link:adaptability                                                                                                             

                                                                               

 

                                              LEARNING FOR BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATION  OR SOCIAL ADAPTATION: 'ADAPTABILITY'

 

theme: Human survival depends on behaviour which is effective because it produces responsive behaviour which is creative or 'adaptive'. Adaptive behaviour depends on accurate evaluation of environmental changes. Extent of accuracy depends on the individual's level of personal development which is a function of personal experience or 'education'. Effective education allows for freedom of the instinctive drive to make meaning of the complexities of environmental stimuli i.e. 'meaningful learning' or 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is a function of responsiveness to change in the environment i.e. 'adaptability'.  Adaptability depends on creative living or creativity i.e. 'creative intelligence'.

"For adjustment to the environment, one must learn to control and evaluate perceptions, and to extract information necessary for survival. For intellectual and spiritual growth, one must be prepared to change one's ideas in the face of new evidence... People cannot be expected to be confidently adaptable at such a basic level unless they have the security of a stable self-image... a reasoned and realistic awareness of their own powers and their individual worth, tempered by an equal respect for the worth of others."  (David Purpel, 1989. The Moral and Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education. Masschusetts, Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc.p.57) or (N. Goble, 'The Changing Role of the Teacher', The Function of Teaching, Paris: UNESCO 1977, 57)

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human organism as a social organism...  adaptation in human evolution...

 process of adaptation to environmental change is based on two complementary mental processes: assimilation and accomodation

 the brain...  

 function of conscience...  

behaviour is determined by the brain's evaluation of the environment... 'perception'

perception is complete or incomplete depending on the stage of development... 

inhibition of spiritual growth results in 'antisocial behaviour'...

 

implications for education...

The human organism as a social organism is intrinsically motivated for behaviour which is adaptive to changes in the social environment... 'intrinsic motivation'... In human evolution, survival of the organism depends on its instinctive capacity to adapt to changing social conditions in a complex environment i.e. behavioural adaptation or 'adaptability'. The individual's behaviour is adaptive or non-adaptive depending on the accuracy of evaluation of the environment. The capacity for evaluation depends on the individual's ability to make meaning of complex environmental stimuli or 'learn'. Learning is the result of observation and inquiry based on interest or 'curiosity' - the driving force of natural learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation for adaptive behaviour is characteristic of any biological organism. The human organism is a social organism which is similarly motivated for behaviour adaptive to its social environment. Social adaptability depends on philosophical and scientific observation and inquiry for understanding experience i.e. 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning - a natural function of the social 'brain' (brain functions') - combines learning with life experience while engaging personality development. Growth through learning is based on specialised mental processes or 'thinking skills'. Adaptability depends on the organism’s ability to formulate mental frameworks for thoughts or ‘concepts’. Thoughts color the perceptions of the environment. Perceptions are influenced by culture childhood experiences and upbringing. Concepts are life’s guideposts which help in the interpretation of environmental stimuli derived from events and circumstances. Comparisons are made with existing concepts regarding the way one thinks the world is… or what it should be… and the organism reacts accordingly. The person with inner freedom is able to adapt to the environment as it is rather than as he thinks it should be.  

Play of the mind goes on whether or not we are aware of it. Our ideas about the world are often the result of lifelong thinking habits, and therefore we forget to question or reevaluate them

The process of adaptation to environmental change is based on two complementary mental processes: assimilation and accomodation First the new experience is interpreted or 'assimilated' in terms of the current mode of understanding things i.e. the 'cognitive level'; second, thinking is modified to 'accomodate' those features of the experience which cannot be explained by the same cognitive level. Assimilation and accomodation are complementary aspects of all psychological activity involved in understanding the changing environment.  As a result of this continuous dynamic of 'equilibration', behaviour is modified in a process of adaptation which involves greater balance between the individual and the environment. Each new situation cause imbalance which is corrected in the overall process of adaptation.  See Piaget 'equilibrium, disequilibrium, re-equilibrium'.

