GLOSSARY OF TERMS
"To understand the ideas, the terms must be clearly defined". (William James. Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals. 1899)
Meanings of words are often assumed. It is the false assumptions which lead to misunderstanding and conflicting views. Consequently in any discussion of education it is important to understand the meanings of important terms in their proper context. This glossary is meant to provide the meanings of some of the terms used in this
of education in the context of the paradigm of holistic education
A words: active processing, actualisation, actualising tendency, affective learning
Active processing The learner consolidates and internalizes information in such a way that it becomes both personally meaningful and conceptually coherent. In this process, the person's entire being is involved. The learner is affected 'globally' - the entire self is affected. The result is global or 'holistic learning'. 'Active processing' is defined as "the consolidation and internalization of information, by the learner, in a way that is both personally meaningful and conceptually coherent." (Caine and Caine 147)
Actualisation "In accordance with biological theory and the evolutionary process, self-actualization increases the person's autonomy and independence of the environment, defining full individuality and 'true' freedom." (Allport, Gordon. Becoming. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. 1955
Actualising tendency The person instinctively tends towards the actualizing of their human potentialities, that is towards fulfilment or 'wholeness'. The actualizing tendency is the substratum of all human motivation. It is this organismic motivation which empowers the individual in the process of growth towards full functioning i.e. 'self-actualisation'.
The actualising tendency is facilitated by holistic educator or 'facilitator of growth' i.e. 'facilitative teacher'. The teacher as facilitator focuses on providing the conditions that permit the actualizing tendency for human growth. The direction of growth will come from within the organism. The actualizing tendency of the human organism is basic to motivation. The substratum of all human motivation is the organismic tendency toward fulfillment - the base that empowers the person ('intrinsic motivation'). The healthy well-functioning person lives in close and confident relationship to their own ongoing organismic process, nonconcosious and conscious. Actualizing tendency tends towards an integrated wholeness. The condition necessary for harmonious growth is spiritual love or 'unconditional love'. Result of growth is the 'fully functoning person' or 'self-actualizing person'.
The actualising tendency is the "directional tendency toward wholeness, toward actualization of potentialities..." (Maslow)
"Tendency toward actualization is primal." (Goldstein, Kurt. The Organism. New York, N.Y.: Zone Books. 1995 page 239)
Affective learning An individual who is intensely interested in a subject is affected both intellectually and emotionally. Learning which is stimulated at the emotional level is 'affective learning'. Affective learning involves comprehension of various perspectives and dimensions of the subject i.e. global or 'holistic perception'.... 'Reason' is human faculty for understanding reality in all its conceivable perspectives and dimensions, and not only those which are of practical relevance. The individual is motivated to think about it productively (affective learning). With respect for the subject they perceive it objectively in its uniqueness and in its totality.
B words: banking education, biological individuality
BANKING EDUCATION According to Freire's 'banking concept' of education, the passive student becomes a depository for storing bits of knowledge that he might then withdraw and make use of in later life. (Pedagogy of Oppressed 46) "In the 'banking' concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Herder and Herder, 1971 -original Portuguese manuscript 1968, translated by Myra Bergman Ramos- 58). Paulo Freire used the term 'banking' to describe educational practice which is conceived in terms of the bestowal of knowledge as a gift to those who know nothing from those who consider themselves knowledgeable. "In the banking concept of education, knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. p.58) (banking)
BIOLOGY ...BIOLOGICAL INDIVIDUALITY "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow, A. Psychology of Being. 185) The individual who makes an effort to become conscious of the various facets of their own nature - constitution, temperment, needs, potentialities - becomes aware of their biological individuality 'subjective biology'. Subjective biology is the biology of the self in terms of one's connectedness to other members of the human species i.e. one’s humanity or ‘human nature’. Understanding of one's own humanity is the basis for understanding of others or compassion
C words: capitalism, career, character, circumstantial stimuli, cognition, cognitive-affective parallelism, conscientization, consciousness, concept, conceived values, cognitive psychology, conscience, consciousness disciplines, creativity, crisis ,curriculum, curiosity
CAREER Capitalists 'capitalised ' on the feminist movement. (See MacLuhan.) Women were made to think of their 'careers' as more important than their children.
CAPITALISM "Capitalism is identical with the pursuit of profit and forever renewed profit, by means of continous, rational, capitalistic enterprise....in a wholly capitalistic order of society, an individual capitalistic enterprise which did not take advantage of its opportunities for profit-making would be doomed to extinction." (Robert Green. Protestantism and Capitalism: The Weber Thesis and its Critics. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co.1959 p.2).
CIRCUMSTANTIAL STIMULI Circumstantial stimuli are any stimuli, external or internal, which seem to force people to take action. These sometimes evoke spontaneous reaction and at other times seem to call for 'appropriate' responses. This is the 'reactive-responsive orientation'. Strategies are designed to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. Longer range strategies are designed to prevent unwanted circumstances from happening in the first place. This is called the 'pre-emptive strike'. Response to circumstantial stimuli is defensive when the individual concerned is spiritually poor. The reactive response of spiritual poverty involves the calculation of strategies which are designed to avoid immediate unwanted circumstances. longer range strategies are designed to prevent the unwanted circumstances from existing at all in the so-called ‘pre-emptive strike’. When there is spiritual richness then the response to circumstantial stimuli is productive and ‘adaptive’. In the creative response, strategies are designed to enhance people's welfare and happiness.
COGNITION Cognition is gaining
knowledge through the process of thinking... putting things together or
relating events - an active connecting process...in an act of imagination,
is the opening of the system so that it shows new connections... the
discovery of likenesses between two things which were thought unlike....
Cognition which is incomplete ('incomplete cognition') is the limited
recognition of things as they are or rather as the culture maintains them to
be... The individual with incomplete cognition is unable to enliven their
perception from within... They can see all there is to be seen of the
surface features of phenomena but they are quite incapable of penetrating
below the surface to the essential and of visualizing what is not yet
apparent....they have the ability to see the details but not the whole, the
trees but not the forest... Their perception of 'reality' consists of the
sum total of what has already materialized... The individual with incomplete
cognition uses a calculating imagination to combine the factors which are
known and in existence and to infer their future operation.
Cognition is gaining knowledge of the essential aspects of a system with the discovery of new connections and relationships in a process of imaginative and creative thinking. Cognition is complete when perception is global or 'holistic'. The inability for holistic perception results in incomplete cognition... seeing the trees but not the forest. The individual with incomplete cognition must depend on a calculating imagination to combine the factors of the reality they know and then infer their future operation. "Cognition as most clearly reflected in thinking means putting things together or relating events - an active connecting process." (Kohlberg. Stage and Sequence: The Developmental Approach to Socialization 1969)
COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE PARALLELISM "What is being asserted is that...the existence of moral stages implies that moral development has a basic structural component. While motives and affects are involved in moral development, the development of these motives and affects are largely mediated by changes in thought patterns...age-development trends in moral judgement have a formal structural base parallel to the structural base of cognitive development." (Kohlberg, L. Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Socialization. In In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally 1969, 390)
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE Cognitive structure "refers to rules for processing information or for connecting experienced events." (Kohlberg, L. Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive - Developmental Approach to Socialization. In In D.A. Goslin (ed.) Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago: Rand McNally 1969, 350)
COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO MORAL EDUCATION...COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL VALUE EDUCATION "The cognitive-developmental approach was fully stated for the first time by John Dewey. The approach is called 'cognitive' because it recognizes that moral education, like intellectual education, has its basis in stimulating the active thinking of the child about moral issues and decisions. It is called 'developmental' because it sees the aims of moral education as movement through moral stages." (Lawrence Kohlberg The Cognitive Developmental Approach to Moral Education" chapter 12 in Moral Education...It Comes With the Territory (Ed) David Purpel and Kevin Ryan, Berkeley,CA: McCutchen Publishing Co. 1976, 176-195)
"Moral education should not be aimed at teaching some specific set of morals but should be concerned with developing the organizational structures by which one analyzes, interprets and makes decisions about social problems" This is known as 'cognitive-developmental value education'. (Rest, James. "Developmental Psychology as a Guide to Value Education: A Review of 'Kohlbergian' Programs." in Moral Education: It Comes With the Territory David Purpel & Kevin Ryan (eds.) Berkeley CA: McCutchan Publishing Co. 1976 254)
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Science of the mind The process of acquiring knowledge, 'cognition'. Cognitive psychology is the science of the mental processes involved in the acquisition of knowledge – cognition.
CONCEIVED VALUES are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts. They are made in anticipation of the outcome, of the chosen behavior. As an example, a human being can choose one of two possible paths of action on the basis of a concept which he has been told to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The choice is a 'conceived value'. A conceived value is a value choice which is made on the basis of a symbolized concept which the individual is taught to value such as pursuing happiness. The so-called 'pursuit of happiness' is a conceived value. (See Morris, C.W. Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.1)
CONCEPT Concepts are the guideposts for thinking and for interpretation of new experiences. Man is the only animal able to formulate concepts. Thoughts and concepts color our perception of the outer world. Our perceptions of outer reality are influenced by our upbringing, culture and past experiences. These all help to create a mental framework for our thoughts. The mental frameworks are called 'concepts'. They become our guideposts in life and help us to interpret events and circumstances in our environment. Concepts are the guideposts for thinking about and interpreting life experiences. Everything is compared to how we think the world is or should be and we react accordingly. The person with inner freedom is able to adapt to the environment as it is rather than as he thinks it should be. The ability to to formulate concepts is the basis for the individual's perception of reality. Each person's reality is based on concepts formulated in the context of cultural influences, educational environment and life experience. (William James).
CONSCIENCE 'conscience' from Latin 'conscientia' which means knowledge within oneself. The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the properly integrated functioning of the whole personality - the guardian of the integration of the human personality... the guardian of the individual's true self-interest. "Conscience is a reaction of ourselves to ourselves. It is the voice of our true selves, which summons us back to ourselves, to live productively, to develop fully and harmoniously - that is to become what we potentially are. It is the guardian of our integrity...of our love for ourselves. ..a reaction of the whole person to its functioning, the human conscience has a strong influence on the affective (emotional) as well as intellectiual (reason) components of the personality. "Actions, thoughts, and feelings which are conducive to the integration of our whole personality produce a feeling of inner approval, of 'rightness' characteristic of the 'good conscience'. On the other hand, acts, thoughts, and feelings injurious to our total personality produce a feeling of uneasiness and discomfort, characteristic of the 'guilty conscience.' (Erich Fromm Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics 159) . The word conscience is derived from the Latin word 'conscientia' which means 'knowledge to within oneself'. The human conscience is the natural expression of a biologically based interest in the integrated functioning of the total personality. The conscience is the guardian of the individual's wholeness or 'integrity' (conscience)
CONSCIENTIZATION The word 'conscientization' originates in the word 'consciousness.' "Comprehension of the process of conscientization and its practice is directly linked to one's understanding of consciousness in its relations with the world." Conscientization involves a dialectic between objectivity and subjectivity, reality and consciousness, practice and theory." (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Herder and Herder, 1971 (original Portuguese manuscript 1968, translated by Myra Bergman Ramos 168) The mechanistic frame of mind "sees" a dichotomy between consciouness and reality, subjectivity and objectivity, practice and theory.
CONSCIOUSNESS DISCIPLINES in Asia and India, the consciousness is considered to be the primary constituent of 'reality' and the material world is a reflection of thought. Emphasizing the need for disciplining and training the individual's capacities for altering his consciousness states, these 'psychologies' or 'psycho-spiritual systems' are known as 'consciousness disciplines.' Their doctrines claim that there is a broad range of mental states which include the more profound and more adaptive 'higher' states of consciousness. These lead to the most profound insights of the mental processes which constitute 'reality,' indivisible from matter and the material world. Psychologies or psycho-spiritual systems known as consciousness disciplines emphasize the need for disciplining and training the individual's capacities for altering his consciousness states. Many Eastern psychologies are based on the premise that the consciousness is the primary constituent of reality. Furthermore the individual's material environment is a reflection of thought and can therefore be changed by altering the state of consciousness. In order to adapt to environmental changes, the individual depends on the need to train the mind to alter its state of consciousness. Hence the term 'consciousness disciplines'. The consciousness disciplines account for the important function of the so-called 'higher states' of consciousness which are the source of insights into both mental and material reality.
CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE can be defined in terms of curiosity, cognition and intuition. The natural learning function of the brain - creative intelligence' - can be understood in terms of three interrelated functions - first, alertness to incoming environmental stimuli or 'information' which affects the senses and arouses the desire for inquiry and understanding i.e. 'curiosity'; second, processing of the information i.e. thinking or 'cognition'; third, intelligent decision making for responsive action which is creative and adaptive i.e. 'intuition'. Curiosity stimulates.. awakens cognition and cognition activates intuition.
CREATIVE STRATEGY The individual focuses all their energy on what they do want. People using it are positive and creative... they accomplish things which enhance the welfare and happiness of others as well as their own. Characteristic of spiritual richness as opposed to spiritual poverty which is characterised by 'defensive strategy'. The individual focuses all their mental energy on what they do not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace.
CREATIVITY Human creativity is a process of adaptation. Creativity is the manifestation of the innate capacity of the organism to adapt to the environment in its constant endeavour to be itself... to maintain its wholeness or 'integrity'. Creativity is the expression of the urge to form new relationships and thus to expand one's nature, to extend one's capacities, to develop one's potential, to mature one's character, to be oneself, to be whole or 'self-actualised'. The tendency towards self-actualization is intrinsic to the organism and the primary motivation for creativity. The creative force is activated with an education which provides the right conditions for its release."The mainspring of creativity appears to be the same tendency which we discover so deeply as the curative force in psychotherapy..man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities. By this I mean the directional trend which is evident in all organic and human life - the urge to expand, extend, develop, mature - the tendency to express and activate all the capacities of the organism, or the self. ...it exists in every individual and awaits only the proper conditions to be released and expressed. It is this tendency which is the primary motivation for creativity as the organism forms new relationships to the environment in its endeavor most fully to be itself." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961. 351)
CRISIS The Chinese symbol for 'crisis' consists of two characters which represent the concepts of 'danger' and 'opportunity'. A crisis situation results from trying to apply the concepts of an outdated worldview or 'paradigm'- outdated concepts - to a reality that can no longer be understood or explained in terms of those concepts. This is the dangerous aspect of a crisis situation. Since new concepts are needed, the same crisis situation offers new opportunities. By the same token, the present educational crisis is an opportunity for change if outdated concepts of the traditional paradigm are not replaced by new concepts of the holistic paradigm.
CRITICAL OBJECTIVISM A person who perceives reality with critical objectivism sees the world as a reality in process, in 'transformation.' Their actions are based on their perception of the reality of their world. He sees his situation, not as fated but as limiting and therefore challenging. He can reflect on his situation critically and objectively and then act on his objective perception of a reality in process. He can make decisions on the basis of this objective perception and move and work to change his situation and transform his world. People behave according to the perceptions which they have of the reality of their world. The person who is critically objective perceives their world as a reality in the process of transformation and then acts accordingly. They perceive their own situation in terms of its limits and opportunities and this challenges their capacity to make decisions and create solutions to the problems of life.
CRITICAL THINKING "Each day be open to the world, be ready to think; each day be ready not to accept what is said just because it is said, be predisposed to reread what is read; each day investigate, question, and doubt. I think it most necessary to doubt." (Paulo Friere. Pedagogy of the Opressed. p.181)
CURRICULUM "When the school is seen as the major part of the environment in which the child becomes an adult, and when it is accepted that the environment should be supportive of all-round growth, the meaning of 'curriculum' must be extended to encompass all that the child experiences." (Goble The Changing Role of the Teacher, Paris: UNESCO, 1977. Function of Teaching ch 3 page 63)
CURIOSITY Curiosity is the brain's natural capacity for observation and inquiry... curiosity is essential for the wholistic learning process which is necessary for survival of the human organism in a complex social environment...modern methods of instruction strangle the curiosity - observation and inquiry - requires stimulation and freedom... without freedom and stimulaton, curiosity is destroyed. 956.) Curiosity is the brain's natural capacity for observation and inquiry and depends on conditions of stimulation and freedom. Without freedom, natural curiosity is strangled and holistic learning is not possible. Curiosity is natural common sense inquiry – the source of scientific endeavour or ‘science’ - which is rooted in the human instinct for self-preservation. "It is in fact nothing short of a miracle that the modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the curiosity of inquiry; for this delicate little plant, aside from stimulation stands mainly in need of freedom; without this it goes to rack and ruin without fail." (Einstein) curiosity is essential for the wholistic learning process which is necessary for survival of the human organism in a complex social environment..
DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE factual knowledge
DEDUCTION According to the CLASSIC THEORY OF INDUCTION AND DEDUCTION a general idea is built up in the following way: simple perceptions are acquired first and then associations are made. Comparisons uncover common factors and gradually reveal concepts of genus, species, class, and higher and more universal charateristics. One goes from the parts to the whole, from the simple to the composite or the complex. Deduction is a thought process considered to be 'logical' because it is based on a premise which is presumed to be 'self-evident'. Even though the given premise might in fact be untrue, conclusions are deduced nevertheless. In the debate on educational theory, deductive reasoning is valid only if the premise upon which it is based is also valid. The validity of theoretical discussion of education depends on the holistic perception of the human individual as a biological organism. The human organism is a social organism which depends on an education offering the right conditions for the proper development of human potential i.e. humanity or ‘self-actualisation’.
Deduction: (Webster Collegiate Dictionary) "...meaning in logic: reasoning from the general to the particular, or from given premises to their necessary conclusion; also, the conclusion so reached. The principle of passing from the elements to the ensemble, is applied in the traditional methods of teaching natural sciences, languages, grammar, music, mathematics, history etc. as well as reading and writing. Most methods of teaching reading first present the symbols, letters and sounds, in order for tHe child to be able to read the different combinations in words and sentences. Most methods of teaching writing first present the symbols in order for the child to be able to combine them in words and sentences. Similarly before presenting the funcioning of the biological organism as a whole, the child is first taught the functions of the parts. In similar fashion, the child is taught the elements of matter, the words of a language, the grammatical parts of speech, musical notation, properties of numbers, chronological facts of human history and so on."
Logical deduction leads to a conclusion regardless of the truth or untruth of the premises. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of given 'self-evident' premises. If the premise is false, conclusions are nevertheless deduced from the false premise through a process of logical proof. The logical thought process which leads to the conclusion is known as 'logical deduction'. In this way, a conclusion is logically deduced from a given premise, regardless of whether or not the premise is true. In this way impeccably logical philosophies can be built on false premises.
INDUCTION, (Webster Collegiate Dictionary) meaning in logic: act or process of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal; the inference so reached.)
DEMOCRACY from Greek 'demokratia' from 'demos' the people, from Indo-European 'damos' a division of the people, from 'da' meaning to cut, divide plus 'kratein' to rule. 'Democracy' in the real sense is the right of the individual to the psychic development which belongs within their own psychic life. In this sense, it is undemocratic to impose external constraints on the individual's inherent psychic development...it is undemocratic to attempt to control an individuals's psychic development... Democracy used in the sense of American political ideology is the right to choose political candidates etc...
DEMOCRATIC treating persons of all classses the same way.. not 'snobbish'.
DIALOGICAL KNOWLEDGE knowledge acquired from using dialogue Dialogical knowledge is the knowledge one acquires in the process of contemplation of dialogue.
DICHOTOMY Considered from a higher consious state... 'holistic perception'... the so-called 'dichotomy' between 'freedom' (as personal freedom) and social responsibility disappears when it is understood that the individual must be responsible in order to be free and vice versa. With the understanding that personal freedom is not possible without a sense of social responsibility there is in fact no dichotomy. Freedom of the individual is not possible without a sense of responsibility to themselves and to others of the society in which they live.The responsible individual is responsible to himself in his 'freedom' and automatically responsible to society. Freedom and social responsibility are complementary. Education for the responsibility of freedom is 'holistic education'.
"How is a social life possible for man if each one is only striving to assert his own individuality? This objection is characteristic of a false understanding in moralism. Such a moralist believes that a social community is possible only if all men are united by a communally fixed moral order. What this kind of moralist does not understand is just the unity of the world of ideas. He does not see that the world of ideas working in me is no other than the one working in my fellow man....A moral misunderstanding, a clash, is impossible between men who are morally free. To live in love towards our actions, and to let live in the understanding of the other person's will, is the fundamental maxim of free men. Persons who are free in this sense only obey themselves. Persons who are not free in this sense are 'unfree' - they submit themselves to control". (Rudolph Steiner Philosophy of Freedom)
DISCIPLINE The word 'discipline' when used in the context of education is commonly understood to mean obedience to rules ...expectations and codes of behaviour... imposed on the individual by an outside authority ...such as school teachers and administrations. In this context, the concept of freedom in the school is perceived as a lack of respect for authority, For many parents and educators the term 'freedom' in education implies a passive attitude, an abandonment of direction and supervision. They forget the dynamic concept of freedom, which implies direct involvement. Contrary to popular opinion, freedom is not synonymous with lack of discipline. Hence the commonly held notion that freedom and discipline cannot be worked out together in the same school environment. On the contrary, freedom is synonymous with discipline, specifically self-discipline. Discipline is derived from the process of concentrated attention on some activity which represents productive and creative interaction with the environment. Concentration involves the individual's control over their own errors. For this reason discipline in the real sense is 'self-discipline'. Educators perceive a real predicament when the real source of confusion arises from a problem in semantics. The words 'freedom' and 'discipline' must be defined in the context of an educational environment in which freedom and discipline prevail together. "Discipline is born when the child concentrates his attention on some object that attracts him and which provides him not only with a useful exercise but with a control of error." (Maria Montessori The Absorbent Mind p.264)
DOUBLE PLANENESS 'Double planeness' refers to the personal aspect of the teacher. It stands for the degeree of congruence between the internal beliefs and values of the individual with the external behaviors. Double planeness operates below..at... the level of consciousness, closely related to 'congruence or 'empathy' ...refers to the degree of congruence between the internal beliefs and values of an individual and their external behaviours. Carl Rogers coined the term 'congruence' to refer to the exact correspondence between an individual's beliefs and their behaviours. 'Double plane-ness' is another term.
EDUCATION "Education is identical with helping the child realize his potentialities." (Footnote: the root of the word 'education' is 'e-ducare', literally to 'lead forth', or bring out something which is potentially present. Education in this sense results in 'existence' which means literally 'to stand out', to have emerged from the state of potentiality into that of manifest reality. Fromm Man for Himself, 207) "The opposite of education is manipulation, which is based on the absence of faith in the growth of potentialities and on the conviction that a child will be right only if the adults put him into what is desirable and cut off what seems to be undesirable. There is no need of faith in the robot since there is no life in it either."(Fromm Man for Himself, 207) 'Education' is futile if it involves the learning of material which has no personal meaning. Learning which does not involve the learner's feelings has no relevance for the whole person and is insignificant. Significant learning involves thought and feelings. Left to his own devices a child learns rapidly and effectively. He learns from experience. Learning with a quality of personal involvement - this is called 'experiential learning.' (Carl Rogers "Freedom to Learn" Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l969)
EMANCIPATION is the principle of civilization. All else is intrigue. Emerson
EMBEDDEDNESS Teaching is 'embedded' in learning. The two are not separate. The teacher and the student are not separate. Art, science, literature and music are 'embedded' in history. Each discipline can be understood in terms of the others. Human beings must not be considered in isolation. They are embedded in the environment and nature. Work is embedded in play and so on. Perceived in terms of the metaphor of 'embeddedness' opposites and dualisms disappear. Supposedly illogical paradoxes can be resolved when considered in the framework of this emerging worldview. With a holistic perspective, different subjects or aspects of a subject are integrated so that dualities disappear. Each subject is 'embedded' in the others and can be understood in terms of the others. The metaphor of embedded-ness eliminates opposites and dualisms. In a discussion of education, teaching is embedded in learning, learning is embedded in work, work is embedded in play, play is embedded in development, development is embedded in learning and so on... teaching, human development and education. The human organism is embedded in nature in the environment.
EMPIRICISM The word comes from the Greek for 'experience' and 'trial'. The experiential approach to knowledge of reality is through sense data or 'empirical data'. Empirical data are based on observation, experiment and factual knowledge. In Western science, the groundwork for empiricism was laid down by Galileo when he made observations which supported the Copernican theory that the earth was round. He stressed the importance of observation, experiment and factual knowledge. He carried out experiments on the speeds of balls rolling down inclined planes and concluded that all objects fall to the earth's surface with the same speed regardless of their weight. With the telescope which he developed, he made observations on the planets. His observations supported the Copernican theory that the earth revolved around the sun, when the church was committed to the idea that the sun revolved around the earth. His belief that accurate observation and information supply useful information about the universe was considered 'heretical' in his day. He advocated looking at nature rather than Aristotle in order to learn the 'truth' about reality. The empirical approach to knowledge and the truth of reality is through the sense data. Galileo was the first to practise empiricism.
EPISTOMOLOGY The word 'epistomology' is derived from the Greek 'epiteme' meaning knowledge and 'logos' meaning study. Epistomology is the branch of philosophy which is concerned with the study or theory of the origin, nature and methods of knowledge, especially its limits and validity. Discussion of the rationale for holistic education is an epistemological study.
ETHICAL INDIVIDUALISM "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws. Why should my action be of less service to the public good when I have done it out of love than when I have done it only because I consider serving the public good to be my duty? The mere concept of duty excludes freedom because it does not acknowledge the individual element but demands that this be subject to a general standard. Freedom of action is conceivable only from the standpoint of ethical individualism." (Steiner, R. The Philosophy of Freedom. London: Rudolph Steiner Press. 138)
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING... 'Significant' or 'experiential' learning: the whole person in both his feeling and cognitive aspects is in the learning event. Learning of personal involvement is self-initiated, is pervasive, is evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence... 'experiential' or 'significant' learning involves thought and feelings...the whole person - in both his feeling and cognitive aspects - is in the learning event... learning from experience. Left to his own devices a child learns rapidly and effectively... Learning with a quality of personal involvement which is self-initiated, pervasive, evaluated by the learner and has meaning as its essence.
Learning is significant if the learner is free to learn from experience, hence 'experiential learning'. Experiential learning is self-initiated and pervasive and the learner is personally involved. The learning event engages the whole person. The person's learning involves their capacity for feeling or 'affectivity' as well as their capacity for thinking or 'cognition'.
"Every living creature, while it is awake, is in constant interaction with its surroundings. It is engaged in a process of give and take - of doing something to objects around it and receiving back something from them - impressions, stimuli. This process of interacting constitutes the framework of experience." John Dewey, How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation ofReflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1933. 36)
EDUCATION AND THE 'SCIENCE OF EDUCATION' The root of the word 'education' is derived from the Latin 'e-ducare' literally meaning 'to lead forth' or draw forth from within... bring out something which is potentially present... cultivate human potential...the human potential for compassionate genius... creative intelligence which combine the understanding of reason with the kindness of compassion. "Education is an activity, an endeavour, an enterprise which is related to the notion of bringing up, rearing, leading forth. It is the human endeavour of self-development towards self-realization, self-actualisation, self-fulfilment, self-transcendence, the human endeavour towards happiness and the value life. Education is identical with helping the child realize his potentialities. Education in this sense results in 'existence' which means literally 'to stand out', to have emerged from the state of potentiality into that of manifest reality." (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself page 207)
The term 'science of education' does not mean that education is a science or even a discipline in itself. The 'science' of education refers to the scientific nature of objective inquiry into education as a human activity. It is only recently that the term 'education' has come to stand for a field of study which was once known as 'pedagogics'. It is in the sense of pedagogics that education is considered to be a subject of study which should be taught and developed by continued research. So what is education? Education is helping the individual to bring out their potential. The function of education is the provision of those conditions which are necessary for the actualization of potentiality and the cultivation of intelligence.
ETHICS According to Webster there are two definitions of the word 'ethics': one is the "science of moral values and duties" and the other is "the study of the of the ideal human character, actions and ends". The word 'ethics' is derived from the Greek word 'ethos' which originally meant both 'custom' and 'character'. Both the customs and the character of the individuals in a group were thought to be the basis of its ethos and therefore of its ethics. In the original broad sense of the word, ethics was concerned with the formation of the perfect human character. The term 'ethics' came to mean the 'science' of ideal human relatedness in terms f both 'custom' and 'character'. In American culture the 'word 'ethics' refers to codes of behaviour considered to be appropriate to particular situations. Thus 'medical ethics', 'business ethics' and so on. But according to the humanist traditions of philosophy there is only a universal 'human ethics’. Human ethics is natural or ‘rational ethics’. Rational ethics is a function of the proper development of moral consciousness or ‘conscience’. The human conscience is the inner core of human values which are common to all human beings.
ETHICAL INDIVIDUALISM Ethical individualism is the moral action of freedom. "Acting out of freedom does not exclude the moral laws; it includes them, but shows itself to be on a higher level than those actions which are merely dictated by such laws. Why should my action be of less service to the public good when I have done it out of love than when I have done it only because I consider serving the public good to be my duty? The mere concept of duty excludes freedom because it does not acknowledge the individual element but demands that this be subject to a general standard. Freedom of action is conceivable only from the standard point of ethical individualism".(Rudolph Steiner).
EVIL 'Evil' is identified with the wickedness of human behavior... The wickedness of human behavior is identified as 'evil'. What is the source of evil? Human behavior becomes evil only if the proper conditions for growth and development are lacking...evil human behavior results from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem...evil results from the failure to realize life...failure to achieve self-realization... Evil is the absence of good - the result of the failure to realize life. Man becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking.
Evil has no independent existence of its own... . Wicked human behaviour is the result of failure to achieve self-realization through proper growth and development i.e. the 'right education'.
The creative energy for growth is blocked and that same energy is transformed to destructive ends. The individual remains insecure with low self-esteem and attempts to compensate for this with feelings of sham dominance. The domineering attitudes which result are the source of wicked behaviour or 'evil'.
The actualisation of a potentiality depends on the presence of certain conditions...the concept of potentiality has no meaning except in connection with the specific conditions required for actualisation. If the proper conditions are present, the 'primary' potentiality is actualized ('good') and if the present conditions are in contrast to those required by the primary potentiality, then the 'secondary' potentiality is realized. The primary potentiality is manifested under normal conditions. The 'secondary' potentiality is manifested under abnormal, pathogenic conditions... man is not necessarily evil but becomes evil only if the proper conditions for his growth and development are lacking. The human organism has a 'natural personality' which is not 'evil'...basically good... feelings of 'natural dominance' or 'self-esteem' lead to beneficial and creative behavior. Feelings of 'compensatory dominance' become 'overcompensatory' when they are derived from the crippling effect of insecurity and low self-esteem.The feelings of 'sham dominance' lead to domineering attitudes which result in wicked human behavior...manifestations of 'evil'...
"If life's tendency to grow, to be lived, is thwarted, the energy thus blocked undergoes a process of change and is transformed into life-destructive energy. Destructiveness is the outcome of unlived life. Those individual and social conditions which make for the blocking of life-furtheriing energy produce destructiveness which in turn is the source from which the various manifestations of evil spring." (Fromm Man For Himself 216)
"To the extent that the individual is denying to awareness (repressing) large areas of his experience, then his creative formings may be pathological, or socially evil or both. To the degree that the individual is open to all aspects of his experience, and has available to his awareness all the varied sensings and perceivings which are going on within his organism, then the novel products of his interaction with his environment will tend to be constructive both for himself and others." (Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961. 352)
Fromm, Erich. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics.
FACILITATIVE TEACHER The facilitative teacher is a self-empowered person who teaches for self-empowerment. Trusting their own power to control their life and their future - their own constructive potential- the facilitative teacher trusts the potential of others and feels no need to have power over them or to control their lives. He/she shares in decision making functions and makes responsible choices. The function of the facilitative teacher is to act as a catalyst in promoting... creating ...fostering a growth-promoting climate which will facilitate self-initiated learning ...in which the learner can learn to be free - exploring his own interests, making choices for his own learning direction and bearing the reponsibility for the consequences of those choices...The genuine person has a positive self-concept, is secure within himself and secure about his relationship with others... self-disclosing to their students and responsive to their feelings and their ideas... ready with praise... focuses on the continuing process of learning...the content of the learning process becomes secondary.......their approach to life and learning is person-centered.
