traits waiting to be erased by further social evolution and they must be suppressed to a minimum level. The individual who can suppress the residual animal traits is considered to be 'virtuous'. People are naturally bewildered by the irrationality of the cultural value system. They become morally confused and in their moral confusion, they must depend on ethical norms of behaviour or codes of ethics. Moral education as the teaching of 'values' fails because true moral education as education for personal growth and development of conscience - the basis for humanitarian ethics is not recognized. American moral education, based on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant is concerned with teaching the conceived cultural values. Hypocrisy and deception become the human devices for coping with the complexities of a social life which is based on the irrational authoritarian ethics of a business civilization.

In a social context of freedom from external authoritarianism, development of a rational conscience results in the natural ethics which are based on normal moral, intellectual, emotional, complete psychological, moral or ‘spiritual’ development. The guiding values which are prescribed by various parental, religious and philosophical authorities ...the basic values which have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history... the same values can be found within the consciousness i.e the moral consiousness or ‘conscience’ (as ‘rational coonscience’) of the intrinsic conscience of the human organism. The values by which 'good human beings' lead their lives... the values which guide them from within their consciousness are the same as the age-old values of truth, goodness, and beauty, justice and spiritual love and joy.  The human conscience which is derived from reason is the source of natural value judgements. The human conscience is not the same as authoritarian conscience. Authoritarian conscience is derived from the internalization of an external authority such as parental authority, state authority or the autonomous authority of the 'market'. The authoritarian conscience is the voice of an internalized authority and represents fear for the authority rather than the intrinsic conscience.

Authoritarian conscience is not the same as the intrinsically human conscience.

.   Text..                                            Authoritarian Conscience                    

The evolution of the rational conscience is based on its survival value to the human organism as a social organism which depends for survival on its successful adaptation to the complexities of a changing social environment. Adaptation to changing social conditions depends on the proper functioning of a rational and flexible valuing system i.e. rational conscience. The naturally developed conscience is a rational and flexible biologically based cognitive system which provides the protection for the integrated personality in changing social conditions.  In contrast to the rationality and flexibility  of the developed conscience, the authoritarian conscience is irrational and rigid and does not provide for adaptability of the organism to changing social conditions.    

 Human conscience is not the same as authoritarian conscience.      The authoritarian conscience is irrational because it is not developed through the power of reason. Unlike the rational conscience, the authoritarian conscience is not representative of the intrinsic human conscience. The authoritarian conscience is derived from the internalization of an external authority - parental, religious or state authority. As the voice of the internalized authority, the authoritarian conscience represents the individual's fear for the external authority. It does not represent the individual's real and rational intrinsic conscience which is the source of natural value judgements but represents instead the irrational projection of perfection onto an external authority.  

  The authoritarian conscience is derived from the instinctive human need to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for some kind of perfection. In the construction of the authoritarian conscience, the ideal of perfection is projected onto an external authority and at the same time the projected image of perfection is internalized in the consciousness. When the image of perfection is projected upon an external authority, interaction of internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces an authoritarian conscience. The simultaneous internalization of the external authority with the projected image of perfection produces the authoritarian conscience. As a result of the interaction of the two processes i.e. projection of perfection onto an external authority and internalization of the projected image, the individual is unshakably convinced in the ideal character of the authority i.e. a strong conviction that the authority is endowed with the ideal character.

     The formation of an authoritarian conscience results in an unshakable conviction in the endowment of that authority with the ideal character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The individual becomes immune to rationality and reason. Thus the authoritarian conscience is basically irrational. Furthermore, the irrational authoritarian conscience forms the basis for an authoritarian codes of ethics. A system of authoritarian ethics involves a code of morality which is based on external authority...  represents an irrational morality or 'moralism'. Moralism involves irrational ethics which are not derived from the intrinsically rational human conscience but are based on the irrational projection of the human need for perfection onto an external authority.     The various aspects of authoritarian ethics are apparent in the early development of ethical judgement in the child.

Every child has the innate potentialities for growth, for happiness, for love and for reason. Every child has the innate potentiality for the development of their own intrinsic human conscience which is the source of the natural human values. But the inherent potentialities are really like seeds. Only if they are provided with the proper conditions for development do they grow and manifest themselves in later life. The development of a healthy rational conscience requires the right environmental conditions of unconditional productive love of significant adults. The child depends completely on the care and love of the significant adult. The development of their personal integrity - spiritual growth and development of a rational conscience for preservation of personality integration is dependant on unconditional parental love and faith. If the growing child is not provided with the proper onditions for the development of their inherent potentialities, then instead of developing into manifest characteristics, they an be stifled and fail to grow. Under intense emotional pressure, the child can form value judgements on the basis of the friendly or unfriendly reactions of the significant people in his life. Under these conditions, the child acquires a sense of distinguishing between good and bad even before he learns the difference through a process reasoning. The most powerful and the almost exclusive motivation for ethical judgement becomes the fear of disapproval and the need for approval of the significant adults on whom the child depends for the security of love and faith in their potential for growth. Growing up in such a social environment, the individual learns to mistrust their own persistence for their own spiritual growth. Their sense of identity is threatened and they become dependent on others for approval. Other people's approval becomes the basis for their feeling of self-identity.    

      Morality of the authoritarian conscience is not the same as morality which is based on inner freedom. In a social context of freedom from external authoritarianism, development of a rational conscience results in the natural ethics which are based on normal moral, intellectual, emotional and psychological development. The guiding values which are prescribed by various parental, religious and philosophical authorities ...the basic values which have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history... the same values can be found within the consciousness i.e. the moral consciousness of the intrinsic conscience of the human organism. The values by which 'good human beings' lead their lives... the values which guide them from within their consciousness are the same as the values of truth, goodness, and beauty, justice and spiritual love and joy.

 

 Implications for education: American moral education, based on the premise that the individual is powerless and insignificant is concerned with teaching the conceived cultural values. Hypocrisy and deception become the human devices for coping with the complexities of a social life which is based on the irrational authoritarian ethics of a business civilization.