 "Upon the biological level, organisms have to respond to conditions about them in ways that modify those conditions and the relations of organisms to them so as to restore the reciprocal adaptation that is required for maintenance of life functions. Human organisms are involved in the same sort of predicament. Because of the effect of cultural conditions, the problems involved not only have different contents but are capable of statement as problems so that inquiry can enter as a factor in their resolution. Modes of response are correspondingly transfornmed. They avail themselves of the significance which things have acquired, and of the meanings provided by language. ....the environment in which human beings are directly involved is the 'common sense' environment or 'world' and the inquiries that take place in making the required adjustments in behavior are 'common sense' inquiries." (Rosen H. The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive - Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. 60)

Accomodation depends on meaningful learning or 'experiential learning'. Learning is first encoded and retained as 'short term memory' and then encoded for storage as 'long term memory'.

The brain is specialised for learning which is meaningful for adaptation... depends of learning as 'meaningful learning' Function of learning is to allow for for adaptation to changes in the environment ...not to gain control over the environment (traditional paradigm)

 Discovery in learning as 'disciplined inquiry'...

"In 1934 the brilliant Russian psychologist Vygotsky characterized the growth of thought processes as starting with a dialogue of speech and gesture between child and parent. (Thinking and Speech) Autonomous thinking begins at the stage when the child is first able to internalize these conversations and 'run them off' himself. ...once internalization takes place, the child is in a position to experience success and failure not as reward and punishment but as information. Seeking to gain control over his environment, the child can treat success as indicating that he is on the right track, failure as indicting that he is on the wrong one." (Bruner J. On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962, 90)

The human brain is characterized by a natural capacity for observation and inquiry, essential for the learning process which is necessary for survival of the individual in a complex environment. Constituting the human being's natural  the brain's natural capacity for observation and inquiry... 'curiosity'... characteristic features of the specialized human brain of the socialized human being.

the human species has evolved a brain with the specialized capacity for meaningful learning and adaptive behavior.   In human evolution... evolution of the human species,  survival of the organism depends on its instinctive capacity to adapt to changing conditions i.e. behavioural adaptation or 'adaptability'. Adaptability depends on the individual's ability to derive meaning from the complexity of environnmental stimuli...or 'learn' from experience i.e. 'meaningful' or 'experiential learning'... experiential learning is a natural capacity of the organ of learning or 'brain'.  Those brain functions which result in effective thinking produce adaptive behavior The function of the brain is to process complex  environmental stimuli and then make effective decisions for adaptive behaviour. The processing of  information is a function of the highly developed mental process of thinking or 'cognition'. Cognition involves the brain's capacity to see patterns and to detect them as quickly as possible.

In a natural process of meaningful learning, the brain is driven by the instinctive need to search for meaning in the complexity of the environment... the brain automatically responds to complexity. The innate drive to search for meaning in a complex environment comprises the driving force behind the highly developed mental processes manifest in the brain's thinking skills. Survival of the organism depends on behavioral adaptation. Human adaptive behavior depends on the brain's capacity to make decisions. Adaptive decision making depends on the brain's capacity to process information in order to derive meaning from a complex environment. Processing complex information requires effective thinking. Effective thinking depends on the brain's capacity to seek patterns and detect them as quickly as possible. The brain's pattern seeking capacity is influenced by the nature of the peripheral stimuli in the environment - the physical, social, cultural and emotional environments.

Adaptation depends on ability of the brain to process complex information... 'complex learning' involves 'holistic perception' and 'complete cognition'... depends on the brain's function as a 'pattern detector'  The human brain is a social brain specialised for experiential learning which is meaningful for adaptation to the social environment i.e. 'meaningful learning'. Meaningful learning is a function of the brain's capacity to process complex environmental stimuli and make decisions which lead to creative or 'adaptive' behaviour. Processing of information is a function of the highly developed mental processes of thinking - a mental process of the brain or 'mind' involving the 'orchestration' of 'thinking skills' of 'complex learning' - questioning, organising, analysing, associating, integrating, synthesizing, evaluating mental data for the acquisition of knowledge required for effective decision-making and purposeful adaptation. Knowledge is acquired in the 'act of knowing' or 'cognition'. Cognition combines the functioning of conscious intellect or 'reason' with unconscious affect or 'emotion'. The emotional aspect of cognition depends on the way in which the individual perceives the 'social reality' - their worldview or 'paradigm'. Perception is accurate or innaccurate depending on the mind's perception of the self... the individual's sense of identity which is a function of their level of awareness or 'consciousness state'. Consciousness state is defined by the naturally flexible valuing system of moral consiousness i.e. rational 'conscience' . The word 'conscience' is derived from Latin 'conscientia' for moral awareness - from 'con' meaning 'with' and 'scire' meaning 'to know'. Development of conscience is 'personality development' or 'moral development'.