FAILURE In the success-oriented culture of capitalism, failure to 'succeed' is considered to be dishonourable. According to the behaviourist paradigm of capitalistic culture, the individual is expected to control their behaviour and work towards given standards of performance or 'success'. In a paradigm of so-called 'traditional education', fear and anxiety are even used as instruments to control behaviour. Children are made to feel humiliated if they fail and to fear failure. They learn to control their fear and adjust to it by inventing strategies which are self-limiting. They lose the courage which they need to learn from error and develop their potential. They might even choose to fail in order to avoid embarrassment and protect their status. It is the fear of failure which interferes with the proper functioning of the self-correcting mechanism of the brain essential to the natural development of intelligence. In the holistic paradigm failure is regarded as error and error is functional in the of ‘self-evaluation’.
"We should see that failure is honorable and constructive rather than humiliating" (Holt, J. How Children Fail. New York, London Pitman Publihing Co. 1964. 37)
Children are made to feel humiliated by failure rather than regard it as a chance for self-correction.
Individual in cultural context: the cultural implications of 'failure': in a success oriented culture children are "afraid of failing, afraid of being kept back, afraid of being called stupid, afraid of feeling themselves stupid" - insult - fear interferes with the natural process of learning from error- the brain's self-correcting mechanism-the most constructive learning process.
Natural learning is learning from mistakes. In the success oriented culture mistakes are equated with failure.
Worrying about 'failure' prevents courage to make mistakes and learn from them.
Success is rated too highly and children learn to depend on 'success' too much. They learn to equate stupidity and ignorance. These are not the same
. If one is ignorant of the facts, intelligent use of the facts is what is important.
With fear of failure, "children use strategies to protect themselves from embarassment, punishment, disapproval, loss of status" (Holt, J. How Children Fail. 48) They 'put up a good front' to look as if they know what they are doing. Self-limiting and self-defeating strategies are "dictated by fear" (Holt, J. How Children Fail. 49)
"Fear destroys intelligence" and fear affects a child's whole way of looking at, thinking about and dealing with life." (49) Children must not be afraid.
In the capitalist society children learn to control their fears and adjust to them. Fear destroys their intelligence and their potential. Unable to control their own fear they protect themselves by making others afraid. "Gang members are no more than uneasy allies, welded together partly by fear of the world outside and partly by the certain knowledge that nobody else in the world gives a damn about them."(Holt, J. How Children Fail. New York, London Pitman Publihing Co. 1964. 57)
With failure to succeed, to reduce other people's expectations and demands, children can choose to fail. Unable to meet the high standards they don't try. They choose to fail as a strategy. Incompetence has the advantage of not creating disappointment. Children are made to be afraid so that their behavior can be controlled.
Fear and anxiety can be used as instruments of control. Fear makes a person incapable of constructive thinking and working
FEMINIST PEDAGOGY (‘feminist pedagogy’) The term 'feminist pedagogy' is difficult to define. The key to understanding feminist pedagogy is an understanding of its origins in the consciousness raising groups of the women's liberation movement of the late l960s and early l970s
'Feminist pedagogy' has raised three issues which are useful to consider in a discussion of the enrichment or expansion of other liberatory pedagogies. The first concerns the need to challenge the authoritarian role of the teacher. In the feminist pedagogy, the teacher learns with students and holds authority by virtue of greater knowledge and experience. Pedagogy is constructed in such a way as to... The second concerns the need to validate the claim for knowledge and truth in personal experience and feeling. The third concerns the importance of rejecting the universal category of 'woman' and recognizing the differences among women and among all people. Application of the principles of 'feminist pedagogy' has evolved in conjunction with the growth of women's studies and 'the new scholarship on women' in colleges and universities. They have introduced liberating pedagogical theories and methods in the classroom. They have institutionalized feminist pedagogy in the form of programs and departments of women's studies. Adherents of the 'feminist movement' have challenged existing traditional canons and disciplines on the basis of what they perceive as gender discrimination." ("Freire and a Feminist Pedagogy of Difference" by Kathleen Weiler, Harvard Educational Review vol. 61 no. 4 November l991)
FINAL INTEGRATION The final resolution of one's critical existential life crises after passing through numerous vocational problems and conflicts. In the integration process, one resolves oneself to one's life work... taking on the work responsibilty. The final integration is both a psychological and a spiritual accomplishment ..achievement (if it can be called that) in that one comes into one's own as a specific, distinct individual. Because of this one achieves a kind of spiritual health or wholeness which is a direct result of one's own truthfulness, courage, and conscious choices. First the achievement is psychological because in choosing one's work, one takes a conscious, responsible life direction and acts in such a way as to be psychologically 'there'... all of a piece, understandable, unique as an individual. One knows as the saying goes, 'what one wants to be when one grows up'. And knowing that, one grows up. Second it is a spiritual achievement because one's life is therafter dedicated to a conscious, intentional manner of living, rather than withdrawing or contracting oneself from life and being. One's steadfast functional effectiveness becomes a devotional act which consecrates everything it touches. This is because through the faculty of being, one is present in the moment. "The vocationally integrated person does not long for love: he has it. He does not yearn for happiness: he has it. He does not strive for completion: finality, satisfaction: he has these, and he has qualities in the very act and process of doing the work he enjoys. The healthier the personality, the more likely it is that the individual experiences his entire life (including his vocational life) in this abundant manner." Merton, Thomas. Contemplation in a World of Action. New York: Douleday and Co., Inc. l97l. pp. l75-l76)
The 'pursuit of happiness' is learning. "Flow experiences arise naturally from intrinsic motivation by virtue of the fact that we have a human mind which processes information." "Learning is time invested in yourself, in the growth and development of your own unique experience."
FLOW LEARNING Flow learning is learning which is intrinsically motivated or learning in the 'flow state'. The term 'flow learning' was coined by pioneer research in the field of happiness, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pronounced Chick-SENT-mehi) head of the Department of Behavioural Sciences at the University of Chicago and author of 'Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experiences.' Biochemical function of 'happiness': the opiates of the body called 'endorphins', influence the immune system. Make connection with high level wellness wholistic health and spiritual well being. World Press Review April 1993 page 22-23 Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, University of Chicago."
The 'pursuit of happiness' is learning. "Flow experiences arise naturally from intrinsic motivation by virtue of the fact that we have a human mind which processes information."
"Learning is time invested in yourself, in the growth and development of your own unique experience."
FORMALISM The combined effect of the Cardinal Principles and the emphasis on child diversity gave rise to the theory of 'educational formalism'. Born with "individual differences and capacities", children growing up in a democratic society were required to have access to different materials in order to attain literacy and numeracy. It was believed that "only under a formalistic concept" can all students command the same fundamental processes. Since children vary in their capacities, then the only way to achieve universal literacy and numeracy was to conceive of reading, writing and arithmetic as 'formal skills.' (E.D. Hirsch Cultural Literacy and the Schools. 120)
FREEDOM Ignorance breeds fear, suspicion, hatred, and confusion. As a result the individual lives in the prison of his own limitations, restricted understanding, emotions and activities...
'Freedom' is a frequently used word. There are two kinds of freedom corresponding to the inner and outer aspects of life - outer freedom and inner freedom. Outer freedom is freedom of action, political or social freedom. Inner freedom is freedom of the mind, freedom from restricted understanding and emotions of fear, suspicion, confusion, hatred, and result from the ignorance of human nature and its potential... The bondage of ignorance breeds makes of the individual a prisoner of his own limitations. Inner freedom as 'freedom of thought' is essential for personality growth and development of intelligence which results from the realisation of one's personality and one's potential i.e. self-realisation or ‘self-actualisation’.
"Man is free in so far as he is able to obey himself in every moment of his life." (Rudolf Steiner. Philosophy of Freedom.)
"The ideas of freedom and democracy deteriorate into nothing but irrational faith once they are not based upon the productive experience of each individual but are presented to him by parties and states which force him to believe in these ideas." (Fromm Man For Himself 210)
GLOSSARY G words: genius, general systems theory, geocentric view of the universe, , good, global representation, global
GENIUS "All children are born geniuses...genius does its own thinking; it has confidence in its own exploratory findings, its own intuitions, in the knowledge gained from its own mistakes...." (An Appreciation of Montessori, Buckminster Fuller, 1975. Mario Montessori Education for Human Development, New York: Schocken Books, Ed. Paula Polk Lillard 1976.)
GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY:SYSTEM PHILOSOPHY The general systems theory is the scientific perception of the world in terms of 'whole' and 'wholeness'. The 'systems' approach is the 'wholistic' approach.The holistic approach to scientific methodology is also known as the 'systems approach'. The general system theory provides a philosophical framework for the orientation of scientific investigation. A significant result of the introduction of a 'systems' or 'wholistic' approach to scientific methodology is the reorientation of thinking. The result is a new scientific paradigm known as 'system philosophy' which is based on the view of the world as a great organization or 'organism.' According to the system philosophy the sciences are systems of concepts - conceptual systems - which correspond with reality. For example, the human individual is an organized whole or 'organism'. System philosophy allows for the creation of new concepts regarding principles of education of the human organism i.e. 'holistic education'.
GEOCENTRIC VIEW According to the geocentric view challenged by Galileo, the earth was thought to be at the centre of the universe and the sun to travel around it. This view has been replaced with the heliocentric view of the universe. The sun is a minor star at the edge of one of the many galaxies in the universe and the earth is one of the planets which revolve around the sun.
GEOCENTREIC VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE According to the geocentric view of the universe (as opposed to the 'heliocentric' view of the universe) the earth is at the center of the universe and the sun revolves around the earth. According to the heliocentric view of the universe the earth is not at the center of the universe but one of the many planets circling the sun which is only a minor star at the edge of the galaxy.
GLOBAL "The term 'global' suggests the involvement of the whole person as a being of body, soul and spirit. What the developing child experiences affects the whole person for the whole of life. This has profound implications for education." (Gerald Karnow "Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life" Holistic Education Review, Spring, 1992 p. 60)
GLOBAL REPRESENTATION or 'syncretism'. Ovide Decroly tcoined the term 'syncretic' to describe the thought process of the child (la pensee syncretique de l'enfant.) Named since Decroly's time as the 'syncretic' thought of the child global representation is the perception of an object with fusion of all the details or qualities. In reality, instead of perceiving things by way of their qualities (Montessori's notion) the child begins to perceive things with all the qualities mixed and even his sensibilities are fused with the object being perceived. Syncretism (syncretisme) implies the fusion of everything belonging to the object, the fusion of details with the whole, of the whole with the details, of all the qualities, of the objective significance, of the child's emotional subjective significance and in effect the fusion of everything pertaining to the object.
In the child's perception of the environment, details and qualities are fused with the objective significance and even subjective emotional significance of an object so as to provide a holistic view or 'global representation'.
GOOD Good means being human… realizing one’s human potential. The manifestation of good is realization of one's human potential i.e. or ‘self-actualisation’. Self-actualisation is the manifestation of good. The failure to realize human potential results in the opposite of good i.e.human wickedness or 'evil'.
GLOSSARY H words: happiness, heliocentric, hemispheric, hidden curriculum, human development, health or 'high level wellness', heliocentric, hemispheric specialization, holism, holistic, holistic education, holistic educator, holograph, human development, human nature
HAPPINESS Happiness is the response of the total personality to the productive orientation to itself and to its environment. Happiness results from the productive realization of one's potentialities. Characteristic of happiness are the simultaneous feelings of oneness with the world and integrity of the self i.e.'health' as wholeness or 'wellness'. The happy person has found the answer to the problem of human existence ('existential isolation'). Happiness is virtue. Self-evaluation of personal achievement leads to contentment as serenity or 'happiness'. Happiness depends on a growth-promoting climate or 'learning environment' which encourages intrinsic motivation and self-evaluation."Happiness is the indication that man has found the answer to the problem of human existence: the productive realization of his potentialities and thus simultaneously, being one with the world and preserving the integrity of his self. (Fromm, Man For Himself p.189) "Happiness is man's greatest achievement; it is the response of his total personality to a productive orientation toward himself and the world outside."(Fromm Man For Himself p.191) "Happiness is not the reward of virtue, but is virtue itself; nor do we delight in happiness because we restrain our lusts; but on the contrary, because we delight in it, therefore are we able to restrain them." (Spinoza, Ethic) The ultimate goal of human life is happiness.
HELIOCENTRIC VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE According to the heliocentric view of the universe (as opposed to the geocentric view) the earth is not the center of the universe but one of the many planets circling the sun which is a minor star at the edge of the galaxy. According to the geocentric view of the universe the earth is at the center of the universe and the sun revolves around the earth.
HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION 'Hemispheric specialization' refers to specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. Specialization of the cerebral hemispheres is based on the way in which incoming stimuli are processed. The two hemispheres both process incoming stimuli but each is specialized to process them in different ways. The left hemisphere is specialized for logical and sequential processing of stimuli and is primarily engaged in those mental activities which involve the processing of words, numbers, and language. The right hemisphere is specialized for simultaneous and parallel processing or 'holistic', and is primarily engaged in those mental activities which involve the processing of images, visual patterns and spatial relationships. The specialized functions of the two hemispheres are integrated by way of the large interconnecting fibres which relay information from one hemisphere to the other... the commissures, including the large corpus callosum. This is the biological basis for the brain's natural potential for holistic learning. Holistic learning is a function of the interdependent and integrated functioning of the two specialized hemispheres.
HIDDEN CURRICULUM Philip Jackson coined the term 'hidden' or 'unstudied curriculum' to refer to ninety percent of what goes on in classrooms. "In his book Life in Classrooms (1968) Philip Jackson summarizes three central characteristics of school life: the crowds, the praise, the power. Learning to live in the classroom means first, learning to live and to be treated as a member of a crowd of same-age, same-status others.... second learning to live in a world in which there is impersonal authority, in which a relative stranger gives orders and wields power." (Kohlberg)
HOLISM Everywhere we look in nature, we see nothing but wholes. 'Holism' is the drive to ever-higher unities. Evolution is the drive to holism. He spoke of the holistic evolution of nature - applies also to the individual's growth and development. Personal psychological growth involves "unfolding of ever-higher -order unities and integrations" (Wilbur 84) "In psychological development, the whole of any level becomes merely a part of the whole of the next level, which in turn becomes a part of the next whole, and so on throughout the evolution of consciousness"...Koestler coned the term 'holon'- an entity which looking down is whole, looking up is part. Everything is a part of something bigger and is itself made up of parts. (see philosopher Jan Smuts, Holism and Evolution. New York: Maxmillan 1926).
HOLISTIC The word 'holistic' is the adjective form of the noun 'holism' derived from the Greek word 'holos' meaning 'whole'. 'Holism' or 'wholism' refers to the philosophical theory based on the assumtion that 'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'.
HOLISTIC EDUCATION The aim of holistic education is the education of the whole person for the whole of life. "The discoveries of Rudolf Steiner concerning the interrelationships of body, soul and spirit represent a new educational paradigm which ... can provide a secure theoretical and practical foundation for a holistic education that directs itself to educate the whole person for the whole of life." ("Gerald Karnow "Educating the Whole Person for the Whole of Life" Holistic Education Review, Spring, 1992)
HOLISTIC EDUCATOR "For too long the inner world of children has been suppressed or denied, and this is a serious flaw in our educational thinking that holistic educators seek to remedy. In our enthusiasm to nurture the subjectivities of children, I hope that we don't forget that it is in the intermediate world of symbols and shared mutual dialogue that genuine cultural transformation will occur...The potential of wholistic education is to develop the capacity to reason critically and compassionately, incorporating and transcending dualistic and suppressed forms of consciousness to achieve a more fully developed mode of awareness.. (Kathleen Kesson. "Critical Theory and Holistic Education: Carrying on the Conversation" in Miller et al. The Renewal of Meaning in Education: Responses to the Cultural and Ecological Crisis of our Times. 109)
HOLISTIC MEDECINE 'Holistic medecine' or 'wholistic medecine' involves the treatment of the whole person rather than just the symptoms of ill health. Health as 'high-level wellness': The word 'health' comes from Anglo-Saxon word 'haelth' from 'hal' meaning 'hale, sound or whole,' 'haelen' to 'heal' or 'restore to health'. Methods of healing which take into account the total dimension and well-being of the individual are called 'holistic health methods'; Central to holistic medicine is the concept that the individual is a 'whole' person whose body, mind and spirit are integrated and inseparable. Health is considered in terms of harmony and balance with both the external and internal environments. A wholistic approach to health care emphasizes the importance of a perspective of the 'whole' person, the interconnectedness of body, mind and spirit. In these terms, health as 'wellness' is more than the absence of sickness. It is a state of the conscious awareness of one's vitality and energy, of feeling alive throughout one's being, a physical state which induces the mental state of deep appreciation for the environment. This state of physical and mental wellbeing is called 'high level wellness.' "Wholistic health comes from the joyful participation in the challenges of life and the challenges of living." (Donald Ardell, 1986. "High Level Wellness: An Alternative to Doctors, Drugs and Disease", Berkeley, CA:Ten Speed Press.)