 Development occurs through the different levels of consciousness or 'modes of knowing' i.e. 'sociocognitive stages'.

The brain's capacity to integrate complex environmental stimuli results in effective thinking and adaptive behavior..

 The brain's capacity for holistic perception depends on its ability to integrate complex environmental stimuli by detecting patterns as quickly as possible. As a pattern detector, the brain focuses on a set of environmental stimuli which are rapidly processed in the context of stimuli which are peripheral to the field of focus - physical, emotional, social, cultural environments i.e. 'cultural context'.  For the human individual in a cultural context, the nature of reality is determined by the individual's perception of the cultural environment which depends on the cultural history, cultural values and belief systems of the 'cultural consciousness'. Stimuli from the cultural environment are directly related to the basic assumptions underlying the values of the culture. They are perceived and processed by the brain at the subconscious level of brain functioning. 

Its pattern seeking capacity is influenced by the peripheral stimuli of the physical, social, cultural and emotional environments.

Complex environmental stimuli include those in the field of focused attention and those which are peripheral to it. The brain processes environmental stimuli which are in the field of focused attention and at the same time it processes those stimuli which are peripheral to it. In processing information from the environment, the brain focuses on specific stimuli and responds on the conscious level of awareness while responding to peripheral stimuli at the subconscious level. Instinctively it  processes the stimuli in focus in the context of peripheral stimuli. The meanings attached to the peripheral stimuli determine the context in which the brain consciously processes  stimuli in focus.The brain's conscious interpretation of the focused stimuli depends on its subconscious interpretation of the peripheral stimuli. The brain consciously remembers, organizes, analyzes, integrates and evaluates the information in terms of the contextual framework of the subconsciously perceived peripheral stimuli.

 The brain's evaluation of the environment determines the individual's behavior. Depending on the accuracy of the brain's evaluation of the environment, the individual's subsequent behavior is adaptive or non-adaptive

Behaviour is determined by the brain's evaluation of the environment... 'perception' ('karma') The individual's behaviour is adaptive or non-adaptive depending on the accuracy of the brain's evaluation of the environment.

 Overall, in the instinctive drive to derive meaning from a complex environment, the brain focuses of a set of environmental stimuli, rapidly processes information in the context of peripheral stmuli,  encodes the information in the short term memory for storage in the long term memory, processes the information by organizing, analyzing, integrating and evaluating in order to make a quick decision for purposeful adaptation to a changing environment.

Quick and effective thinking results in the individual's adaptive behavior. Behavioral adaptation depends on an effective thinking process which involves the combined functioning of intellectual, affective and creative states of the 'mind'. The mind's perception of itself determines the individual's thinking and perception of reality. It determines the individual's perception of reality in a social and cultural context. The total and integrated functioning of the brain results in a wholistic perception of reality. The brain-based wholistic perception of reality forms the basis for adaptive behavior.

 the mind perceives reality - social and cultural reality - according to the individual's level of consciousness or level of awareness. Referred to as the mind's 'modes of knowing', the different levels of consciousness determine the individual's sense of identity. The mind's perception of itself determines the individual's thinking and perception of reality. It determines the individual's perception of reality in a social and cultural context. The total and integrated functioning of the brain results in a wholistic perception of reality i.e. 'holistic perception'. The brain-based wholistic perception of reality forms the basis for adaptive behavior.

For the human individual in a cultural context, the nature of reality is determined by the nature of the cultural environment. The cultural environment is determined by the cultural values and belief systems. Stimuli from the cultural environment are directly related to the basic assumptions underlying the values of the culture. They are peripheral to the stimuli in the field of focused attention. As peripheral stimuli, they are processed by the brain at the subconscious level. The cultural values are a product of the cultural belief systems which make up the so-called 'cultural consciousness'. Cultural consciousness depends on the cultural history. The cultural history forms the basis of the cultural consciousness, source of the peripheral stimuli processed subconsciously by the individual in a cultural context. The individual's thought and behavior patterns are influenced by the subconsciously processed peripheral stimuli from the cultural environment. .

Peripheral stimuli are processed subconsciously in the context of cultural belief systems of the culture i.e. 'cultural context'

The individual's thought and behavior patterns are influenced by the subconsciously processed peripheral stimuli from the cultural environment. The learning process combines the processing of environmental peripheral stimuli with conscious thought processes involved in cognition.

 Degree of accuracy of evaluation... Perception is complete or incomplete depending on the stage of development ... is a function of the level of personal development based on fulfillment of human motives for learning or 'human needs'  Behavioral adaptation depends on an effective thinking process which involves the combined functioning of intellectual, affective and creative states of the 'mind'. The mind is the manifestation of the natural thinking functions of the brain...  perceives social reality according to the individual's level of awareness 'consciousness state'. ..mind's 'modes of knowing' or 'knowledge'.  The different levels of consciousness determine the individual's sense of identity.

 The degree to which conscience is developed determines whether cognition is complete or incomplete. Cognition is incomplete if moral development is incomplete. Cognition is complete if moral development is complete. In the cognitive process the unconscious processing of environmental stimuli - determined by degree of development or 'consciousness state' - is combined with conscious thought processes. The brain responds consciously to 'stimuli in the field of focus' - remembers, organizes, analyzes, integrates, evaluates or 'perceives' while it responds subconciously to stimuli which are peripheral to the field of focus. In other words, the brain's conscious interpretation and perception of stimuli in the field of focus depends on the contextual framework provided by the subconscious perception of peripheral stimuli. Perception which involves total and integrated functioning of the brain is 'holistic perception'. 

Holistic perception leads to complete cognition involving intuition of 'creative intelligence' making it the most effective for adaptability.

Human adaptability depends on gratification of the instinctive motives for human behaviour i.e. 'human needs'. Human needs include not only the obvious physiological needs for survival of the organism and the species but also the basic psychological 'ego needs' and the 'higher psychological needs' - the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'.  The human organism has an instinctive responsibility to its own personal growth and development - a function of fulfillment of the intrinsic motives for human behaviour or 'human needs'. Human needs are rooted in the instinct for self-preservation. The human needs are built into the biological constitution of the human organism as a 'hierarchy of needs' which can be described in terms of varying degrees of urgency or 'prepotency' (Maslow). One need is more prepotent than another if it is more urgent and inhibits other needs. In the order of prepotency, first are the physiological needs and physical needs for safety and survival - the 'survival needs'; second are the psychological needs for safety and security - the 'security needs'; third are the needs for care and affection or 'unconditional love' - the 'belongingness needs'; fourth are the needs for self-respect or 'self-esteem' - the 'ego needs'; fifth are the needs for spiritual growth and development of the social brain or 'socialisation' - the 'spiritual needs' or 'metaneeds'. The survival needs, security needs, belongingness needs, ego needs and spiritual needs which are interrelated constitute the source of 'motivation' for learning i.e. 'intrinsic motivation'. Intrinsic motivation - unlike 'extrinsic motivation' - engages personality growth and development. At the various stages of developmental growth and personality development - 'socio-cognitive stages' - the human needs rise to the surface of consciousness and become motivational for behaviour. The individual's behaviour is dominated by the need which is motivational at the stage of development which they have reached.  Complete development is a function of normal moral, intellectual, emotional and psychological or 'spiritual growth' which results from motivation by the metaneeds i.e. 'metamotivation'.

Metamotivation is functional in the development of moral consciousness... construction of rational conscience.

Function of the rational conscience is to protect personal integrity required for social adaptability  Survival of the human organism as a social organism depends on the  ability to adapt to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e. social adaptation or 'adaptability'. Human adaptability depends on the capacity to make connections between learning and life experience and this involves intuition of rational conscience. Conscience is the biologically based cognitive system which evolved through natural selection as the 'moral faculty' of human intelligence. The conscience is the core of guiding values or 'social values' which have been sought by theologians and philosophers throughout human history i.e. 'human values'. Human values are values of the highest consciousness state of 'self-transcendance'. In the 'transcendental realm of consciousness' the individual is aware of the rational valuing process of  conscience - an emergent property of the brain. Developed conscience is the source of human morals or 'virtues' -  goodness,  beauty, justice, spiritual love, joy, 'truth' and so on. As the source of virtues, the conscience is the human 'spiritual equipment' with which the organism depends for adaptability to the complexities of changing social conditions i.e 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of moral 'intuition' - intuitive intelligence or 'creative intelligence'. Creative intelligence is based on awareness of the nature of the human personality or 'human nature' defined in terms of human needs. Individual awareness of human nature or 'self-knowledge' is required for accurate evaluation of the social environment and subsequent adaptation.