The word 'holy' meaning 'to be revered' refers to a person's moral and spiritual excellence.
HOLISTIC EDUCATION Holistic Education is the practice of freedom... open-minded responsiveness to life situations as they arise. "Holistic education returns us to the Latin root meaning of the word 'education' - to lead forth what is naturally within the human being." (Miller What Are Schools For? 11) "...the human mind is capable of transcending apparent empirical 'facts' and can penetrate to the 'world of formative ideas'. Through the power of imagination, we are able to integrate the empirical with the ideal, to place the concrete facts of our experience into a larger context of meaning, evolution and purpose. Physicist David Bohm calls this contexct 'undivided wholeness in flowing movement'. Gregory Bateson called it the 'pattern which connects'. Spiritual traditions have called it the Absolute, the Tao, or God. It is the infinitely creative source of Being." (Miller What Are Schools For? p.16)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Human development is a "continuous process in which the individual remains the same psychosomatic entity while constantly adapting to changes in the environment...There is only one problem, and it is human development in its totality; once this is achieved in any unit - child or nation - everything else follows spontaneously and harmoniously." (Maria Montessori, To Educate the Human Potential. Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. p.13) "In humans, certain fundamental patterns and sequences of development are hereditary, but individual behavior is shaped through experience and interaction with the environment." (Mario Montessori, Education for Human Development 101)
HUMAN NATURE Human nature is defined by the human motives for learning or 'human needs'. These include the 'spiritual needs' for spiritual growth i.e. 'metaneeds'. "The old philosophical question 'what is the nature of man?' cannot be answered unless man's conscious mind is expanded to its full capacity. Then the answer can be found scientifically." (Abraham Maslow)
IDENTIFICATION 'Identification' is a mental process of semantics ....ascribing objective existence to words... magic of words. identification of facts with preconceived creeds, dogmas and judgements. Facts are made to 'fit' the beliefs. The process of identifying a word with the object is fallacious because identity as 'absolute sameness in all respects' is not possible. A definition of any word must invariably leave out many attributes so the word remains a symbol which is devised to represent an objective reality. The collection of symbols which constitute a language is merely a representation of the world, analagous to a map of a given territory. Different languages can vary with respect to their accuracy in depicting the 'real' structure of the world being represented.
IMMORTALITY The total acceptance of the human organism's biological nature becomes fused with the concept of 'transcendance of death' and 'immortality.' ("Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology" edited by Roger Walsh, M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D. J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980)
INCOMPLETE COGNITION Cognition which is incomplete ('incomplete cognition') is the limited recognition of things as they are or rather as the culture maintains them to be... The individual with incomplete cognition is unable to enliven their perception from within... They can see all there is to be seen of the surface features of phenomena but they are quite incapable of penetrating below the surface to the essential and of visualizing what is not yet apparent....they have the ability to see the details but not the whole, the trees but not the forest... Their perception of 'reality' consists of the sum total of what has already materialized... The individual with incomplete cognition uses a calculating imagination to combine the factors which are known and in existence and to infer their future operation.
INDIVIDUALISM The term 'individualism'...'individuality' refers to an individual's human potential for self-realization... teaching methodologies which cultivate a non-critical conformity to the cultural consciousness - the cultural values and belief systems - do not foster true individuality within the cultural context. Pedagogies which cultivate a critical cultural consciousness foster the individual's human potential - the individual's 'true' individuality in a cultural context... pedagogy based on the natural wholistic functioning of the brain fosters the individual's 'individuality' within any cultural context. The concept of 'individualism' does not mean 'in isolation' from one's fellow human beings. 'Individualism' does not mean having more and dehumanizing others - the meaning which the term has acquired in capitalist countries. The educational process for the child means the instinctive development of his individuality and so must allow for the complete emotional and psychic as well as intellectual maturation into an adult personality with self-determination, self-respect, and self discipline. The educational process becomes effective when a child enjoys learning for learning's sake. He can enjoy learning in the framework of creation which comes from his own powers of imagination and natural curiosity in the world around him. The teacher is a resource and provider of resources. And the educator, whether in the administrative or instructional capacities of school or government, has the very great responsibility of leading students to use their own minds- to learn to think.
Individualism is the any doctrine or practice based on the assumption that the individual and not society is the paramount consideration or end.(Webster Collegiate Dictionary) From a holistic perspective, since it is individuals who make up a society then the needs of the individual are an integral part of the needs of the society and cannot be any more or less important.
INDIVIDUATION (term coined by Jung) the search for wholeness ...for integration of the personality...the psychological process that makes a person a unique indivisible unit or whole person. It is the process of becoming the independent personality free from parental domination and support of social environment. ...all symbolic expression or activity has the inner purpose of 'individuation'. "The basic demand imposed on every individual is the urge as well as the necessity to become conscious of himself, to develop that human awareness which distinguishes the mature personality from the infantile one. The path towards this awareness is the same as the process of individuation... consists of a profound reorientation from an ego-centered subjective attitude to an objective awareness of the limitations of the ego and an awareness of the existence of that greater psyche which is the whole 'Self'" (Jung) Individuation is 'self-actualization' - the actualizing of one's fullest nature which is 'human nature'.
INDUCTION meaning in logic: act or process of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal; the inference so reached. (Webster Collegiate Dictionary)
INNATE IDEAS Doctrine of 'innate ideas': A doctrine usually attributed to Descartes but originally found in Plato, namely that the mind contains notions independent of experience, such as ideas of God, self, perfection, mathematics etc. Descartes vacilllated in in his conviction about the doctrine and it was apparently not a major part of his system, though it provoked an intellectual revolution in the form of empiricism. (John Lawry. Guide to the History of Psychology.Totowa, New Jersey: Little Adamas and Co. 1981 p.69)
INNOVATION In educational methodology a new approach or technique based on a variation of a known theme, approach or technique is an 'innovation'. An innovation is 'logical' if it seems reasonable, 'analogous' if it is similar to something that has worked in a different cultural setting or geographic location... resembles an existing approach... and 'empirical' if it has been shown to work before in a trial or experimental situation.
INNOVATIVE EDUCATION The term 'innovative education' is difficult to define. Innovative education is education involved with 'innovation' in educational methodology. Innovative education can be defined as 'nontraditional education' - also dificult to define. Traditional education can be characterized by referring to characteristics such as the use of classrooms, scheduling of activities, contradicting teacher student relationships and so on. Innovative education would refer to the absence or modification of characteristics of traditional education. The extent of variation with traditional programs and institutions makes it difficult to define the term 'innovative education'.
INSIGHT PROBLEM-SOLVING According to stimulus-response psychology, insight involves trial and error... INSIGHT Gestalt psychology ... they argued that more is involved in problem-solving than a sequence of stimuli and responses....mind tends to organize and integrate and to perceive situations and problems as total structures... the problem has a structure of its own that points the way to its solution... Only within the total framework or context does the problem-solver draw selectively on relevant knowledge... the insight that leads to a solution stems from the perception of the requirements of a problem. Insight is the essential element in intelligent problem-solving FIXATION Insight is often delayed or thwarted by fixation on an inappropriate solution. Sometimes a person clings misguidedly to a false premise or assumption concerning the task before him. Causes of fixation in problem-solving...implicit but incorrect premise... fixations can be strengthened by strong ego-involvement in a problem. Fixation is the archenemy of insight. Fixation is overcome and insight attained by a sudden shift in the way the problem or the objects involved in it are viewed. What brings about this sudden shift? Formation of new connections...Scheerer, Martin. Problem-Solving. Scientific American April 1963 118-128
INTELLIGENCE The word 'intelligence' has different meanings for different people. In American society the word tends to be used in connection with achievement in school. Intelligence as 'social intelligence'... Social intelligence is a human characteristic which evolved because it had survival value for the species as a social species.
In the more traditional societies the word is used in connection with wisdom and morality which are required for maintaining the social linkages which mean long term security.
intelligence as 'creative intelligence' can be defined in terms of curiosity, cognition and intuition. The natural learning function of the brain - creative intelligence' - can be understood in terms of three interrelated functions - first, alertness to incoming environmental stimuli or 'information' which affects the senses and arouses the desire for inquiry and understanding i.e. 'curiosity'; second, processing of the information i.e. thinking or 'cognition'; third, intelligent decision making for responsive action which is creative and adaptive i.e. 'intuition'. Curiosity stimulates.. awakens cognition and cognition activates intuition.
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Deep meanings are at the core of intrinsic motivation. They provide the individual with a sense of direction and with the energy needed to carry out a particular task. The source of the motivation which comes from within -'intrinsic motivation' is curiosity. Children are naturally curious. Children are intrinsically motivated by their curiosity. Natural curiosity is the source of their self-motivation or 'intrinsic motivation' for learning.
INTROJECTIVE INSTINCT The human species is a social species. Survival of the species depends on the ability of the young to acquire information and values of the culture into which they are born. Human development involves an instinct for the internalization or 'introjection' of externally imposed values through parental and cultural education. This 'introjective instinct' is a characteristically human instinct. In personality development the parents' social and cultural values are incorporated into the organismic valuing process which is fluid and continually changing. "The personality of the average person is determined by he socioeconomic and political structure of the society in which he lives." (Erich Fromm Man For Himself).
Modification of organismic valuing process by way of the 'introjective instinct': The introjective instinct is a particularly human instinct. The child 'introjects' - makes a part of himself- "what appear to him as the wishes, demands, hates, scorns, and standards of his psychological parents." If the parents are weak and infantile, their weakness is introjected as strength. Internalized images have a malignant effect on the child's development. In order to survive the young of the human species must acquire large amounts of information from older members of the species. The instinct for acquiring externaly imposed values and information is the 'introjective instinct'. (See Donald Barr "Who Pushed Humpty Dumpty?: Dilemmas in American Education Atheneum N.Y 1971)
During development, the child instinctively "modifies his own fluid and changing valuing process (operative values) by incorporating externaly imposed concepts (conceived values). In this way, the natural valuing process is gradually modified by the introjection of parental values and cultural values - the externaly imposed conceived values. The modified valuing process tends to be fixed and rigid. Conceived values are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts which are learned, such as' honesty is the best policy'. Conceived value choices are made on the basis of anticipated outcomes. Conceived value choices are introjected. Their incorporation and internalization result in the modified organismic valuing process. Introjection of conceived values explains some of the causes of the formation of character and 'character orientation'. Explains the correlation between character orientation and social structure. Point up the powerful emotional forces which are instrumental in molding the social character and explains the functioning of the society. "The personality of the average individual is determined by the socioeconomic and political sructure of the society in which he lives " (Fromm Man For Himself) .
INTUITION - reaching a sudden conclusion , letting the learning just 'happen'... Intuition is the capacity to make adaptive and creative evaluation and effective decisions without conscious awareness of all the facts.. a function of the integration of the ego-self with the spiritual self... 'holiness'.. 'health' or 'wholeness'. Intuition or the 'intuitive process' involves the immediate processing by the whole brain. Intuition is the capacity to reach a sudden conclusion, letting the learning just happen. The intuitive process involves the immediate processing by the whole brain. It is possible to cultivate one's ability for intuitive thinking... Learning just happens and a conclusion is suddenly reached. Intuition can be cultivated with a serendipitous attitude to new experiences and new opportunities. (Carl Rogers Freedom to Learn Charles Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus Ohio l96 )
JANUS Roman mythology. one of ancient gods of Rome - the guardian of doors , watches over entrances and exits; portrayed with two faces - one for entrance and one for exit; In Rome the temples of Janus were only closed in times of peace. used in the term 'janus-lke'... something which is ambiguous... with two possible meanings.
LANGUAGE Language which reflects the person's perception of reality is known as 'functional language'. Functional language reflects the individual's perception of 'reality'. The thought patterns and behavior of the individual mind reflect the 'reality' of the cultural environment.
LEARNING is the transmission of neural information. Learning is a natural process involving the identification and correction of one's own errors in the process of evaluating information.
LIBERATION THEOLOGY The revisionist critics subscribe to a 'liberation theology'.. Liberation theology advocates peaceful revolution through critical literacy. The most eloquent advocate of liberation theology is Freire...
LIBERAL EDUCATION "The Greeks attained the concept of an education that was 'liberal' not simply because it was the education of free men rather than slaves, but also because they saw it as freeing the mind to function according to its true nature, freeing reason from error and illusion and freeing man's conduct from wrong." (Archimbault, R.(Ed) Philosophical Analysis and Education. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1965 115)
Love is the power with which one perceives the world... fulfillment and happiness through love... by which the human individual relates to the world through fellow human beings.. Love is the capacity to transcend oneself and relate to one's fellow human beings by connecting to their human core.To love another is to express the power to love and to concentrate this power on the one person as representing humankind. Love of another's humanity is 'universal love' Universal love is the love for all humanity. Universal love is a productive force because it creates the capacity for good will. Good will promotes the understanding of other human beings and the cultivation of their humanity. Universal love is 'productive love'. Productive love cannot be separated from understanding or 'reason' and cultivation or 'labour'. To love productively is to care for the other person's growth and development and to feel responsible in the sense of 'ready to respond'. The productive form of love is inseparable from 'labor' meaning 'to cultivate', to foster growth."To love one person productively means to be related to his human core, to him as representing mankind." (Fromm Man for Himself 101)" . Productive love is 'responsible love'. Responsible love does not make any demands nor depend on any conditions. Responsible love is 'unconditional love'. Unconditional love is affirmation of the other and grants them the full right to cultivate their own humanity. For this reason love is the power to transform the world. Erich Fromm "Values, Psychology, and Human Existence" Ed. Abraham Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959.
"An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers and humaness. Love without 'respect' and knowledge can degenerate into domination and possessiveness". (Fromm Man For Himself l29).
'Reason' as a human faculty for understanding reality is the comprehension of all conceivable perspectives and dimensions, and not only those which are of practical relevance.
"To love is an expression of one's power to love. and to love somebody is the actualization and concentration of this power with regard to one person." (Fromm Man for Himself l29).
"One does not truly love a person and yet seek to enslave him - by law or by bonds of dependence and possessiveness."
LOVE IS AN EVOLUTIONARY FORCE "Work is love made visible." (Gibran The Prophet, Heineman G.B. and Knopf, New York, 1948, p. 33) There is a connection between love and growth... genuine love is the will to extend oneself for spiritual growth ...a form of work or courage directed toward nurturing one's own or another's spiritual growth. Nurturing the spiritual growth of others ..paying attention to another's spiritual growth has the effect of nurturing one's own spiritual growth. Love is dedication to one's own development as well as the development of others, love is dedication to the human race and to human spiritual development ...the more loving one is, the more humble one is... love is the source of power...Hindu gurus makes no bones of the fact that their love is the source of their power... when we grow, it is because we are working at it, and we are working at it because we love ourselves...it is through love that we elevate ourselves...and it is through love of others that we assist others to elevate themselves...love is an act of evolution...an evolutionary force... the extraordinary wisdom of the unconscious is an ultimately explainable part of a molecular brain operating with miraculous technology...spiritual growth is the evolution of an individual... human organism as it grows depends on parental love for spiritual growth necessary for survival...the human species depends on love for survival... survival value of love in the evolution of homo sapiens as a social organism which depends for survival on its ability to cooperate with other members of its own species the capacity for awareness is in that part of the mind called the 'conscious' from Latin 'con' meaning with and 'scire' meaning to know..the mind's consciousness..