Effective adaptation to changing social conditions depends on the function of conscience as guardian of personal integrity.

Inhibition of spiritual growth results in 'antisocial behaviour'... human wickedness or 'evil'  of psychosis or 'psychopathy'... authoritarian conscience is not functional in adaptability  Failure to gratify the ego-needs results in lack of spiritual growth. As a result the individual's sense of identity is threatened and this leads to their continual dependence on others for approval i.e. 'psychological dependence'. The psychologically dependent individual will persist in their efforts to retain the approval of others even if it means the repression of their growth needs. In the absence of motivation for growth, the individual's thought and behaviour patterns are dominated by...the basic psychological needs... dominate the individual's motivation for behaviour. Hence they are designated as 'deficiency needs' or 'deficit needs'. Motivation by deficit needs is 'deficit motivation'. Deficiency motivated growth results in the 'metapathology' of 'diminished humanness' or 'dehumanisation' i.e. 'neurotic development' or 'neurosis'. Neurosis involves the irrational projection of  of images of perfection ideals onto an external authority and its subsequent internalisation as 'authoritarian conscience'. Construction of  authoritarian conscience involves the interaction of two processes which are based on the instinctive needs to admire, to have an ideal, to strive for perfection: first the perfection of character is projected onto an external authority - parental, religious or state authority; second the projected image of perfection is internalised or 'introjected' in the individual's consciousness. Internalisation of the projected image leads to the individual's unshakable conviction in the external authority as the personification of the perfect character. The conviction is so strong that it is immune to all empirical evidence which might prove to contradict it. The power of fear for the authority replaces the power of ethical reasoning... the individual loses the capacity for rationality and reason. As a result the conscience which is constructed becomes increasingly authoritarian and irrational and this leads to the rigidity of authoritarian conscience. The irrationality of authoritarian conscience interferes with comprehensive understanding of the self and of others preventing the formation of meaningful interpersonal relations.

Authoritarian conscience is inadequate for effective evaluation of social conditions because it fails to produce behaviour which is adaptive to changes in the social environment and can lead to socially inadaptive or 'antisocial behaviour' and 'human wickedness' or 'evil'.

Evil as antisocial behaviour is a direct result of the abnormal conditions for growth which are prevalent in a cultural environment which focuses on the control of human needs. The forces of external control deprive the individual of the means for gratification of instinctive spiritual needs. As a result their feelings towards them become ambivalent and they perceive them as not only appealing but frightening as well. Fear for the spiritual needs stimulates psychological reaction responses of repression and denial further inhibiting metamotivation and stimulating deficit motivation. The resulting inhibition of spiritual growth prevents the inner development to maturity through the development of inherent human potentialities i.e. 'self-atualisation'.

 Individual self-actualisation is the basis for social cooperation or 'normal socialisation'... normal socialisation depends on  development of critical consciousness...  the aim of education as 'critical practice'

Implications for education: education for adaptability is based on human need for mature growth or 'self-actualisation'... 'holistic education'....  Effective socialisation depends on development of the capacity for sceptical and non-dogmatic thinking or 'critical thinking or 'criticism' i.e. 'critical consciousness'. Critical consciousness is a function of the natural development of critical and creative attitude about the nature of the environment. Adaptability of the individual in any cultural context depends on critical consciousness as the basis for quick and effective thinking which results in the individual's immediate evaluation of the environment. Degree of accuracy of evaluation depends on degree of critical consciousness - a function of personality development. Development of critical consciousness  depends on the significance of education in its function as effective facilitation of the individual's capacity for adaptability to the cultural context. The degree to which the individual conforms to the values and belief systems of the culture depends on the degree to which the educational system cultivates conformity to those cultural values and belief system... to which the individual is enculturated. The degree to which the educational system contributes to the 'enculturation' process depends on the philosophical assumptions upon which it functions. The educational process for the individual within a cultural context involves conscious thought patterns in the framework of unconsciously processed environmental stimuli of the cultural consciousness. Adaptability depends on the notion of education of the whole person as self-directed learning for the development of critical consciousness and critical faculties i.e. the practice of criticism or 'critical practice'. Critical practice is necessary for accurate evaluation, rational decision making and creative or 'adaptive' behaviour i.e. 'adaptability'. Adaptability to changing social conditions depends on education which encourages self-directed learning - education for life and learning as a way of being... learning how to learn. The emphasis is on competency in life or 'education for life'. 

 Education for life involves the continual discovery of new meanings of life... continual intellectual awakening which comes from the light of learning or 'enlightenment'.

The educational process for the individual within a cultural context involves conscious thought patterns in the framework of unconsciously processed environmental stimuli of the cultural consciousness. The educational process is significant in terms of the individual's 'individuality in a cultural context'. The culture's educational system reproduces the cultural values and the belief systems of the cultural consciousness. The degree to which the individual conforms to the values and belief systems of the culture depends on the degree to which the educational system cultivates conformity to those cultural values and belief systems. Thus the nature of 'individuality' in a cultural context is determined by the assumptions underlying the educational process and the educational system. The degree to which the individual's thought and behavior patterns are characteristic of the values and belief systems of the culture depends on the degree to which the individual is enculturated. The degree to which the educational system contributes to the 'enculturation' process depends on the philosophical assumptions upon which it functions.

Education which reproduces the cultural values and belief systems of the cultural consciousness - traditional education as 'schooling' - is not effective for adaptability to social change. The assumptions underlying the educational process and the educational system: in the traditional paradigm of education, the aim of education has been considered in terms of the individual's 'usefulness to society'. Since their beginning, traditional schools have been institutions of education as compulsory learning. Today's fragmented and assembly line approach to education continues the tradition of compulsory education. In the American 'cultural context' traditional education continues to promote values of capitalism and to foster adult 'immaturity'.  It ignores the individual's instinctive striving for self-actualisation -

 The individual in the modern technological society must be acquainted with an increasing amount of objective knowledge. He must be able to make responsible decisions for himself in order to survive and adapt to the demands of the society. Therefore his need for subjective development must be acknowledged, respected and prioritized in the educational institution which is responsible for his 'education.' The aim of education for development of the whole person i.e. 'holistic education'.

Holistic education fosters holistic learning which is effective for adaptability. Holistic learning is compatible with the natural processing functions of the brain i.e. 'brain-based learning'.

Brain-based' wholistic learning is compatible with the natural functioning of the brain. It involves those natural processing functions of the brain which constitute thinking and acquiring knowledge in the act of 'cognition'. Brain based education involves the natural learning functions of the brain and brain-based learning involves the natural 'thinking' functions of the brain.

In the paradigm of holistic education the teacher's role is defined as 'facilitator of learning'.

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  Science as common sense inquiry required for effective adaptability.

 Adaptation in human evolution l858 theory of evolution of Darwin and Wallace described in the book The Origin of Species published in l859 their thesis supported by the available evidence, continues to be supported by new evidence, and remained valid for well over a century.

The current version of Darwin's theory, called neo-Darwinism, derives from a synthesis of the evolutionary theory with the more recent knowledge of genetics and genetic theory (formulated in the l920s,'30s and '40s) According to neo-Darwinism, organisms best adapted to a given environment survive to reproduce offspring and in this way pass on the favorable characteristics. Changes in the environment can render those same characteristics unsuitable for the organism's survival and reproduction. Spontaneous changes in the genetic material of the organism, called mutations, take place irrespective of the conditions in the organism's environment. If the organism is well adapted to an environment and the environment does not change, the mutations are not passed on to following generations. If the environment changes and a spontaneous mutation contributes to the adaptability of the organism in the new environment, then that mutation increases the chances of the organism's survival. The mutation of 'survival value' is 'selected'. 'Selection' of the mutation is a result of its ability to increase the chances of the organism's capacity for survival and reproduction,and its passage to the offspring and succeeding generations.