LOVE AS A "META VALUE" is inseparable from labor and reason "Man comprehends the world, mentally and emotionally, through love and through reason."(Fromm Man for Himself 97) Although the expression of the two different powers of emotion and thinking, 'love' and reason are two inseparable forms for comprehending the world. 'Love' meaning 'productive love,' is inseparable from 'labor' meaning 'to cultivate' or 'make something grow.' 'Love' in this sense cannot be divorced from care and 'responsibility' meaning 'to be ready to respond.' To love productively means to care and feel responsible for another's growth and human development. 'Love' in the sense of productive love is unconditional. No conditions are attached to productive love. Unconditional love is productive love with no conditions attached. Unconditional love is not sentimental. "Love is union with somebody, or something, outside of oneself, under the condition of retaining the separateness and integrity of one's own self." (Erich Fromm "Values, Psychology, and Human Existence" Ed. Abraham Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values. 1959.) "Not sentimental, love is an act of courage, an act of freedom, an act of humility, an act of dialogue-(dialogical) requiring an intense faith in man -"faith in his vocation to be more fully human" (P. Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 1971. 79)
The emotion of human solidarity is known as 'productive love' or 'love'. LOVE (Productive love, unconditional love) love and values: the power of creative unselfish love. Pitirim Sorokin in Maslow New Knowledge in Human Values: "Summing up the powers of unselfish love, we can say that unselfish creative love can stop aggressive interindividual and intergroup strife and can transform inimical relationships between persons and groups into amicable ones; that love can tangibly influence international relationships and pacify international conflicts. Unselfish and wise love is a life-giving force, necessary for physical, mental and moral health; ...love is the loftiest educational force for enlightenment and moral ennoblement of mankind; love performs important cognitive and aesthetic functions; love is the heart and soul of freedom and of all moral and religious values;..." (11 Pitirim Sorokin ) Love is affirmation of the other person, not possession of the other person. Love is granting the other person the full right to his own humanhood.
IMMATURE LOVE is selfish love... immature will to cling to the role of dependent and create security for oneself in a world which is perceived as threatening."Whenever we experience a genuine love, we are moved by this transforming experience toward a capactity for good will. Or we might put the matter inversely: if what we call love in relation to one person or to a few people creates in us no capacity for good will toward many, then we may doubt that we have actually experienced love. In all likelihood, what we have experienced is some form of immature will to make security for ourselves in a dangerous world by clinging to the role of dependent." (Overstreet The Mature Mind)
M words: manipulation, maturity, meaning, meditation, memory, meta-motivation, meta-needs, morality, moral science, mysticism
MANIPULATION The opposite of education is manipulation of the human imagination. "Manipulation is based on the absence of faith in the growth of potentialities and the conviction that the child will be right only if the adults put into him what is desirable and cut off what seems to be undesirable. There is no need of faith in the robot since there is no life in it either". (Erich Fromm. Man For Himself: Psychology of Ethics. page 207)
MATURITY Concept of 'maturity' is having a philosophical sense of the whole. The 'mature' mind is the maturing mind. "A mature person is not one who has come to a certain level of achievement and stopped there. The mature person is a maturing person - a person whose linkages with life are constantly becoming stronger and richer ...with attitudes which encourage growth rather than attitudes which discourage growth. The adult whose emotional linkages with life are still undeveloped has a greater power to make other people miserable ... The mind which is neurotic or psychotic is one that has linked itself to an environment not really there: its responses are to fantasies and illusions - to dangers that are the projections of its own fears; to slights that are the projections of its own self-doubtings. The life that is rich and happy is one that is fulfilling its possibilities through creative linkages with reality". (Overstreet. The Mature Mind)
MEANING: FELT or DEEP MEANING purposeful meaning, creative insight and a sense of what is meant, necessary for the acquisiton of 'natural knowledge'
MEDITATION Meditation is a cognitive process of a higher order which involves the creation of new understanding and brings about change which becomes personally relevant i.e. 'metacognition'.
MEMORY is the storage of neural information. Both learning and memory are a function of the chemical and molecular mechanisms involving the nerve cells and the junctional units connecting them... their interconnections - the 'synapses.' Learning and memory are natural functions of the brain. The natural processes of learning and memory did not develop by accident... they developed because they were of survival value. Broadly defined, 'learning' is defined in terms of the changes of behaviour which result from experience, and includes memory.
METANEEDS Gratification of the ego needs depends on significant others. Once the basic psychological needs have been met then the individual becomes less dependent on others for the gratification of the needs for growth or 'growth needs' for 'normal growth' or 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth depends on the individual's independence of others and their reliance on their own inner resources for gratification of the 'higher psychological needs' - the 'spiritual needs' for 'ego-transcendance' i.e. the 'Being needs', 'B-needs' or 'metaneeds'.
The basic psychological needs for love and affection, self-respect, self-esteem and belongingness have a biological basis. Mature individuals whose basic psychological needs are gratified, have self-respect, self-discipline, self-directedness, a sense of purpose and worthiness, are referred to as 'self-actualizing' individuals. They then become motivated by the 'metaneeds' of the value-life. Motivation by the 'metaneeds' is referred to as 'metamotivation.' Motiovation by the metaneeds of the value-life is an intrinsic part of human nature and must therefore be included in a full definition of the human organism, the person and the individual. (Maslow)
MORALISM (American)..ACTING IN ORDER THAT MORALITY MAY COME ABOUT
MORALITY ...as 'free morality': Acting with or from moral ideas. 'Free morality' is morality based on 'inner freedom'... developed 'conscience'. Morality is a function of intelligence i.e. 'moral intelligence'. Moral intelligence is a function of the capacity to make correct evaluations and moral judgements in situations which require is such evaluation and moral judgement. Moral intelligence must be developed prior to the appearance of the situation. It is not self-evident which moral decisions to make about the practical aspects of the moral situation - what approaches to adopt, what actions to take and so on. Since conflicting interests are involved in a moral situation there are alternative solutions... the decisions must be searched for and moral intelligence is required to search for them. The right course of action must be found and finding it depends on the ability for inquiry which is intelligence.
"Morality is a function of intelligence. A moral situation is one in which judgement and choice are equired antecedently to overt action. The practical meaning of the situation - that is to say the action needed to satisfy it - is not self-evident. It has to be searched for. There are conflicting desires and alternative apparent goods. What is needed is to find the right course of action, the right good. Hence inquiry is exacted...This inquiry is intelligence.(Dewey The Quest for Certainty. p. 255)
"In the cognitive-developmental view, morality is a natural product of a universal tendency toward empathy or role taking, toward putting oneself in the shoes of other conscius beings. It is also a product of a universal human concern for justice, for reciprocity or equality in the relation of one person to another." (Kohlberg)
MORAL SCIENCE Moral science is the science of value... concern is with the knowledge of value. "The true knowledge of value lies in the science of value...as natural science has changed the world, so moral science, once it is developed and fully known, is bound to change the world. There was no force that brought about the age of technology, other than the clarity of mind of people like Newton and Einstein. The only difference these men made in the world is that they gave us knowledge. All the rest followed by itself. All the difference that the new science is going to make to the world is that it gives us moral knowledge, and all the rest will follow by itself." (Hartman "The Science of Value" in Maslow ed. New Knowledge in Human Values 34)
MYSTIC or 'PEAK' EXPERIENCE The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution.
MYSTICISM "Mysticism is knowledge; it is an act of knowing by which a person breaks through to what he thinks is the basic structure of the universe." (Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. 84)
GLOSSARY N words: natural knowledge, neurosis, new education, normal
NATURAL KNOWLEDGE Natural knowledge is knowledge which can be applied in real-world situations. Natural knowledge is personal perceptual knowledge which provides meaning to one's world and purpose. Knowledge becomes natural when it is connected with previously acquired knowledge. Natural knowledge is personal knowledge based on one's perception of one's world. Natural knowledge is 'perceptual knowledge' as opposed to 'procedural knowledge' as knowledge of procedure, 'factual knowledge' as knowledge of facts, 'dialogical knowledge' as knowledge acquired from meaningful dialogue.Natural knowledge results from natural processing of information or 'learning' which is compatible with holistic brain functioning. "Teaching to the brain is teaching with the brain's rules." (Renate Nummela and Tennes M. Rosengren. What's Happening in Students' Brains May Redefine Teaching. Educational Leadership May 1986)
NEUROSIS Defintion of neurosis: "Neurosis - manifest 'basic anxiety" - derives from environmental factors which obstruct a child's normal psychic growth and development" (Horney, Karen, M.D. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization, 366)
NEW EDUCATION The 'new education movement' in Europe was founded at the beginning of the 21st century by doctor/anthropologist Maria Montessori and doctor/pedagogue Ovide Decroly. The new education was based on scientific studies of children. According to the new education philosophy, educational methodology should be based on the discovery and formulation of the natural laws of human growth and development. The legitimate function of teachers and the schools is to facilitate learning and character building through work activities which constitute natural interaction with the environment.
According to the 'new education' philosophy, the function of teachers and the schools is to help children construct good character through their work activities which constitute interaction with the environment. This compares with the 'old education' philosophy according to which it was believed that children had to be 'taught' the values which are admired by adults.
One of the founders of the 'new education movement' in Europe was Maria Montessori. Based on scientific studies of young children she confirmed that character building is the child's owbn achievement. "Children construct their own characters...(which)... result from a long and slow sequence of activities carried out by the child himself between the ages of three and six.....No one can 'teach' the qualities of character...The only thing we can do is to put education on a scientific footing so that children can work effectively without being disturbed or impeded." (208) Good character is necessary for effective learning. Without character there is no 'drive' or concentration. With concentration, the child interacts with his environment. Without the power of concentration, the individual becomes enslaved by the environment. With concentration comes perseverence. The unfolding of character is entirely natural - with critical periods like the period of cocoon construction in the caterpillar. The critical period for character formation is between ages three and six - called the 'constructive' period. "The child's own strongest instinct is to free himself from adult control."(218) It is not a matter of 'will' but a natural 'law'. The natural laws of growth and formation are to be respected for children to build character, the inner self. Character building is a matter of natural creation, not (traditional) education". (Maria Montessori. The Absorbent Mind)
NON-TRADITIONAL EDUCATION: "Nontraditional education": The characterization of "traditional" education is best done by referring to a cluster of themes or modes such as l. use of classrooms 2. scheduled activities 3. assymetrical teacherstudent relationships etc. "Non-traditional" would refer to the absence or modification of one of these themes or modes. The extent of variation with "traditional" programs and institutions make it difficult to define the term "non-traditional." "Innovative education" refers to "innovation" in educational methodology. An "innovation," a new approach or technique, is a variation on a known theme based on one of three principles. An innovation can be LOGICAL if it seems reasonable, ANALAGOUS if it is similar to something that has worked in a different cultural setting or geographic location or EMPIRICAL if it has been shown to work in a trial or experimental situation. The terms "nontraditional education" and "innovative education" are difficult to define. What is considered to be "nontraditional" and "innovative" in education is a matter of definition and opinion and of little intellectual interest.
NORMAL... PSYCHOLOGICAL NORMALITY Psychological 'normality' as culturally defined: Depending on the distorting influences of the culture, the individual in the culture who subscribes to the myths is considered to be 'normal'. The individual who does not subscribe to the myths might be considered 'psychotic'. In the context of another culture, the so-called 'normal' individual might be considered 'psychotic'.
OBEDIENCE: Obedience can be dangerous if it is not accompanied by the wisdom and understanding of 'free will''as developed conscience. "Obedience is no mechanical thing, but a natural force of social cohesion, intimately related to the will, even its sublimation. Obedience of the right kind is a sublimation of the individual's will, a quality in the human soul without which society could not exist. But an obedience without true self-control, an obedience which is not the consequence of an awakened and exercised will, brings whole nations to disaster." (Maria Montessori To Educate the Human Potential 123) The natural force of social cohesion - obedience - has been named the 'introjective instinct'.
OBJECTIVE VALUES are value choices which are 'objectively' desirable. They are not sensed as being advantageous to the organism nor are they conceived as being symbolically desirable. (For definition of values, see Morris, C.W. "Varieties of Human Value." Chicago: University of Chicago Press, l956)
OPERATIVE VALUES "Operative values are value choices which are indicated with preferences of behaviour, action, and objects. They do not involve any cognitive or conceptual thinking. As an example, if an earthworm placed in a 'Y' maze is given a choice between a smooth path and a path paved with sandpaper, it will prefer the smooth path. The choice is made on the basis of survival value to the organism. The choice is an 'operative' value." (Morris, C.W. Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.)
OPTIMALEARNING Learning based on the optimal functioning of the brain's physiological processes is successful and meaningful learning or 'optimal learning'. Optimal learning or 'optimalearning' (coined by Ivan Barzarkov) is learning for 'natural knowledge'.
ORGANIC WORLDVIEW: worldview characterized by the interdependence of spirirtual and material phenomena and the subordination of individual needs to those of the community.(Fritjof Capra The Turning Point)
PARADIGM A paradigm is a community shared wordview which provides a general theoretical framework for the mental process of formulating working concepts and perceptions. The holistic paradigm provides a perception of the human organism in terms of its growth and development as a whole. This holistic perception of the human organism becomes the basis for the formulation of the concept of educating the person as a whole i.e. 'holistic education'. The principles of holistic education are compatible with the natural principles of human growth and development.(‘paradigm’) A paradigm can be likened to spectacles through which one perceives the world. Paradigms determine perceptions. In the world of science, a paradigm is a theoretical framework which provides a working model or theory. The theory supplies a general outline and direction for scientific activity. Experiments are designed within the theoretical framework of a paradigm and experimental data and observations are analysed within the context of the same framework. Data which cannot be explained by the theoretical structure within which the experiment has been designed... do not fit the paradigm are 'anomalous'. The 'anomalous' observations bring about a 'paradigm crisis'. New theories arise to explain the anomalous data and soon a new paradigm replaces the old one... result is a 'paradigm shift' and the theoretical framework changes. A new paradigm replaces the old one. The 'spectacles' of the old paradigm are replaced by those of another. Examples of scientific paradigms are the theories of quantum mechanics, relativity, elementary particle nature of matter, evolution, double helix DNA, electricity as flowing current and so on.
PASSIVE TEACHING Passive teaching is teaching as if information must be poured into a person's head.. as if the human brain is a receptacle and information must be poured into it. In contrast, 'active teaching' is based on the recognition that the brain is a processor of information and effective learning depends on effective processing which depends on the right conditions.
'PEAK' EXPERIENCE (B-COGNITION of MYSTIC EXPERIENCE) 'Peak experience' is a term coined by Abraham Maslow to refer to the mystic experience of acquiring knowledge in a cognitive process which involves transcendence of the self i.e. 'self-experience'. The peak experience is the cognition of Being or 'Being cognition' (B-cognition). The experience can be described as an "intense feeling of unity with the universe and of one's own place within that unity". (Abraham Maslow. Psychology of Being. Page 11)
The mystic or 'peak' experience of transcendance involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily possible to live in the realm of the 'B-Values.' During the peak experience, a kind of knowledge occurs that Maslow calls B-cognition (20)
"B-cognition of the mystical experience is a natural form of knowledge in the sense that one needs postulate no special intervention of the deity to explain it... the person makes contact with the 'way things are'." (Psychology of Being page 49)
Abraham Maslow coined the term 'peak experience' to refer to the mystic experience of ego-transcendance. Maslow defines the peak experience by its most characteristic feature ...as an "intense feeling of unity with the universe and of one's own place within that unity".(Psychology of Being page 11). the universe is 'perceived as an integrated and unified whole"The peak experience involves the individual's total acceptance of his biological nature and his part in natural evolution. Without having to resort to the 'supernatural,' the individual's "communion with what transcends him" becomes a biological experience which makes it easily....
Peak experience is not merely verbal or intellectual but pervades the being and is "so profound and shaking...that it can change the person's character...forever after... one perceives that the universe is an integrated and unified whole and that one has a place in it. This enables one to overcome extreme mental stress. (Psychology of Being page 11) During the peak experience, a kind of knowledge occurs that Maslow calls 'B-cognition'. B-cognition of the mystical experience is a natural form of knowledge in the sense that one needs postulate no special intervention of the deity to explain it. In the mystic experience, the person makes contact with the 'way things are'." (Psychology of Being page 49)
During the peak experience, a kind of knowledge occurs that Maslow calls 'B-cognition'. "B-cognition of the mystical experience is a natural form of knowledge in the sense that one needs postulate no special intervention of the deity to explain it. In the mystic experience, the person makes contact with the 'way things are'." (Psychology of Being page 49)
"When one perceives that the universe is an integrated and unified whole and that one has a place in it, one can overcome extreme mental stresses."(Medawar 20)
Peak experience is a 'mystical experience'...The mystical experience is a natural form of knowledge in the sense that one need postulate no special intervention of the deity to exlain it. In the mystic experience, the person makes contact with the Way Things Are."(Greeley 49)
"Mysticism is knowledge; it is an act of knowing by which a person breaks through to what he thinks is the basic structure of the universe."(82) (Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990) (see Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974)
"Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimensions in Psychology" edited by Roger Walsh, M.D. Ph.D and Frances Vaughan Ph.D. J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles l980
Greeley, A. Ecstasy: A Way of Knowing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974
Maslow, A. Religions, Values and Peak Experiences.
Medawar, P. The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists. New York: Harper Collins, 1990
PEDAGOGY The word 'pedagogy' is derived from the Greek 'paedogogos' meaning instructor of children ('paed' child and 'agogos' leader). Pedagogy isthe art, practice or profession of teaching; esp. systematized learning or instruction concerning principles and methods of teaching. Pedagogy is the art and practice or profession of teaching esp. systematized learning or instruction and methods of teaching in the context of a given set of principle The pedagogy of holistic education is based on principles of the holistic worldview implied in the perennial philosophy.
The founder of the new education in Europe Dr. Maria Montessori described effective pedagogy in the following way: "The secret of good teaching is to regard the child's intelligence as a fertile field in which seeds may be grown, to grow under the heat of flaming imagination. Our aim is not to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorise, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his inmost core....we seek to help the child in his growth, mental and emotional as well as physical." (Maria Montessori. To Educate the Human Potential.Adyar, Madras, India: Kalakshetra Publications, 1961. p. 15)
PERCEPTION is 'mode of '. Experience is subjective. The same experience can be understood in different ways by different individuals depending on how they understand it. Perception is a way of understanding experience or 'mode of understanding'. The mode of understanding is determined by the individual's presuppositions. These are often a result of mental processes of which the individual is not conscious.
Perception is based on presuppositions..."All experience is subjective...The brain makes the perceived image... the processes of perception are inaccessible; only the products are conscious and, of course, it is the products that are necessary. ...two general facts - first, I am unconscious of the process of making the images which I consciously see ... second, in these unconscious processes, I use a whole range of presuppositions which become built into the finished image... perception is the beginning of empirical epistomology".
PERENNIAL PHILOSOPHY The term 'perennial philosophy' was coined by Liebniz - 'philosophia perennis' - and described by Aldous Huxley in his book Perennial Philosophy. "Ecology and subatomic physics has shown that at the heart of nature is the interconnected web. If one part of the whole is affected, there will be changes in the whole organism/system. The transmission and transaction positions are rooted in dualism. The transformation position is rooted in the 'perennial philosophy'." (Huxley, 1940 NY Harper and Row.1970.)
The term refers to (It refers to a "universal doctrine as to the nature of man and reality lying at the very heart of every major metaphysical tradition". It reveals a spectrum of consciousness across the centuries... a perspective of reality which is based on a universal doctrine on the nature of humanity which has been at the core of all the major 'metaphysical traditions' or 'religions' throughout the centuries. That doctrine concerns the fundamental unity of the universe and the interconnectedness of reality. The philosophy focuses on the need for the individual to cultivate their capacity for contemplation and meditation for intuition and insight to understand their place in that unity... to cultivate their 'spirituality'. Spirituality implies recognition of this unity and leads to social action in the human struggle for social justice.
Perennial philosphy focuses on the interconnectedness of reality, fundamental unity of the universe, connection between individual's inner or higher self and this unity, cultivation of intuition and insight through contemplation and meditation in order to 'see' the unity. Realization of this unity among human beings leads to social action designed to counter injustice and human suffering. (Walsh. 60-61)
See psychologists Rogers, Maslow, Wilbur; educators, Michael Apple, Henry Giroux; physicist David Bohm...
PERENNIAL PSYCHOLOGY Psychologist Ken Wilbur proposes that a 'perennial psychology' meaning 'universal view as to the nature of human consciousness'. It would reveal a spectrum of consciousness of different levels: the mind level, existential level, ego level, shadow level.
PHILOSOPHER "To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity and trust." (Thoreau)
PLEASURE: Characteristic of true pleasure is serenity of mind and absence of fear... Pleasure in the real sense results from ability to reject immediate gratification for the sake of permament and tranquil satisfaction ... obtained with prudence and foresight ....is obtained with prudence and foresight.
PRAGMATISM The term 'pragmatism' was invented by American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce... as a scientific method of thought... to represent the new mode of thinking associated with ... as a contribution to the American version of 'economic man'... American pragmatism. In the paradigm of pragmatism the aim of education was to educate each individual to become a useful member of the society. Practical methodology stressed those aspects of the curriculum which aimed to cultivate productive and responsible citizens.
On the ideas of European romanticism... Abstract rote-learned material of literate culture was scorned. The pragmatists wanted to replace abstract rote-learning of traditional European education with experiential learning for its usefulness to society... They believed that an educational goal should be direct 'social utility'. They believed that each individual should be educated to be useful to the society. They stressed those aspects of a curriculum which would cultivate productive and responsible citizens. They interpreted individual differences in terms of the new concept of variation in intelligence.
PRAXIS The integration of theory and practice is 'praxis'. Praxis is a 'theory in practice' ...a theory of teaching and learning which is embedded within a socio-political context... The integration of theory and practice is 'praxis'. "Praxis is seen as the necessary instrument for purposes of change and liberation." (Paulo Freire Pedagogy of the Oppressed) In the context of education, praxis is embedded in a given socio-political context. Praxis is therefore instrumental in changing the socio-political context. Practical aspects of praxis change according to change in socio-political context.
PROBLEM SOLVING To solve a problem remove its cause. The cause may constitute another problem.
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE knowledge about procedures; knowledge of how to perform a task
PRODUCTIVE CHARACTER ORIENTATION The 'productive character orientation' is a mode of human relatedness. Productive character orientation is an attitude characteristic of the individual who recognizes his powers, identifies with them and puts them to productive use i.e. the 'productive character'. The potential for the productive character is intrinsic to each human individual. Its realization depends on the right conditions for emotional and psychological and intellectual development... therefore on the 'right education'.
"In a spontaneous process of self-realization, the 'productive' character recognizes his powers, identifies with them and puts them to productive use. Unless mentally and emotionally crippled, every human being is capable of the attitude characteristic of the productive character. Every child is born with the biologically inherent natural capacities of a productive character. As a mode of relatedness, the 'productive character orientation' covers mental, emotional and sensory responses to others, to oneself and to things". (Fromm Man for Himself: The Psychology of Ethics. page 84)
Full maturation of the 'productive' character and the individual's self-realization is the aim of the biological process of human development and therefore of education and humanistic ethics. Consequently an inquiry into the 'science of ethics' is simultaneously an inquiry into the 'science of education' and human development. Conversely an inquiry into the 'science of education' and human development is simultaneously an inquiry into the 'science of ethics.' (
PRODUCTIVE LOVE The emotion of human solidarity is known as 'productive love'. The productive form of love is inseparable from 'labor' meaning 'to cultivate', to foster growth. Love in this sense cannot be divorced from 'care' which implies a profound sense of 'responsibility', a readiness to respond. To love productively means to care and feel responsible for another's psychological growth and human development. Productive love is the same as universal love or unconditional love. It is love in the sense of human solidarity. . Productive love is love with respect and knowledge and involves 'responsibility' in the sense of readiness to respond and 'labour' in the sense of fostering psychological growth.
"An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers and humaness. Love without 'respect' and knowledge can degenerate into domination and possessiveness". (Fromm Man For Himself l29).
PROGRESS "Progress is the exploration of error" (Jacob Bronowski The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination. London, New Haven: Yale University Press 1978 page 112)
PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION "The earliest use of the term 'progressive education' in the United States probably dates from the translation of Mme Necker de Saussure's work 'Education Progressive, ou Etude du Cours de la Vie' (Paris 1836) which appeared as Progressive Education, or Considerations on the Course of Life (London 1839)." (Lawrence Cremin. The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957) Vintage Books, New York, l964. page 358)
"...the true aim of 'progressive' education is the fostering of personal freedom. The philosophy was debased. It was misunderstood to represent education as a sugar-coated pill." (Carl Rogers. Freedom To Learn)See psychologists Rogers, Maslow, Wilbur; educators, Michael Apple, Henry Giroux; physicist David Bohm,
PROSTER and 'proster theory'
Implications for education: Effective learning takes place when the external sensory input challenges the brain to do three things: first, call up the greatest number of appropriate prosters; second, expand an already existing proster; third, develop new prosters. The formation of new prosters is facilitated in the presence of a supportive environment and the absence of threat.
GLOSSARY R words: rationalism, reason, relaxed alertness, repression, reality, revisionist critics, reflective thinking
RATIONALISM Rationalism and the rationalistic approach referred to the search of truth by the power of reason alone. The term 'reason' referred to the philosophical process of 'logical thought'. The process of logical thought was referred to as 'reasoning'. The process of 'reasoning' was considered to be the natural procedure for obtaining information about 'reality'. In the logical thought process of rationalism, conclusions were drawn on the basis of given 'self-evident' premises. The given premises were fabricated out of the imagination and impeccably logical philosophies were built on false premises. Conclusions were deduced through a process of logical proof or 'deduction'. Logical deduction leads to a conclusion regardless of the truth or untruth of the premises. Aristotle's system of ideas was internally consistent and 'logical' even though it was built on false premises. Adding nothing new, the deductive approach of rationalism hindered progress in knowledge of nature for centuries. The deductive approach of rationalism served to maintain the false perceptions of reality. The approach of rationalism added nothing new to our knowledge of nature. For centuries, rationalism hindered progress in our knowledge of nature. (Beck, W. Modern Science and the Nature of Life, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1961.)
REALITY "We accept things as 'real' if they can causally act upon, or interact with ordinary real material things." (Popper, K. and J.C. Eccles. The Self and Its Brain. 10) Reality as 'truth': "The making of truth in the interpersonal relation: The picture of truth and of reality that we have inherited from the classical science of the impersonal is that it is 'out there' perfect, complete, hidden but uncoverable. In the earlier versions the observer simply observed. In later versions it was understood that the observer had spectacles that distorted but which could never be removed. Most recently physicists and psychologists have learned that the act of observation is itself a shaper, a changer, an intruder into the phenomenon being observed. In a word, the observer partly creates the reality, i.e. the truth. Reality seems to be a kind of alloy of the perceiver and the perceived, a sort of mutual product, a transaction. For instance, see the many researches with reafference and with the effects of observer-expectation, to mention only two well-known lines of experimentation. I mean here more than the 'personal equation;' of the astronomer or even Heisenberg's principle of indeterminacy. I refer rather to the impossibility of finding out what, for example, a preliterate culture would 'really' be like, undistorted by the observing ethnologist." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966??)
REASON Common dictionary definitions of reason represent the term as a synonym for 'logic' in the sense of formal deduction (Kant's definiton). This is false. Educational policies are based on the false definition of 'reason' as synonymous with 'logic'. This is unfortunate. 'Reason' (origin of the word) refers to the human capacity for securing knowledge of the universe by way of the creative process. Aim of education is to foster the development of the human potential for task-oriented creative mental activity. The aim of education is to foster the development of the human potential for 'reason'.
'reason' ... means sound thinking, intelligence, sanity nd sense... Paradoxically, the philosophical position known as 'rationalism' from the Greek word for reason ('ratio') has since the age of Greece represented something quite different from what we know as the scientific method... the word 'reason' is used by philosophers to represent logical thought and not necessarily to the pursuit of truth...in a process of logical 'proof' or deduction, a conclusion is unwrapped and exposed from a given premise... the conclusion lies within the premise... and in fact no new knowledge is added... this is the essential emptiness of deduction as a method of 'reasoning'... logical deduction leads to a conclusion regardless of the truth of the premise... in this way a logically sound system can be spun out of the reasoning mind whether or not the underlying premise is true... the crucial defect of rationalism is that it needs nothing but the reasoning mind and a premise which could be false... the truth of the conclusion must depend on the truth of the premise. If the premise is true, then the conclusion is true. If the premise is false, then the conclusion is false. An example: "Spinoza, the philosopher's philosopher, devised a 'system of ethics' in which mathematical proofs patterned after the geometry of Euclid were used to etablish theorems on God and the nature of true goodness." (page 42 Walter Weisskopf Science and Wonder. Natural History... )
Descartes the greatest of the rationalists...and a true sceptic...father of modern philosophy... recognized the importance of an unshakable base for a rationalistic philosophy... He systematically doubted, by rejecting " as absolutely false all opinions in regard to which I could suppose the least ground for doubt, in order to ascertain whether after that there remained aught in my belief that was wholly indubitable" (was there anything about himself which could not be doubted?) he came at last to the proposition that his doubt could not conquer. He could not doubt that he was doubting ...cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am) He proved beyond doubt that human reason is valid in the process of truth finding) He established this as a valid premise which could be used in the search for truth... the key feature of Descartes' method was INTUITION... he then poceeded to Bacon was the first philosopher of 'empiricism'...disgusted with Aristotelianism which only led barren dispute...he resolved to establish a new philosophy which would reform all human knowledge and allow man to regain the control of nature which he had 'lost with the fall of Adam'...he suggested a method to be used ...described it in his treatise Novum Organum or New Method (as opposed to the Organon in which Aristotle described the 'Aristotlian method') ...as a revolutionary statement, it was an attack on rationalism and medieval thought which ignored facts...emphasized the limitations of deductive logic...and the stressed the value of inductive logic based on observation data... Bacon's mistake was his belief that empiricism would lead to certain knowledge... the truth of the conclusions resulting from inductive inference cannot be guaranteed... one can only describe the conclusions in terms of the probability that they can result in new knowledge...
REFLECTIVE THINKING Reflective thinking must be an educational aim. Reflective thinking makes for intelligent action. In the development of the human species, intelligent action - intentional acts - based on reflective thinking was of survival value. He made observations of certain facts which on reflection were perceived as signs of probable future events for which he could prepare. To plant seeds, to cultivate the soil, to harvest grain are intentional acts which were only possible after relective thinking. With intentional acts the individual controls the environment. Reflective thinking is possible when things have meaning based on experience (Gendlin's 'felt meaning). Reflective thinking require open mind - free from prejudice anmd other habits which "make it unwilling to consider new problems and entertain new ideas."
RELAXED ALERTNESS "Relaxed alertness" is the optimal state of mind for expanding natural knowledge. It combines the moderate to high challenge that is built into intrinsic motivation with low threat and a pervasive sense of well-being." It is the key to people's ability to access what they already know, think creatively, tolerate ambiguity, and delay gratification - all essential for genuine expansion of knowledge. (Caine. Making Connections. 134) The learner can be relaxed and alert in the context of an environment which is both safe and challenging. The learner must feel secure and motivated in order to be able to make sense of the environment and of new experience. The learner can explore new thoughts and make new connections engaging the brain in 'active processing.' Relationships are perceived between the new knowledge and knowledge which is already there. Connections are made between what is being learned and what has already been learned. (See Karl Pribram January 1987 "A Systematic Analysis of Brain Function, Learning, and Remembering." A paper presented at Educating Tomorrow's Children seminar, Neuropsycholoby Services, San Francisco,) Pribram calls this time of openness and alivenes as 'active uncertainty.' Elements of active processing which are evident in so-called 'gifted' children are present in every child. They only need to be developed.
The objective of brain-based learning ('reflexive learning') is to make sense of personal experience.
REPRESSION "Repressing an impulse means removing it from awareness but it does not mean removing it from existence. Freud has shown that the repressed impulse continues to operate and to exercise a profound influence upon the person although the person is not aware of it. The effect of the repressed impulse on the person is not even necessarily smaller than if it were conscious; the main difference is that it is not acted upon overtly but in disguise, so that the person acting is spared the knowledge of what he is doing". Repression is the removal of an impulse from awareness. Repressed impulses continue to operate and to exercise a profound influence upon the individual even though they are not aware of it. The effect of repressed impulses can be as important as the effect of impulses of which the individual is totally aware. The difference is that the repressed impulse is acted upon in disguise thus protecting the individual from awareness of what they are doing.
REVISIONIST CRITICS The 'revisionist critics' subscribe to a 'liberation theology' which ephasizes the humanity of Jesus and his teachings as a social critic. Jesus was critical of a society which was more concerned with the accumulation of wealth and the exercise of power than with the oppression of the poor.(86) In his teachings he emphasized love, compasssion, justice, mercy and profound concern for the poor and the oppressed. "Liberation theology pictures Jesus as a daringly active leader who challenged the power elite by undermining their moral and religious authority, and in true prophetic tradition, by raising the consciousness of the poor and oppressed and presenting extraordinary images for the possibility of hope and redemption."(Purpel 87) The movement inspired by liberation theology combines ideals with practice. Known as 'praxis', the integration of theory and practice is perceived as the necessary instrument for purposes of change and liberation."(86) Liberation theology "emerges out of a struggle to overcome centuries of poverty and oppression rooted in colonialism and exploitation" (85) - traditions common to American culture, most particularly the tradition of Christianity."(87) Liberation theology advocates peaceful revolution through critical literacy. The most eloquent advocate of liberation theology is Paulo Freire. Freire emphasized the close relationship between human freedom and critical literacy. In the context of liberation theology, the meaning of the term 'literacy' is not simply the ability to read and write but the ability to read and write critically. Critical literacy is the ability to read and write with a 'critical consciousness'. Freedom for the individual in a cultural context depends on the ability to search for meaning in the cultural environment - to be critical of the cultural belief systems, the cultural values and the cultural institutions.