Biological organisms respond to environmental conditions in the process of carrying out the various life functions. In doing so they modify the environmental conditions. As a result of the modification of their living conditions, the relations of the organisms to the conditions are modified. The process is one of reciprocal adaptation - organisms continually adapt to the modified conditions - is required for the maintenance of life functions (co-evolution). Human organisms are involved in the same sort of process. For the human organism the environmental conditions are cultural as well as physical. In a cultural environment, physical conditions are modified by the complex of social customs, traditions, occupations, interests and purposes. With the use of language, the contents of the cultural conditions can be stated as problems for inquiry. The environment in which human organisms are involved is their 'commonsense' environment - their 'world'. They make common sense inquiries in order to discover what adjustments in their behavior are require for the maintenance of environmental conditions which are necessary for their continued survival and the survival of the human species. The human activity known as 'science' is a manifestation of the need to make commonsense inquiries about the environment upon which it depends for its life functions. Look at the human as a biological organism to understand.

   With complete cognition, the human organism makes accurate evaluations of experience... 'reality'. Accurate evaluation is necessary for human adaptability. 

 The learning process combines the processing of environmental peripheral stimuli with conscious thought processes involved in cognition. The educational process for the individual within a cultural context involves conscious thought patterns in the framework of unconsciously processed environmental stimuli of the cultural consciousness. The educational process is significant in terms of the individual's 'individuality in a cultural context'. The culture's educational system reproduces the cultural values and the belief systems of the cultural consciousness. The degree to which the individual conforms to the values and belief systems of the culture depends on the degree to which the educational system cultivates conformity to those cultural values and belief systems. Thus the nature of 'individuality' in a cultural context is determined by the assumptions underlying the educational process and the educational system. The degree to which the individual's thought and behavior patterns are characteristic of the values and belief systems of the culture depends on the degree to which the individual is enculturated. The degree to which the educational system contributes to the 'enculturation' process depends on the philosophical assumptions upon which it functions. The wholistic learning process involves the 'orchestration' of the so-called mental 'powers' - imagination, intuition, associations, questioning, synthesizing, thinking skills.

The human brain is characterized by a natural capacity for observation and inquiry - 'curiosity' - essential for the learning process which is necessary for survival of the individual in a complex environment. , the brain's natural capacity for observation and inquiry are characteristic features of the specialized human brain of the socialized human being. Survival of the human species depends on natural human curiosity and the natural development of critical and creative thinking. It depends on the development of the individual's critical attitude about the nature of the environment.'critical consciousness'

 The natural functions of the brain are concerned with its special ability to search for meaning in the environment. As a product of millions of years of evolution through natural selection, the specialized brain functions have ensured the survival of the human species. For its millions of years of survival as a species, the human being has depended on the brain's ability to search for meaning in the environment. The brain's efficient evaluation of the environmental context of experience has depended on the natural selection of its characteristic complex thinking functions. The natural thinking processes constitute the brain's natural capacity for processing complex stimuli in the physical, social and cultural environment.

'Brain-based' wholistic learning is compatible with the natural functioning of the brain. It involves those natural processing functions of the brain which constitute thinking and acquiring knowledge in the act of 'cognition'. Brain based education involves the natural learning functions of the brain and brain-based learning involves the natural 'thinking' functions of the brain.

The thinking skills of the brain can best be understood in terms of behavioural adaptation for survival in a process of evolution through natural selection.                    

The wholistic learning process involves the 'orchestration' of the so-called mental 'powers' - imagination, intuition, associations, questioning, synthesizing, thinking skills. Survival of the human species depends on natural human curiosity and the natural development of critical and creative thinking. It depends on the development of the individual's critical attitude about the nature of the environment. Survival depends on the development of the individual's 'critical consciousness' in the context of a cultural environment. The natural functions of the brain are concerned with its special ability to search for meaning in the environment. As a product of millions of years of evolution through natural selection, the specialized brain functions have ensured the survival of the human species. For its millions of years of survival as a species, the human being has depended on the brain's ability to search for meaning in the environment. The brain's efficient evaluation of the environmental context of experience has depended on the natural selection of its characteristic complex thinking functions. The natural thinking processes constitute the brain's natural capacity for processing complex stimuli in the physical, social and cultural environment.