GLOSSARY S words: words: sadism, science,science of education, scientific objectivity, social intelligence, socialization,society, subjective biology, success, structuralism, syncretism, syncretic, syntopicon, system, natural system, systems approach, systems theory,
SADISM The sadistic person might dominate other people because he has a very strong sense of duty and thinks that he acts out of concern for their welfare. If such is the case he is not aware of his sadism i.e. wicked behaviour or 'evil'.
"The sadistic person not being aware of his sadism, may have the feeling that he dominates other people out of concern for what - he thinks - would be best for them because of his strong sense of duty." (Fromm Man For Himself 217)
SCIENCE "If we define science in terms of its beginnings and its simplest levels rather than in terms of its highest and most complex levels, then science is simply looking at things for yourself rather than trusting to the a priori authority of any kind. It is this empirical attitudeI claim can and shouod be taught to all human eings - incuding young children. Look for yourself! Let's see how it workss! Is that claim correct? How correct?...when phrased in this way - keeping in touch with reality, keeping your eyes open- (the empirical attitude) becomes almost a defining characeristic of humanness itself" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 136)
"Science at its highest level is ultimately the organization of, the systematic pursuit of, and the enjoyment of wonder, awe, and mystery. The greatest rewards that the scientist can have are peak experiences and B-cognitions. But these experiences can equally be called religious, poetic or philosophical exeriences. ...Not only does science begin in wonder; it also ends in wonder." (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 151)
It is a misonception to view science as "something 'out there', something spelled with a capital S, a body of knowledge existing in space and time...a systmetized and organized collection of tentatively verified facts...(with) a socially approved methodology for accumulating this body of knowledge and continuing its verification. ...involving depersonalization, a tendency to manipulate and a denial of the basic freedom of choice..." (216) A more accurate perspective:" Not only is the origin, process, and conclusion of science something which exists only in the subjective experience of persons so also is its utilization. 'Science' will never depersonalize, or manipulate or control individuals. It is only persons who, can and will do that. (221) Science...is rooted in and based upon the immediate subjective experience of a person... It springs from the inner, total, organismic experiencing which is only partially and imperfectly communicable....feelings and cognition merge into one unitary experience which is lived rather than examined, in which awareness is non-reflective, and where I am participant rather than observer. But because I am curious about the exquisite orderliness which appears to exist in the universe and in this relationship I can abstract myself from the experience and look upon it as an observer, making myself and /or others the objects of that observation. As observer I use all the hunches which grow out of the living experience. To avoid deceiving myself as observer, to gain a more accurate picture of the order which exists, I make use of all the canions of science. 'Science' is the best instrument we have yet been able to devise to check upon our organismic sensing of the universe."( Carl Rogers. On Becoming a Person. Cambridge, MA:: Riverside Press 1961.222-223)
"Although science has been defined traditionally by an exact statement or classification of knowledge where the results of investigation have been verified, it is also the ability to do as the result of knowledge gained. It is a way of thinkng, based on logic, a way of doing, and truly , a way of life." (Bette J. Del Giorno, Competencies in science. Connecticut Journal of Science Education, volume 16 no. 2, 1979, 3)
SCIENCE as 'holistic science' Traditionally the term 'science' has been defined in terms of exact statements or classification of knowledge verified by investigation with socially approved methodologies which depersonalize and deny the freedom of choice. But science is not simply a body of knowledge or a verified collection of facts. There is a more accurate perspective. Science springs from human subjective experience. Science is rooted in the immediate sensing experience of the human organism. This inner organismic experiencing involves the merging of feelings and cognition and can even include the spiritual level of human consciousness. The experience is lived rather than examined which makes it only partially communicable. The scientist is a participant in the living experience as being an observer. But because scientists are curious about the universe, they make the effort to abstract the subjective aspect of the experience and examine it as objectively as possible. They make themselves objects of the observation. They check on the natural organismic process of sensing the environment and make use of the rules which have been devised to avoid self-deception. Thus science is a human activity, a way of reasoning and even a way of life. In this sense science can only progress with an educational paradigm which aims to foster human growth and development i.e. 'holistic education'.
SCIENCE OF EDUCATION... A HOLISTIC VIEW Progress can be made in the science of education if the old questions are asked in the new paradigm of holistic education. A re-orientation of thinking can find answers to the old questions such as 'what education is good for the society?', 'what education is good for the individual?' and 'how can these two be reconciled?' The holistic view regards the human individual as a social organism. A healthy society is made up of healthy individuals with social intelligence. And education for the needs of the society includes education for the needs of the individual. In fact education for the needs of society fails if it is not based on the needs of the individual i.e. the 'human needs'.
SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVITY AS VALUE-FREE SCIENCE Scientific objectivity is seeing something for what it is, not for what one thinks it should be. Observation is objective if the observer feels uninvolved, detached and neutral. The term 'scientific objectivity' has been largely monopolized by physical science. For the astronomers and physicists of the Middle Ages, scientific objectivity meant freedom to observe rather than have the truth determined a prori by the church (see Galileo, Copernicus). This in essence was the origin of the concept known as 'value-free science'. Value free science is science which is free of the projection of human values. In this classical tradition of value-free science, scientific objectivity is possible with the study of purely physical phenomena such as rock formation, heat properties, flow of electricity and so on. Physical objects are far from any human aspirations and it is easy to engage in scientific observation which does not interfere with the object itself. But the same criteria for value-free science cannot be applied to the study of human affairs such as problems of education etc. When it comes to human problems then scientific objectivity is possible only within the framework of the highest of human values, the meta-values of Being - truth, justice and love i.e. the 'B-values'. At the level of Being, value free science - scientific objectivity - becomes possible because perception tends to be global or holistic. The ability to be scientifically objective about human problems depends on a higher level of personal maturity. It depends on an education which fosters personal growth and development towards maturation of personality i.e. 'self-actualization'.
"The term 'scientific objectivity' has, in effect, been preempted by the physics-centered theorists of science and bent to the use of their mechanomorphic 'Weltanschauung'. It was certainly necessary for astronomers and physicists to assert their freedom to see what was before their eyes rather than having truth determined a priori by the church or state. This is the kernel of sense in the concept 'value-free science'. But is this generalization, uncritically accepted today by many, that has crippled so many human and social scientists.....classically 'scientific objectivity' has been most successfully achieved when its objects were most distant from human aspiratons, hopes, and wishes. It is easy to feel uninvolved, detached, clear-eyed, and neutral if one is studying the nature of rocks, or heat, or electrical currents. One doesn't identify with a moon. One doesn't 'care' about it as one does about one's child. It is easy to take the laissez-faire attitude with oxygen or hydrogen and to have non-interfering curiosity, to be Taoistically receptive, to let things be themselves. To be blunt about it, it is easy to be neurtrally objective, fair, and just when you don't care about the outcome, when you can't identify or sympathize, when you neither love or hate...if you love something or someone enough at the level of Being, then you can enjoy its actualization of itself, which means that you will not want to interfere with it, since you love it as it is in itself. ...you will be able to see it as it is...you will (not ) be prone to judge use it improve it or in any other way project your own values onto it. This also tends to mean more concerete experiencing and witnessing; less abstracting, simplifying, organizing, or intellectual manipulation. Leaving it alone to be itself also implies a more holistic, global attitude and less active dissecting. ... This is possible in Being-Cognition and Being-Love.. difficult to put into words.(Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page114)
The ability to B-love is a characteristic of a higher level of personal maturity. Therefore personal maturity is a pre-condition for this kind of perspicuity, and one way to improve this kind of knowing would be to improve the maturity of the knower. What could this imply for the education of scientists?" (Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966 page 116)
SELF-KNOWLEDGE (Michael Polanyi coined the term ‘tacit knowing’ and ‘tacit knowledge’). Tacit knowledge is knowledge associated with primary human values – compassion etc. Tacit knowledge is knowledge or 'awareness' of one's human values...'enlightenment’... 'consciousness of the inner self' or 'self-knowledge'. Self-knowledge cannot be taught. Whether it is learned depends on the quality of relationship with oneself, with others and with one’s world.At the heart of the urge to develop full human potential is a deeply spiritual yearning for self-knowledge… and knowledge how to live in harmony with oneself with other and with the environment… knowledge for connectedness with oneself, with others and with the environment… feeling connected with human core values… essential values or ‘human values’. Without self-knowledge one is alienated from one’s environment. Self-knowledge is the vital foundation for enlightened human living.
SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Social intelligence is the aim of development of the intrinsic valuing process. Social intelligence is required for health which results from nondistorted perception of reality. The healthy mind does not perceive dichotamies. Psychological health - 'self-actualization'- is required for social intelligence and healthy society and culture.
SOCIALIZATION Socialization as 'indoctrination': Objectives of the behavioral approach to education make ethical relativity the cornerstone of value education. They are based on the 'socialization' or indoctrination approach, which aims at producing conformity with the state's, the teacher's, and the school's values.
SOCIETY Progress can be made in the 'science of education' if old questions are asked within the context of a new paradigm. In the context of the old paradigm - what is good for society - the implication of the question is that the aims of education should be formulated in terms of what 'society' needs most. In this sense the 'society' is perceived as an entity separate from the individuals who make it up. The word 'society' means the group of individuals of a community who share a given set of constructs, values and techniques which together are referred to as a 'paradigm'. The formulation of 'aims of education' within the paradigm of what is 'good for the society' is bound to be misleading. Attempts to formulate 'aims of education' for the 'society' without regard for the needs of the individuals who make it up must ultimately fail
SPIRITUAL POVERTY Spiritual poverty is characterised by 'defensive strategy'. The individual focuses all their mental energy on what they do not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace.
SPIRITUAL RICHNESS Spiritual richness is characterised by 'creative strategy'. The individual focuses all their energy on what they do want. People using it are positive and creative... they accomplish things which enhance the welfare and happiness of others as well as their own.
STRUCTURLISM 'Structuralism' is a method of analyzing and understanding phenomena rather than a dogma of content; Structuralism involves the search for an underlying pattern, order, significance of surface manifestations of phenomena. ('ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development) "The superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self-regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (Rosen, H. The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive-Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. page 2)
SUBJECTIVE BIOLOGY "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions, i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow,.A. Psychology of Being. 185)
SUCCESS "What is success? To laugh often and much; to win the respect of intelligent people and to earn the affection of children; to earn the appreciation of honest critics and to endure the betrayal of false friends; to appreciate beauty; to find the best in others; to leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch or a redeemed social condition; to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived; this is to have succeeded." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
SYNCRETISM (philology) the union or fusion into one of two or more originally different inflectional forms: adjective 'syncretic' (Decroly global representation) Named since Decroly's time as the "syncretic" thought of the child, (la pensee syncretique de l'enfant) global representation is the perception of an object with fusion of all the details or qualities. In reality, instead of perceiving things by way of their qualities (Montessori's notion) the child begins to perceive things with all the qualities mixed and even his sensibilities are fused with the object being perceived. Syncretism (syncretisme) implies the fusion of everything belonging to the object, the fusion of details with the whole, of the whole with the details, of all the qualities, of the objective significance, of the child's emotional subjective significance and in effect the fusion of everything pertaining to the object
SYNTOPICON The Great Books of the Western World comprises fifty four volumes and contains 443 works dating from 500 B.C. to the mid-twentieth century. It was put together by Mortimer Adler and published by Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. in 1952. Robert Maynard Hutchins, the Editor in Chief, referred to the Great Books collection as the "The Great Conversation: The Substance of a Liberal Education". The ideas represented in the Great Books are made accessible in the two volume index which is entitled 'A Syntopicon of Great Books of the Western World.' The Syntopicon is a collection of the topics ... unifying themes... which Adler used to organize the wide diversity of ideas which are discussed in the Great Books. As broadening perspectives of western culture, the themes contained in the Syntopicon can be used to find expanding and integrating perspectives for other topics of study. The theme 'education' is discussed in chapter twenty of the Synoticon.
SYSTEMS THEORY... SYTEMS APPROACH... SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHY
GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY The 'general system theory' is the scientific exploration of the concepts of 'whole' and 'wholeness'. The 'systems' approach is the 'wholistic' approach. A significant result of the introduction of a 'systems' or 'wholistic' approach to scientific methodology is the reorientation of thinking. The result is a new scientific paradigm known as 'system philosophy' which is based on the view of the world as a great organization or 'organism.' According to this new worldview, the sciences are conceptual systems which correspond with reality.
Systems theory is the scientific perception of the world in terms of whole and 'wholeness'.This holistic approach to scientific methodology is also known as the 'systems approach'. The systems approach considers the interrelationships which make up the complexity of natural systems. The general systems theory is a philosophical framework for the orientation of scientific investigation - the 'systems philosophy'. According to the system philosophy the sciences are systems of concepts or 'conceptual systems' which correspond to reality. For example the human individual is perceived as an organized whole or 'organism'. System philosophy allows for the creation of new concepts regarding principles of education of the human organism i.e. 'holistic education'.
A system is perceived in terms of its own properties as a whole, over and above the properties of its parts. Perceived in terms of wholes or 'systems,' all natural phenomena are treated as 'natural systems.' The properties of natural systems are not reducible to the properties of the interdependent parts. The functioning of the whole is understood in terms of the constituent sets of integrated relations and interacting parts. The properties of the whole system are a result of the interdependence of its constituent parts. The general property of the whole system is something more than the sum of the properties of the individual parts. A proper understanding of the whole system is only possible with the recognition of its irreducible properties. Thus the properties of the atom, a natural system, are not reducible to the properties of the different parts of the atom. The functioning of the brain as a whole has irreducible properties. The same applies for all the other natural systems on different levels of organization, such as the molecule, the cell, the tissue, the organ, the organism and so on. Even the human personality as a whole can only be understood in terms of the integrated functioning of an individual's feelings, instincts, volitions, reasoning capacities etc.
Natural systems are subjected to the forces of a changing environment. As a whole and as a large system, the physical world approaches a state of ultimate disorganization. The quantity called 'entropy,' and its negative form 'negentropy,' is a measure of the energy available to the system. In any system, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy increases and negentropy decreases with time. A natural system which requires energy for the maintenance of a dynamic steady state is an 'open system in a steady-state' requiring energy for its maintenance in a changing environment. Characteristic of open natural systems is the maintenance of steady state equilibrium as opposed to inert equilibrium. Living organisms are open natural systems which take in energies, metabolize and rearrange substances, and liberate energies in new forms which are used for self-maintenance and growth. The regulative mechanism of body temperature in warm-blooded organisms, known as 'homeostasis', is a clear example of an 'open natural system.' Other examples are the cells of an organism, the brain as an organ, man as a social organism and the planet Earth as a gigantic organism. Within the framework of the wholistic worldview and the systems perspective, the planet Earth is a natural open system, profoundly affected by human activities. (systems theory is described by Ludwig Bertalanffy)
SYSTEMS APPROACH The 'systems approach,' the wholistic perspective views the interrelationships and unifying patterns within the complexities of natural systems.
SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Social intelligence is the aim of development of the intrinsic valuing process. Social intelligence is required for health which results from nondistorted perception of reality. The healthy mind does not perceive dichotomies. Psychological health - 'self-actualization'- is required for social intelligence and healthy society and culture.The ability for making correct evaluations of thcial environment and for subsequently behaving intelligently is 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of highly ethical behaviour or 'morality'. The morality of social intelligence sees beyond dichotomies and contradictions. It functions in the context of the whole as a system of interacting parts i.e. 'holistic perception'. The holistic perception of social intelligence is the product of moral development i.e. development of 'conscience'. Developed conscience is characteristic of a healthy mind, a healthy society and a healthy or holistic education.
SOCIALIZATION INDOCTRINATION VS. ADAPTABILITY Socialization as 'indoctrination': Objectives of the behavioral approach to education make ethical relativity the cornerstone of value education. They are based on the 'socialization' or indoctrination approach, which aims at producing conformity with the state's, the teacher's, and the school's values.
Socialization is a function of social values and the approach to the teaching of these values i.e. 'value education' . Socialization as conformity to a given set of values is 'indoctrination'. Indoctrination is the aim of the behavioural approach to education i.e. the 'behavioural paradigm'. The behavioural paradigm considers value education in terms of the relativity of ethics and conformity to the ethical principles of the teacher, the school and the state. In contrast the holistic paradigm considers value education in terms of human growth and development to maturity or 'self-actualization'. The self-actualized individual is able to correctly evaluate the social environment and to decide on a choice of action which is appropriate for social adaptation i.e. 'adaptability'.
SOCIETY Progress can be made in the 'science of education' if old questions are asked within the context of a new paradigm. In the context of the old paradigm - what is good for society - the implication of the question is that the aims of education should be formulated in terms of what 'society' needs most. In this sense the 'society' is perceived as an entity separate from the individuals who make it up. The word 'society' means the group of individuals of a community who share a given set of constructs, values and techniques which together are referred to as a 'paradigm'. The formulation of 'aims of education' within the paradigm of what is 'good for the society' is bound to be misleading. Attempts to formulate 'aims of education' for the 'society' without regard for the needs of the individuals who make it up must ultimately fail.
SPIRITUAL POVERTY Spiritual poverty is characterised by 'defensive strategy'. The individual focuses all their mental energy on what they do not want. People using it are continually in a position of potentially compromising whatever they may truly want in their lives for the sake of safety, security and sense of peace.
SPIRITUAL RICHNESS Spiritual richness is characterised by 'creative strategy'. The individual focuses all their energy on what they do want. People using it are positive and creative... they accomplish things which enhance the welfare and happiness of others as well as their own.
STRUCTURLISM 'Structuralism' is a method of analyzing and understanding phenomena - rather than a dogma of content. The method involves the search for an underlying pattern or order and the significance of surface manifestations of phenomena. ('ethics', 'human nature' and 'education' are surface manifestations of an underlying pattern of human development). "The superficial detail and diversity that appear on the surface prove to be less significant than the coherent pattern of the deep structures which give rise to what is overtly perceived. Emphasis is placed upon the self regulating system of relationships and transformations among the interdependent elements comprising the totality or whole of a phenomenon." (Rosen, H. The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive-Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. page 2)
Structuralism is a method of analyzing and understanding the totality of a phenomenon. Structuralism is a holistic method of study. The method puts the emphasis on the search for a self-regulating system of the interdependent elements of which it is comprised. The method involves the search for the significance of surface manifestations of apparently isolated phenomena in terms of deep underlying patterns or 'structures'. It is the deep underlying structures which give rise to the detail and diversity which is perceived on the surface. As a method of study, structuralism is a legitimate tool for analyzing the problems of educational practice in America today.
Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966
SUBJECTIVE BIOLOGY as biology of human nature The term 'subjective biology' was coined by Abraham Maslow to refer to the experience of looking within oneself to look for answers to questions about 'human nature'. "The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions, i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's species-hood, one's commonness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter their external circumstances." (Abraham Maslow. Psychology of Being. page 185)"The looking within for the real self is a kind of 'subjective biology' for it must include an effort to become conscious of one's own constitutional, temperamental, anatomical, physiological and biochemical needs, capacities and reactions, i.e. one's biological individuality. It is also the path to experiencing one's specieshood, one's commoness with all other members of the human species. That is, it is a way to experiencing our biological brotherhood with all human beings no matter what their external circumstances." (Maslow,.A. Psychology of Being. 185) .
SUCCESS "What is success? To laugh often and much; to win the respect of intelligent people and to earn the affection of children; to earn the appreciation of honest critics and to endure the betrayal of false friends; to appreciate beauty; to find the best in others; to leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch or a redeemed social condition; to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived; this is to have succeeded." (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
SYSTEM... THE HUMAN ORGANISM IS A NATURAL SYSTEM
A system is perceived in terms of its properties as a whole. The properties of the system are the result of the interdependence of its constituent parts. For this reason the general properties or 'irreducible properties'... of the whole system are something more than ... over and beyond... the sum of the properties of the individual parts. The functioning of the whole system can be understood in terms of the integrated functioning of its interacting parts. Examples of natural systems are any natural phenomena such as the planet earth, any organism, organ, tissue, cell, molecule, atom or subatomic particle. The human organism is a social organism which can be fully understood only in terms of the integrated functioning of its constituent parts including its instincts for social interaction. The human personality is a system which can be understood only in terms of the integrated functioning of human social instincts and volitions, human intelligence and capacity for reasoning, extent of human growth and development and therefore 'maturity', levels of morality and spirituality and therefore motivation.
TAOISTIC SCIENCE Taoistic science involves receptive contemplation - nonactive, noninterfering witnessing and savoring of the experience and the 'realness' of nature. See section on Chinese science Capra
TEACHER PRESTIGE 'Teacher prestige' refers to the authority that teachers have in the eyes of students by virtue of the sort of people they are and the knowledge they are able to share. Teacher prestige refers to both the teacher's personal aspect and the teacher's expertise. The personal aspect of the teacher is referred to as 'double planeness.' The aspect of knowledge of subject matter is the teacher's expertise. (Caine. Making Connections)
THEMATIC ATTRACTORS The term 'attractor' is borrowed from the new science of complexity. It describes the focal point s around which we organize thoughts and ideas.( Gleick, J. 1987 " Chaos: Making a New Science")(Doll, W.E.J. 1986 "Curriculum Beyond Stability: Schon, Prigogine, Piaget" Unpublished Manuscript) Students must have a compelling interest in exploring or mastering a subject, topic or skill- or be interested in the activities and procedures prescribed and demonstrated by teachers. The student must have a focal point and a desire for reorganization closely linked to an opportunity for self-enhancement."(132) "We suggest that the organizers of our life experiences be caslled 'thematic attractors.'(133) they access the deep meanings and thids gives them both direction and power. The attractors 'seed' the felt meanings as a fragment of grit seeds the formation of a pearl in the oyster. The theme is a way of life. Their perception of the world and their way of organizing their own world and their own life is based on the theme. The power of the thematic attractor is evident in the extent to which it influences our beliefs about what we can and should be able to do. It is evident in the passions and accomplishments of people throughout the history of mankind.
THINKING "Thinking itself remains just what it has been all the time, a matter of following up and testing the conclusions suggested by the facts and events of life." (John Dewey. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the educative process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1933. 89.)
TOLERATION noun, to tolerate verb (from Latin 'toleratus' pp. of tolerare, to bear, sustain) To tolerate means 'to not interfere with'; allow; permit; recognize and respect other people's beliefs without sharing them. "Toleration is the right of mankind. Since we are all of us weak and make mistakes we should forgive one another's foolish actions. This is the first law of nature. Anyone who persecutes someone else because he does not agree with him is a monster....we should forgive each other our errors. Quarreling is the greatest evil of mankind and toleration is the only remedy forit. Everyone agrees with this in theory. Why do they not practise toleration. The answer is because they make self-interest their god. They believe their power rests on the ignorance and stupidity of others." (Voltaire)
TRANSACTION AND TRANSFORMATION ...ve education movement and holistic education movement... difference between 'transaction' and 'transformation' positions. 'Transaction' position: the student is seen as a rational being capable of making intelligent decisions based on some form of scientific method. Lacking in the transaction position is imagination, intuition and sense of the sacred. 'Transformation' position: the universe is seen as an interconnected whole. Inherent in the transformation position is imagination, intuition and sense of the sacred.
TRANSCENDANCE or 'ego-transcendance' Beyond the ego... integration and development of the sense of belongingness with humanity, nature and the universe
UNCONDITIONAL LOVE The emotion of human solidarity is known as 'productive love'. The productive form of love is inseparable from 'labor' meaning 'to cultivate', to foster growth. Love in this sense cannot be divorced from 'care' which implies a profound sense of 'responsibility', a readiness to respond. To love productively means to care and feel responsible for another's psychological growth and human development. "An emotion resulting from the natural mutual interdependence of human beings, love represents human solidarity which is a necessary condition for the unfolding of each individual's human powers and humaness. Love without 'respect' and knowledge can degenerate into domination and possessiveness. (Fromm Man For Himself l29). 'Love' in the sense of productive love is unconditional. No conditions are attached to productive love. Unconditional love is productive love with no conditions attached. Unconditional love is not sentimental. "Love is an act of courage, an act of freedom, an act of humility, an act of dialogue-(dialogical) requiring an intense faith in man...faith in his vocation to be more fully human" (P. Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 79)
V words: values - operative values, conceived values, objective values - virtue
VALUES: Three categories of 'values' outlined by Morris, C.W. Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. 'Operative' values are value choices which are indicated with preferences of behavior, action and objects. As an example, if an earthworm placed in a 'Y' maze is given a choice between a smooth path and a path paved with sandpaper, it will prefer the smooth path to the potentially damaging path paved with sandpaper. The earthworm's choice is an 'operative value'. 'Conceived' values are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts. They are made in anticipation of the outcome, of the chosen behavior. As an example, a human being can choose one of two possible paths of action on the basis of a concept which he has been told to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The choice is a 'conceived value'. 'Objective' values are value choices which are objectively desirable. They are not sensed as being advantageous to the organism nor are they conceived as being symbolically desirable.
"Values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to estabishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of man; outside of him there are no values." (Erich Fromm. Values, Psychology, and Human Existence. Ed A. Maslow. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959. p. 153)
In western philosophies, the word 'value' is used to designate choice of action. A value is a 'value choice'. Values which are 'conceived' as being symbolically desirable are 'conceived values'. These are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts.
CONCEIVED VALUES are value choices made on the basis of symbolized concepts. They are made in anticipation of the outcome, of the chosen behavior. As an example, a human being can choose one of two possible paths of action on the basis of a concept which he has been told... learned to value such as 'honesty is the best policy'. The choice is a 'conceived value'. Conceived values are choices which are made in anticipation of an outcome. The individual is taught values - the 'conceived values'. Cultural values are conceived values.
OBJECTIVE VALUES are value choices which ar 'objectively desirable. They are not sensed as being advantageous to the organism nor are they conceived as being symbolically desirable. Value choices which are 'objectively desirable' are 'objective values'.
OPERATIVE VALUES are value choices which are indicated with preferences of behavior, action and objects. As an exmple, if an earthworm placed in a 'Y' maze is given a choice between a smooth path and a path paved with sandpaper, it will prefer the smooth path to the potentially damaging path paved with sandpaper. The earthworm's choice is an 'operative value'. Value choices which are indicated with preferences of behavior, action and objects are 'operative values'. They do not involve any cognitive or conceptual thinking. For the human organism, the 'operative values' are the values chosen on the basis of the organism's inherent tendency toward self-actualization. It is the 'operative values' which need to be considered in the discussion of human nature and human values. "As the ideal human potentialities naturally unfold and become actualized, ethical norms for excellent living are discovered according to the laws of nature and human existence. The actualization of an individual's particular potentiality and disposition reveals a core of human qualities which are common to all members of the human species. The individual human being is instinctively responsible to himself for his own potential development or'self-actualization.' This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualization constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue.' (Fromm Man For Himself)
VIRTUE Virtue is the "unfolding of the specific potentialities of every organism; for man it is the state in which he is most human." Virtue is the responsibility for one's own existence. Irresponsibility toward one's own existence is 'vice'. (Man For Himself 26) Virtues and the value life are of survival value and therefore biologically based. 'Virtues' are the human attributes which are of value to the individual in a social setting. "Those human attributes which are of value to the child in a social setting are the same attributes which we call 'virtues'. As a social organism, the child is happy in his work in a social environment in which the attributes for adaptation to the social environment are the same as the so-called 'virtues'. (Montessori, M. The Absorbent Mind)
Virtue is the responsibility for one's own existence. The individual is instinctively responsible to himself for his own potential development or 'self-actualization'. This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualization constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue'..."If society is concerned with making people virtuous, it must be concerned with making them productive and hence with creating the conditions for the development of productiveness. The first and foremost of these conditions is that the unfolding and growth of every person is the aim of all social and political activities, that man is the only purpose and end, and not a means for anybody or anything but himself." (Fromm, Man For Himself, 229)
THE INDIVIDUAL IS INSTINCTIVELY RESPONSBLE TO HIMSELF FOR HIS OWN POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OR "SELF-ACTUALIZATION'. This natural responsibility to his own biological and psychological existence and self-actualization constitutes the ethical value called 'virtue.'(Fromm E. Man For Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1947)
VALUE SYSTEM BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF WHAT Albert Schweitzer called the 'reverence for life'. Valuable or good is all that which contributes to the greater unfolding of man's specific faculties and furthers life. Negative or bad is everything that strangles life and paralyzes man's activeness."(Erich Fromm The Revolution of Hope :Toward a Humanized Technology. New York, London: Harper & Row,1968 p.89)
WXYZ words: wellness, work, will, wholistic perception
WHOLISTIC PERCEPTION Wholistic perception of reality means having a total vision of the context of the constituent fragments and thereby gaining a clearer perception of the reality in its totality.
WELLNESS The word 'heal' comes from 'haelen,' the Anglo-Saxon word meaning 'hale, sound or whole,' to 'restore to health.'(Webster Collegiate Dictionary). The word 'health' comes from the AngloSaxon word 'haelth' from 'hal' meaning 'hale, sound, whole' Methods of healing which take into account the total dimension and well-being of the individual are called 'wholistic health methods.' Central to wholistic medicine is the concept that the individual is a 'whole' person whose body, mind and spirit are integrated and inseparable. Health is considered in terms of harmony and balance with both the external and internal environments. A wholistic approach to health care emphasizes the importance of a perspective of the 'whole' person, the interconnectedness of body, mind and spirit. In these terms, health as 'wellness' is more than the absence of sickness. It is a state of the conscious awareness of one's vitality and energy, of feeling alive throughout one's being, a physical state which induces the mental state of deep appreciation for the environment This state of physical and mental wellbeing is called 'high level wellness.'
WILL Disorder and violence are signs of emotional disturbance and suffering. They are not acts of the will. According to laws of nature, "will is a force which impels activities beneficial to life. The will can be broken in a moment. Its development is a slow process that evolves through a continuous activity in relationship with the environment." (Montessori M. The Absorbent Mind 243)
Work is an aspect of human behaviour which
expresses the individual's creative and productive interaction with the
immediate environment i.e. 'adaptability'.
Adaptability through work is a characteristic of 'mental health'.
Work behaviour which represents connectedness or oneness with the
environment is an expression of harmonious contact with the reality of life
"What is to work with love? It is to weave the cloth with threads pulled from your heart, as if your beloved were to wear this cloth. It is to build a house with affection, as if your beloved were to live in this house. It is to sow the seeds with tenderness and gather the harvest with joy, as if your beloved were to eat the fruit. It is to put in all things that you make, a breath of your own spirit." (Kahlil Gibran 1883-1931)
Rosen, H. The Development of Sociomoral Knowledge: A Cognitive-Structural Approach. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. Maslow, A. The Psychology of Science: A Reconaissance. New York and London: Harper and Row 1966
WORLDVIEW OF UNIVERSE geocentric view of the universe: earth at the center of the universe; sun revolves around the earth; heliocentric view of the universe: earth was no longer the center of the universe but merely one of the many planets circling a minor star at the edge of the galaxy.
words: yin and yang, yoga
YIN AND YANG Ultimate essence of reality - called Tao - is a cosmic process of continual flow and change... the principal characteristic of the Tao is the cyclical nature of its ceaseless motion... all observable phenomena participate in this intrinsically dynamic process. All developments in nature-those in the physical world as well as those in the psychological and social realms - show cyclical patterns. The Chinese describe this concept of cyclical patterns in terms of a structure which incorporates the polar opposites known as 'yin' and 'yang'. Yin and yang do not belong to different categories. Yin and yang are polar opposites. They are the two archetypal poles which set the limits for the cycles of change... the extreme poles of a single cycle...whole. When the yang reaches its climax, it reteats in favor of the yin and when the yin reaches its climax, it retreats in favor of the yang. All manifestations of the Tao are generated by the dynamic interplay of the two poles. Nothing is only yin or only yang. All natural phenomena are manifestations of a continuous oscillation between the two poles, all transitions taking place gradually and in unbroken progression. associated with many images of opposites in nature and in human social life. The natural order is one of dynamic balance between yin and yang.
YOGA "Hinduism's specific directions for actualizing man's fullest nature come under the heading of 'yoga.'" (Huston Smith "The Religions of Man" New York, Harper and Brothers l958 33)